Exercise Tips - Physical Education - Fitness

Though a lot of people know the importance of exercise there are still too many people who do not understand the importance of exercising regularly. Physical inactivity served as the leading risk factor for heart disease at every age from the early 30's to late 80's. You have to fully understand that food and nutrition is the key to losing weight and being healthy. So do not rely on exercise alone. What you put in your mouth is the single most important thing. You need to eat healthy if you want to reap all the benefits that comes from exercising.

What's Good For The Heart Is Good For The Brain. Life's Simple 7 - Brain Food

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Exercise Methods Physical Fitness is a general state of health and well-being and, more specifically, the ability to perform aspects of sports, occupations and daily activities. Physical fitness is generally achieved through proper nutrition, moderate-vigorous physical exercise, and sufficient rest. Don't sit too long.

Warm Up First (slowly) - Music

Physical Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness. It is performed for various reasons, including increasing growth and development, preventing aging, strengthening muscles and the cardiovascular system, honing athletic skills, weight loss or maintenance, and also enjoyment. Frequent and regular physical exercise boosts the immune system and helps prevent "diseases of affluence" such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and obesity. It may also help prevent stress and depression, increase quality of sleep and act as a non-pharmaceutical sleep aid to treat diseases such as insomnia, help promote or maintain positive self-esteem, improve mental health, maintain steady digestion and treat constipation and gas, regulate fertility health, and augment an individual's sex appeal or body image, which has been found to be linked with higher levels of self-esteem. Visualizing Benefits for Motivation.

Functional Training is a classification of exercise which involves training the body for the activities performed in daily life or for a particular type of work or sport.

Exercise is a great way to maintain your strength and endurance, and it's also a great way to measure your strength and endurance. Know your Baseline - Vitals.

Exercise Physiology is the physiology of physical exercise. It is the study of the acute responses and chronic adaptations to a wide range of exercise conditions. Exercise physiologists study the effect of exercise on pathology, and the mechanisms by which exercise can reduce or reverse disease progression. Exercise Physiologists.

Tapering refers to the practice of reducing exercise in the days just before an important competition.

Physical Therapy - Personal Trainer - Personal Trainer Certification

Physical Fitness Test - Weight Training - Running - Breathing

Kinesiology (body smart) - Muscles - Injuries

Body Image - Obesity - Diabetes

Physical Health - Wellness - Sweating

Gesture based Interactive Floor and Interactive Wall systems convert open and idle spaces into engaging and fun-filled environments. Our large format multi-touch displays ensure exciting, entertaining and educating interactive experiences. VR.

You Got to Get Some Air in those Lungs

Aerobic Conditioning is a process whereby the heart and lungs are trained to pump blood more efficiently, allowing more oxygen to be delivered to muscles and organs. Aerobic conditioning is the use of continuous, rhythmic movement of large muscle groups to strengthen the heart and lungs (cardiovascular system). An improvement in aerobic conditioning occurs when an athlete exposes themselves to an increase in oxygen uptake and metabolism. But to keep this level of Aerobic conditioning the athlete must keep or progressively increase their training to increase their aerobic conditioning. Aerobic condition is usually achieved through cardiovascular exercise such as running, swimming, aerobics, etc. A stronger heart does not pump more blood by beating faster but by beating more efficiently. Trained endurance athletes can have resting heart rates as low as the reported 28 beats per minute in people such as Miguel Indurain or 32 beats per minute of Lance Armstrong, both of whom were professional cyclists at the highest level. Remember, you can't out run a bad diet, you need to eat healthy and not just exercise.

High Interval Training - Anaerobic - Breathing - Dizzy - Running

Aerobic Exercise is physical exercise of low to high intensity that depends primarily on the aerobic energy-generating process. Aerobic literally means "relating to, involving, or requiring free oxygen", and refers to the use of oxygen to adequately meet energy demands during exercise via aerobic metabolism. Generally, light-to-moderate intensity activities that are sufficiently supported by aerobic metabolism can be performed for extended periods of time. 

Scientists find link between genes and ability to exercise. The von Hippel-Lindau gene is fundamental for cells to survive when oxygen availability is reduced. Following genetic analysis, an alteration on the VHL gene was identified and associated with impaired functionality in the patient's mitochondria, the powerhouse of the cell that uses oxygen to fuel cellular life. This reduced mitochondrial function efficiency limits the patient's aerobic exercise capacity compared to people without the mutation.

Recommendations for Physical Activity for Adults: Get at least 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity aerobic activity or 75 minutes per week of vigorous aerobic activity, or a combination of both, preferably spread throughout the week. Add moderate- to high-intensity muscle-strengthening activity (such as resistance or weights) on at least 2 days per week. Spend less time sitting. Even light-intensity activity can offset some of the risks of being sedentary. Gain even more benefits by being active at least 300 minutes (5 hours) per week. Increase amount and intensity gradually over time.

Recommendations Physical Activity for Kids: Children 3-5 years old should be physically active and have plenty of opportunities to move throughout the day. Kids 6-17 years old should get at least 60 minutes per day of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity, mostly aerobic. Include vigorous-intensity activity on at least 3 days per week. Include muscle- and bone-strengthening (weight-bearing) activities on at least 3 days per week. Increase amount and intensity gradually over time.

Examples of moderate-intensity aerobic activities: brisk walking (at least 2.5 miles per hour), water aerobics, dancing (ballroom or social), gardening, tennis (doubles), biking slower than 10 miles per hour, Vigorous intensity activities will push your body a little further. They will require a higher amount of effort. You’ll probably get warm and begin to sweat. You won’t be able to talk much without getting out of breath.

Examples of vigorous-intensity aerobic activities: hiking uphill or with a heavy backpack, running, swimming laps, aerobic, dancing, heavy yard work like continuous digging or hoeing, tennis (singles), cycling 10 miles per hour or faster, jumping rope.

Jumping and Rebounding Benefits

Jumping rope, exercising on a trampoline or stationary jumping are effective ways to lose weight and burn fat. Jumping is considered a high-impact exercise and can raise your heart rate significantly. Jumping has an amazing number of benefits to your health, from improving your lymphatic flow and immune system. The lymphatic system is a network of tissues and organs which help to get rid of the body toxins, waste and other unwanted materials in the body. Increases bone density and better balance and Posture. May also increase your mitochondrial biogenesis in your Brain, which may lead to increased Cell Energy. Reduces your risk for fatigue and dementia. Stimulates the release of serotonin or the “feel good” hormone. Increases oxygen circulation in the whole body. Reduces body fat and increases muscle to fat ratio. Reduces and combats varicose veins. Helps in preventing and eliminating Cancer. Tapping Benefits.

Rocking Promotes Sleep in Mice through Rhythmic Stimulation of the Vestibular System.

Coordination Exercises - Jumping-Rope, tai chi and Dancing helps improve coordination, balance, rhythm, spatial orientation and reaction to visual and auditory stimuli.

Physical activity in lessons improves students' attainment. Students who take part in physical exercises like star jumps or running on the spot during school lessons do better in tests than peers who stick to sedentary learning, according to a new study.

Cardio-Respiratory Fitness refers to the ability of the circulatory and respiratory systems to supply oxygen to skeletal muscles during sustained physical activity. Regular exercise makes these systems more efficient by enlarging the heart muscle, enabling more blood to be pumped with each stroke, and increasing the number of small arteries in trained skeletal muscles, which supply more blood to working muscles. Exercise improves the respiratory system by increasing the amount of oxygen that is inhaled and distributed to body tissue. A 2005 Cochrane review demonstrated that physical activity interventions are effective for increasing cardiovascular fitness. There are many benefits of cardiorespiratory fitness. It can reduce the risk of heart disease, lung cancer, type 2 diabetes, stroke, and other diseases. Cardiorespiratory fitness helps improve lung and heart condition, and increases feelings of wellbeing. The American College of Sports Medicine recommends aerobic exercise 3–5 times per week for 30–60 minutes per session, at a moderate intensity, that maintains the heart rate between 65–85% of the maximum heart rate.

Heart Rate Monitors - Electrocardiography (EKG)

Running - Sport Competitions - Being a Good Example

Sports and Health in America

PE Central - Jump Bunch

Cardio workout on a chair 1 (for people with bad/weak/injured knees) (youtube)

Adolescents with High Levels of Physical Activity perform better in school over two years.

Sport and Memory go hand in hand. If sport is good for the body, it also seems to be good for the brain. By evaluating memory performance following a sport session, neuroscientists demonstrate that an intensive physical exercise session improves memory. How? Through the action of endocanabinoids, molecules known to increase synaptic plasticity. School programs and strategies aimed at reducing the effects of neurodegeneration on memory could benefit from the study.

Physical Fitness Testing - Measuring Physical Fitness

Five Components of Physical Fitness are cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility and body composition. Men should have a body fat composition lower than 17 percent. Women should have a body fat composition lower than 24 percent.

Fitness Tests to Gauge Your Overall Progress: Test 1: Dead Hang. Physical Ability: Support Grip Strength.
Test 3: Maximum Burpees in 5 Minutes. Physical Ability: Aerobic Capacity, Functional Strength. Test 4: 300 Yard Shuttle. Physical Ability: Anaerobic Capacity. Test 5: Broad Jump. Physical Ability: Muscular Power. Test 6: Bodyweight Conditioning.

10 Ways To Test Your Fitness: Resting heart rate – to assess aerobic fitness. Push-ups – to assess upper-body muscular endurance. Head turning – to assess neck flexibility. 12-minute walk/run – to assess cardio capacity. Plank – to assess core stability. Loop-the-loop – to assess shoulder mobility. Vertical jump – to assess explosive power.

The 4-Hour Body (Book) - Compendium of Physical Activities

Body Building - Weight Lifting - Time Under Tension

American Council on Exercise - Fitness Exercise Tips (webmd)

Exercising & Training Tips - Fitness & Exercise Tips (webmd)

Steady Health Exercise Tips (youtube)

Presidents Challenge - Support Real Teachers - A.A.H.PE.R.D.

Learning and Staying in Shape key to Longer Lifespan - Longevity

Nat. Physical Activity Plan - Physical Activity Guidelines (gov)

Education Reform - Exercise Guidelines

Sport and Physical Education - Physical Fitness Schools

Sports Training is the act of rehearsing a behavior over and over, or engaging in an activity again and again, for the purpose of improving or mastering it, as in the phrase "practice makes perfect". Sports teams practice to prepare for actual games. Playing a musical instrument well takes a lot of practice. Sessions scheduled for the purpose of rehearsing and performance improvement are called practices. They are engaged in by sports teams, bands, individuals, etc..

Promote Sports - Sports A-Z - Sports Medicine - Sports Safety and Healing

Sports Health Kids - PE 4 Life Research

USA Navy Seals Stringent Physical Screening Fitness Test: Swim 500 yards in 12.5 minutes or less, followed by a 10-minute rest; do 42 push-ups in under two minutes, followed by a two-minute rest; do 50 sit-ups in under two minutes, followed by a two-minute rest; do six pull-ups, followed by a 10-minute rest; run 1.5 miles in boots and long pants in less than 11.5 minutes.

Play Grounds - Jungle Gyms - Playing Outside

Jungle Gym PlaygroundJungle Gym is a piece of playground equipment made of many pieces of material, such as metal pipe or rope, on which children can climb, swing hang by feet or legs, and explore physical abilities and limitations.

Play Activity is a range of voluntary intrinsically motivated activities normally associated with recreational pleasure and enjoyment.

Activity is the process of being active and moving or acting rapidly and energetically. Showing a specific behavior.

Experiences - Body Smart - Reaction - Action Physics - Home Work

Action is the state of being active. A series of events to get something done. The most important or interesting work or activity in a specific area or field. Cause something to happen and be complete successfully.

Recreation is an activity that diverts, amuses or stimulates. Activity that refreshes and recreates; activity that renews your health and spirits by enjoyment and relaxation.

Playing is to be engaged in playful activity; amuse oneself in a way characteristic of children. Engage in Recreational Activities rather than work; occupy oneself in a diversion. Engage in an activity as if it were a game rather than take it seriously. Manipulate manually or in one's mind or imagination. Cause to move or operate freely within a bounded space. A deliberate coordinated movement requiring dexterity and skill. Activity by children that is guided more by imagination than by fixed rules.

Play Time has Benefits - Educational Games - Sports

Playgrounds that Educate - Educational Games

Think Scape Park (image) - Photos of Playgrounds

Build a Play Ground - Playground Equipment (outdoor gyms)

Adventure Playground - Outdoor Gym (PDF)

Funding for Playgrounds - Health Benefits from being Outdoors - Grounded

Accessible Playgrounds - Morgans Wonderland Ultra-Accessible Theme Park for Disabled People.

The Power of Play: the health benefits of goofing around | DW Documentary (youtube) - Man has a natural play instinct. Dogs and cats - even spiders -also play. Researchers have found that playing increases the chances of survival in animals. The more delicate the game, the better it is for our motor and mental skills. Free play makes you smart, healthy and social. Playing is a biological learning program; one of the most important evolutionary techniques of all. Scientists suspect that most animals play, although we so far haven’t decrypted the play instincts of lizards or spiders, for example. Researchers carrying out experiments on different animal species have discovered that games are more than just random letting off steam: play seems essential to social behavior and mental health - in humans too. The film asks scientists from Europe, the United States and Canada how games work. Tests have shown that rats are prone to depressive moods when they cannot live out their play instinct. Researchers have also found that spider females lay more eggs when they follow the play instinct, so playing can even affect species survival. What happens to children when they spend less and less time outdoors playing with their peers? Developmental psychologists are concerned that parents who grew up in the 1990s are so familiar with electronic games they may not even remember the importance of unstructured, risky childhood play. Risk Taking.

National Institute for Play - Play Manifesto (youtube)

Recess Break - Don't Sit too Much

Recess Before Lunch - Less Homework more Play

How to do a Cartwheel (youtube) Hand, hand, foot, foot.

Outdoor Exercise Equipment - Outdoor Gym - Xccent Fitness - Game Time - Active Fit - Action Fit Outdoors - State of Play - Outdoor Fitness - Play Lsi

Disabilities (special needs) - There are over 38 million Americans with severe physical disabilities.

Wheelchair Accessible

Importance of Outdoor Activities - Homo Ludens discusses the importance of the play element of culture and society.

Playfulness can be trained. Simple exercises can help to make people more playful and consequently feel more satisfied with their lives.

Goldilocks just right approach can now assess children's daily activities as new research confirms the best make up of a child's day to maximize bone health and function in children. The study found the ideal balance of a child's activities across a 24-hour period comprises: 1.5 hours of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (sports, running around). 3.4 hours of light physical activity (walking, doing chores). 8.2 hours of sedentary time (studying, sitting at school, reading). 10.9 hours of sleep.

Sports are really fun as a kid. And when kids see adults play sports, it makes the future seem incredible. But kids don't understand that playing sports with your friends is not the same as playing organized sports or professional sports. Professional sports are more of a serious business and more like a serious job that requires a serious commitment where you have to spend a lot of time and effort to train and practice. Not as fun as when you were a kid, but can still be enjoyable at times, especially when you can still play for fun. Winning.

Sitting for a Long Time can be Dangerous

Exercise Report Card 2018 Too much sitting and too little exercise may accelerate biological aging. When you're tired you want to sit down. But if you sit too long over many days in a row without exercising, then you will always be tired from sitting too much. So no matter how long you sit down, you will always be tired. You sit down because you're tired, but you're tired because you sit down to long and too much without exercising. Fatigue - Muscle Loss.

Health Risks from Sitting too Long (webmd)

Dangers of Sitting for a Long Time (youtube)

Study takes a stand against prolonged sitting. Solutions to lower health risks for students and faculty include stretch breaks, more open classrooms.

Sedentary Lifestyle is a type of lifestyle with very little physical activity.

Sitting on the buttocks in contact with the ground or a horizontal object such as a chair seat. The torso is more or less upright. Sitting for much of the day may pose significant health risks, and people who sit regularly for prolonged periods have higher mortality rates than those who do not.

Nerve Compression caused by direct pressure on a Nerve. Symptoms include pain, tingling, numbness and muscle weakness.

Blood Clots or thrombus, is the final product of the blood coagulation step in hemostasis. There are two components to a thrombus: aggregated platelets and red blood cells that form a plug, and a mesh of cross-linked fibrin protein. The substance making up a thrombus is sometimes called cruor. A thrombus is a healthy response to injury intended to Prevent Bleeding, but can be harmful in thrombosis, when clots obstruct blood flow through healthy blood vessels. Mural thrombi are thrombi that adhere to the wall of a blood vessel. They occur in large vessels such as the heart and aorta, and can restrict blood flow but usually do not block it entirely. They appear grey-red with alternating light and dark lines (known as lines of Zahn) which represent bands of fibrin (lighter) with entrapped white blood cells and red blood cells (darker).

Blood clots can sometimes form in your legs during air travel because you are immobile for long periods of time, often sitting in cramped spaces with little leg room. While commonly referred to as "economy class syndrome," the clinical term for this type of blood clot is deep vein thrombosis (DVT). The longer the flight, the more at risk you are for developing a clot. Flights lasting 8-10 hours or longer pose the greatest risk.

Bed Sore or Pressure Ulcer are localized damage to the skin and/or underlying tissue that usually occur over a bony prominence as a result of usually long-term pressure, or pressure in combination with shear or friction. The most common sites are the skin overlying the sacrum, coccyx, heels, and hips, though other sites can be affected, such as the elbows, knees, ankles, back of shoulders, or the back of the cranium. Pressure ulcers occur due to pressure applied to soft tissue resulting in completely or partially obstructed blood flow to the soft tissue. Shear is also a cause, as it can pull on blood vessels that feed the skin. Pressure ulcers most commonly develop in individuals who are not moving about, such as those who are on chronic bedrest or consistently use a wheelchair. It is widely believed that other factors can influence the tolerance of skin for pressure and shear, thereby increasing the risk of pressure ulcer development. These factors are protein-calorie malnutrition, microclimate (skin wetness caused by sweating or incontinence), diseases that reduce blood flow to the skin, such as arteriosclerosis, or diseases that reduce the sensation in the skin, such as paralysis or neuropathy. The healing of pressure ulcers may be slowed by the age of the person, medical conditions (such as arteriosclerosis, diabetes or infection), smoking or medications such as anti-inflammatory drugs. Although often prevented and treatable if detected early, pressure ulcers can be very difficult to prevent in critically ill people, frail elders and individuals with impaired mobility such as wheelchair users (especially where spinal injury is involved). Primary prevention is to redistribute pressure by regularly turning the person. The benefit of turning to avoid further sores is well documented since at least the 19th century. In addition to turning and re-positioning the person in the bed or wheelchair, eating a balanced diet with adequate protein and keeping the skin free from exposure to urine and stool is very important. The rate of pressure ulcers in hospital settings is high; the prevalence in European hospitals ranges from 8.3% to 23%, and the prevalence is 26% in Canadian healthcare settings. In 2013, there were 29,000 documented deaths from pressure ulcers globally, up from 14,000 deaths in 1990.

Posture - Standing Desks

Darma: Sit smart for a healthy body and mind

Two hours of sitting cancels out the benefits of 20 minutes of exercise when it came to cardio-respiratory fitness. Watching for more than three hours a day was linked with an increased risk of death in all but the most active people. The death rate was significantly higher in people who watched TV for five hours or more a day.

Aim to exceed weekly recommended physical activity level to offset health harms of prolonged sitting. Adults who clock up long hours of sedentary time every day can counter these risks by increasing the amount of physical activity they do. 30 to 40 daily minutes of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity substantially weakens this risk.

HOVR - Unconsciously Burn More Calories at Work

How Does Inversion Therapy or Hanging Upside Down Help Back Pain? (youtube)
Hanging upside down using an inversion table reverse the effects of gravity.

Sedentary Lifestyle may Impair Academic Performance in Boys
Lack of Healthy Food and Nutrition also Impairs Learning
Brain Food

Varicose Veins are swollen, twisted veins that lie just under the skin and usually occur in the legs. Overview. Varicose veins are a common condition caused by weak or damaged vein walls and valves. Varicose veins may form whenever blood pressure increases inside your veins. (collapsed Varicose veins, collapsed vein lines on back of lower buttocks, collapsed skin or indented lines on lower buttocks).

Stretch Marks are areas of skin that look like lines or stripes. They're scars caused by tiny tears in the dermis layer of skin. Stretch marks occur when the skin's collagen and elastin fibers are stretched, like when a person grows or gains weight rapidly. Stretch marks, also known as Striae or Striae distensae, are a form of scarring on the skin with an off-color hue. Over time they may diminish, but will not disappear completely. Stretch marks are caused by tearing of the dermis during periods of rapid growth of the body, such as during puberty or pregnancy. In pregnancy they usually form during the last trimester, and usually on the belly, but also commonly occur on the breasts, thighs, hips, lower back and buttocks; these are known as striae gravidarum. Stretch marks may also be influenced by the hormonal changes associated with puberty, pregnancy, bodybuilding, or hormone replacement therapy. There is no evidence that creams used during pregnancy prevent stretch marks. Once they have formed there is no clearly effective treatment, though various methods have been attempted and studied. Striae distensae are a common form of dermal scarring that appear on the skin as erythematous, violaceous, or hypopigmented linear striations. Synonyms include the terms striae, stretch marks, and striae atrophicans. Striae gravidarum are striae distensae occurring secondary to pregnancy.

Ischial Bursitisis also known as Ischiogluteal bursitis or weaver’s bottom or tailor's bottom, which is a rare and infrequently recognized bursitis of the buttock region. It’s one of the four types of hip bursitis. The bursitis is mainly due to chronic and continuous irritation of the bursa and occurs most often in individuals who have a sedentary life. The irritation commonly results from prolonged pressure on the ischium, Bursitis always develops in response to another pathology. Therefore, the diagnosis of bursitis must be considered as a secondary happening, the primary condition being another pathology. Ischial bursitis can result from sitting for long periods on a hard surface, from direct trauma to the area, or from injury to the hamstring muscle or tendon through activities such as running or bicycling.

Pilonidal Disease is a chronic skin infection in the crease of the buttocks near the coccyx (tailbone). It is more common in men than women and most often occurs between puberty and age 40. Obesity and thick, stiff body hair make people more prone to pilonidal disease.

Deaths Associated With Inadequate Physical Activity. 8.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.4–10.2) of deaths were attributed to inadequate levels of physical activity. The percentage of deaths attributed to inadequate levels was not significant for adults aged 25 to 39 years (−0.2%; 95% CI, −8.8% to 7.7%) but was significant for adults aged 40 to 69 years (9.9%; 95% CI, 7.2%–12.6%) and adults aged 70 years or older (7.8%; 95% CI, 4.9%–10.7%). A significant portion of deaths was attributed to inadequate levels of physical activity. Increasing adults’ physical activity levels to meet current guidelines is likely one way to reduce the risk of premature death in the United States. Adults should participate weekly in at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity equivalent aerobic physical activity to achieve substantial health benefits. Data from the 1990 to 1991 National Health Interview Survey for adults aged 25 years or older were linked with mortality data up until December 31, 2011, from the National Death Index (N = 67,762 persons and 18,796 deaths). Results from fully adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios and population attributable fractions for inadequate levels of physical activity (ie, less than 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity equivalent aerobic activity). Health Benefits from being Outdoors.

Prisoners spend more time outside then children do. While inmates at maximum security prisons in the U.S. are guaranteed at least 2 hours of outdoor time a day, half of children worldwide spend less than an hour outside.

What's the difference between Being in Shape and Being Out of Shape

Studies have found that simply interrupting your sitting time with short breaks of movement—just standing or walking slowly—has beneficial effects. One minute and 40 seconds of walking every 30 minutes for a nine-hour sitting period, as well as two-minute bouts of light-intensity treadmill walking every 20 minutes throughout a five-hour sitting period. Just a few hours of sitting suppresses a gene that helps keep your cardiovascular system healthy by controlling inflammation and blood clotting. Individuals with low levels of physical activity are at risk for high levels of oxidative stress.

Weakness describes a condition where the force exerted by the muscles is less than would be expected, when a person feels more effort than normal is required to exert a given amount of force.

Dizziness - Fatigue

Muscle Atrophy is defined as a decrease in the mass of the muscle; it can be a partial or complete wasting away of muscle, and is most commonly experienced when persons suffer temporary disabling circumstances such as being restricted in movement and/or confined to bed as when hospitalized. When a muscle atrophies, this leads to muscle weakness, since the ability to exert force is related to mass. Modern medicine's understanding of the quick onset of muscle atrophy is a major factor behind the practice of getting hospitalized patients out of bed and moving about as active as possible as soon as is feasible, despite sutures, wounds, broken bones and pain.

Physical Benefits and Mental Benefits of Exercising

Exercise can improve your mood, decrease stress, and improve your attention span and memory. The neurological benefits of exercise are well documented. Exercise enhances both the birth rate and the survival of new hippocampal brain cells. Exercise encourages new hippocampal cells to grow as well as the long-term growth of hippocampal cells by immediately increasing levels of a key growth factor in the hippocampus called Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor or BDNF. Exercise also increases levels of key neurotransmitters, including serotonin, noradrenalin, dopamine and endorphins, that are often depleted by anxiety and depression. For motivation you need to visualize the all the different benefits that will come from exercising. Remind yourself of your goals and be flexible so that you can modify your routine from time to time to keep things fresh and interesting. Replace bad habits with good habits so that you can program yourself and be more in control.

Physical Activity Health Benefits (PDF)
Benefits of Exercise on The Brain and Memory Performance

Benefits from Exercising: Improved cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness. Improved bone health. Improved cardiovascular and metabolic health biomarkers. Favorable body composition. Lower risk of early death. Lower risk of coronary heart disease. Lower risk of stroke. Lower risk of high blood pressure. Lower risk of adverse blood lipid profile. Lower risk of type 2 diabetes. Lower risk of metabolic syndrome. Lower risk of colon cancer. Lower risk of breast cancer. Prevention of weight gain. Weight loss, particularly when combined with reduced calorie intake. Improved cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness. Prevention of falls. Reduced depression. Better cognitive function (for older adults). Better functional health (for older adults). Reduced abdominal obesity. Lower risk of hip fracture. Lower risk of lung cancer. Lower risk of endometrial cancer. Weight maintenance after weight loss. Increased bone density. Improved sleep quality.

Neurobiological Effects of Physical Exercise are numerous and involve a wide range of interrelated effects on brain structure, brain function, and cognition. A large body of research in humans has demonstrated that consistent aerobic exercise (e.g., 30 minutes every day) induces persistent improvements in certain cognitive functions, healthy alterations in gene expression in the brain, and beneficial forms of neuroplasticity and behavioral plasticity; some of these long-term effects include: increased neuron growth, increased neurological activity (e.g., c-Fos and BDNF signaling), improved stress coping, enhanced cognitive control of behavior, improved declarative, spatial, and working memory, and structural and functional improvements in brain structures and pathways associated with cognitive control and memory. The effects of exercise on cognition have important implications for improving academic performance in children and college students, improving adult productivity, preserving cognitive function in old age, preventing or treating certain neurological disorders, and improving overall quality of life. People who regularly perform aerobic exercise (e.g., running, jogging, brisk walking, swimming, and cycling) have greater scores on neuropsychological function and performance tests that measure certain cognitive functions, such as attentional control, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, working memory updating and capacity, declarative memory, spatial memory, and information processing speed. Aerobic exercise is also a potent antidepressant and euphoriant; as a result, consistent exercise produces general improvements in mood and self-esteem. Regular aerobic exercise improves symptoms associated with a variety of central nervous system disorders and may be used as an adjunct therapy for these disorders. There is clear evidence of exercise treatment efficacy for major depressive disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. A large body of preclinical evidence and emerging clinical evidence supports the use of exercise therapy for treating and preventing the development of drug addictions. Reviews of clinical evidence also support the use of exercise as an adjunct therapy for certain neurodegenerative disorders, particularly Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson's disease Regular exercise is also associated with a lower risk of developing neurodegenerative disorders. Regular exercise has also been proposed as an adjunct therapy for brain cancers.

Risks from Eating Unhealthy Food

Association Between Physical Activity and Mental Health Study

Research Shows Static Physical Activity More Beneficial Than Dynamic. Static activities such as strength training may be more strongly associated with reducing cardiovascular disease risks than dynamic activities like walking and biking.

Early life environment may lead to high blood pressure in children. High outdoor temperatures, low city walkability and BPA exposure associated with higher risk of hypertension in children.

Lifestyle, not genetics, explains most premature heart disease. Healthy behaviors should be a top priority for reducing heart disease even in those with a family history of early onset.

Motivation - Inspiration - Health Benefits from being Outdoors - Play Grounds

"Enjoying the moments when you're exercising will have immediate benefits, and not just from knowing the future benefits that you normally get from exercising, but from the benefits you get in those moments when you finally put your body into motion."

"Exercise is simply a human requirement. If you want to live a happy, healthy and pain free life, with a body that's full of energy and has good endurance, you should exercise a few times a week. The benefits of maintenance are awesome."

"One of the rewards for peak physical condition is the abundance of energy, physically and mentally. You also have a greater tolerance for stress. You also create more options to move through the environment, you also create more abilities, just to name a few. But you disconnect from that energy when you become out of shape, and the sad part is you are not even aware of it."

"Exercise is about Maintaining Good Health, Measuring Strength and Comparing your progress to previous levels, so have Fun."

"When exercising stay connected to the end result and the benefits...visualize it, memorize it and feel good about it."

"I like to exercise using a combination of body movements, strength training with weights, yoga, ti-chi and deep breathing." When exercising think about meditation and how great it feels. Think about traveling and seeing exotic places. Dream about things you would like to do someday. Pay attention to your breathing.

Smile and Laugh (happiness) - Inspiration (motivation)

Purposeful exercise and lifestyle physical activity in the lives of young adult women: Findings from a diary study.

The Difference between Exercise and Physical Activity

"Look at exercise as if you're going for ice cream or some kind of treat, a treat that always makes you feel good, that's exercise."

"Considering that we need to do things everyday, we might as well do things that matter."

It's recommended to exercise 4 times a week at least 20 minutes or 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity exercise or 75 minutes per week of vigorous-intensity exercise. Of course consult professionals for guidance and recommendations.

There is some evidence that working out on a completely empty stomach — or, as scientists call this woozy, wee-hours condition, “in a fasted state” — prompts the body to burn more fat and potentially stave off weight gain, compared to exercising at other times. Men who had exercised first thing in the morning, before eating anything, had gained almost no weight and retained healthy insulin levels. Their bodies were also burning more fat throughout the day than were the other men.

23 and 1/2 hours: What is the single best thing we can do for our health? (youtube)
Evans Health Lab

National Physical Education and Sport Week - May 1-7, 2015

National Get Fit Don't Sit Day - May 6, 2015

Physical Education is extremely important and should never be thought of as insignificant. Some people actually believe that they don’t need to exercise because they have a physical job that keeps them busy all day. This is completely inaccurate and ignorant. People who have a physically demanding job actually need to exercise more then a person with who doesn’t have a physically demanding job. This is because physically demanding jobs cause a lot of stress and unnatural demands on the body that could have lasting negative effects, like arthritis, back pain, joint pain, mussel pain and carpel tunnel syndrome, to name a few. Exercise not only helps avoid these problems but also helps avoid injury, fatigue and depression. Working out with weights is totally different then physical labor. Working out with weights benefits your muscles and tendons, while some physical labor actually causes damage, which is usually unnoticeable because the damage is gradual over a long period of time. 20 minutes every other day working out with weights can help you avoid a life full of pain and discomfort as well as other ailments and diseases. A nice easy work out with push-ups, sit-ups, military presses, curls, squats and lunges will not take a long time and can actually be done at home. Using dumbbells in your workout 3 times a week is also a good idea. Keeping your legs strong with squats and lunges is always recommended. You also need aerobic exercise. So biking, hiking, running, swimming, skiing, and many other action sports or even just walking fast can give the heart and lungs the exercise they need.

Pay Attention to your Vitals

Walking vs. Running - Aerobic Capacity Improves Exercise Performance.

Cross-Training is athletic training in sports other than the athlete's usual sport. The goal is improving overall performance. It takes advantage of the particular effectiveness of one training method to negate the shortcomings of another. Cross-training in sports and fitness involves combining exercises to work various parts of the body. Often one particular activity works certain muscle groups, but not others; cross-training aims to eliminate this imbalance. Modern mixed martial-arts training generally involves cross-training in the different aspects and ranges of fighting. In water sports, cross-training often involves doing exercises and training on land. This is often referred to by swimmers as "dryland". For swimming, cross-training frequently includes running, stretching, and other resistance and agility training. Diving dryland exercises include various unique exercises such as on-land landing biomechanics training.

People need to learn early in life why exercising the body is so important. People need to learn what effects certain exercises have on particular muscles, tendons, skin, bones, and how it also effects body weight, mood and endurance. Know your body, understand why you are doing a particular exercise and how much and how long you need to do it. You also have to understand when to change your exercise program and why you need to change it. Remember your body is a machine, and every machine needs maintenance.

Exercise is the manual manipulation of matter. We are performing an action that has known benefits. In a sense we are just maximizing the amazing abilities of our own body. Our bodies have autonomous characteristics, but only to a certain degree. Automatic features are great because you don't have to worry about them, so you can focus on other things. But of course, automatic features don't do everything. Some things we need to do manually, which is a great feature to have, but it could also get us into trouble. Because having choice is only valuable when you are making good choices. Manual control is an excellent feature, it allows us to chose, so we can adapt and control our environment when needed. But we have to be conscious. We need to be aware of subconscious bad habits so that we can replace them with known good habits. Just like exercising our body, we need to exercise our awareness too, from autonomous mode to manual controlled mode.

A Person 18-65 should have 2.5 Hours of Moderate Exercise a week or 1.5 Hours of Vigorous Exercise a week.
Moderate Exercise is 60-70% of your maximal heart rate. Your maximal heart rate can be calculated by subtracting your age from 220. Vigorous exercise is 70-80% of your maximal Heart Rate. This is when you break a sweat and your breathing becomes strenuous. These exercise estimates will vary depending on your current physical health and your current physical needs.

"When you have those moments when you don't feel like exercising because you feel lazy or lethargic, those are actually the best times to exercise."

Please Exercise Moderately. Exercise helps boost your energy level, mentally and physically, and also helps improve your mood. To keep yourself interested and motivated in exercising try having variety in your workouts and also use playful competition with yourself or others. Listening to music sometimes helps too. Always warm up first before a workout. Loosen up your body by doing some simple gentle bending and stretching. Gentle bending and stretching can also relieve tightness in your hands, back, neck, shoulders, knees and waist. Being aware of the strength and flexibility of your body will also help you avoid injury. Remember there are many benefits that come from exercising. And these benefits will far out way all the problems that you’ll have if you never exercise at all. And it’s always a good idea to avoid prolonged sitting. Get Up! Get Out! Get Going!

Exercising and Physical Education Websites.

Thirty Minute Workout for Home Gym or Office.

Limiting mealtimes may increase your motivation for exercise. Limiting access to food in mice increases levels of the hormone, ghrelin, which may also increase motivation to exercise, according to a new study. The study suggests that a surge in levels of appetite-promoting hormone, ghrelin, after a period of fasting prompted mice to initiate voluntary exercise.

Increase health benefits of exercise by working out before breakfast. Exercising before eating breakfast burns more fat, improves how the body responds to insulin and lowers people's risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

Everyday activities enhance personal well-being. Physical activity makes happy and is important to maintain psychic health. Researchers studied the brain regions which play a central role in this process. Their findings reveal that even everyday activities, such as climbing stairs, significantly enhance well-being, in particular of persons susceptible to psychiatric disorders.


Muscle Groups Muscles is a soft tissue found in most animals. Muscle cells contain protein filaments of actin and myosin that slide past one another, producing a contraction that changes both the length and the shape of the cell. Muscles function to produce force and motion. They are primarily responsible for maintaining and changing posture, locomotion, as well as movement of internal organs, such as the contraction of the heart and the movement of food through the digestive system via peristalsis.

There are over 650 named skeletal muscles in the human body, although some figures go up to as many as 840. The dissension comes from those that count the muscles within a complex muscle. Almost every muscle constitutes one part of a pair of identical bilateral muscles, found on both sides, resulting in approximately 320 pairs of muscles. Cell Signaling and ATP.

Skeletal Muscle is one of three major muscle types, the others being cardiac muscle and smooth muscle. It is a form of striated muscle tissue which is under the voluntary control of the somatic nervous system. Most skeletal muscles are attached to bones by bundles of collagen fibers known as tendons. A skeletal muscle refers to multiple bundles of cells called muscle fibers (fascicles). The fibres and muscles are surrounded by connective tissue layers called fasciae. Muscle fibres, or muscle cells, are formed from the fusion of developmental myoblasts in a process known as myogenesis. Muscle fibres are cylindrical, and have more than one nucleus. Muscle fibers are in turn composed of myofibrils. The myofibrils are composed of actin and myosin filaments, repeated in units called sarcomeres, which are the basic functional units of the muscle fiber. The sarcomere is responsible for the striated appearance of skeletal muscle, and forms the basic machinery necessary for muscle contraction. Oxygen.

Bone to Bone is a Ligament. Muscle to Bone is a Tendon. - Flexibility

Human Musculoskeletal System is an organ system that gives humans the ability to move using their muscular and skeletal systems. The musculoskeletal system provides form, support, stability, and movement to the body. It is made up of the bones of the skeleton, muscles, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, joints, and other connective tissue that supports and binds tissues and organs together. The musculoskeletal system's primary functions include supporting the body, allowing motion, and protecting vital organs. The skeletal portion of the system serves as the main storage system for calcium and phosphorus and contains critical components of the hematopoietic system. This system describes how bones are connected to other bones and muscle fibers via connective tissue such as tendons and ligaments. The bones provide stability to the body. Muscles keep bones in place and also play a role in the movement of bones. To allow motion, different bones are connected by joints. Cartilage prevents the bone ends from rubbing directly onto each other. Muscles contract to move the bone attached at the joint. Injury.

Muscular System is an organ system consisting of skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscles. It permits movement of the body, maintains posture, and circulates blood throughout the body. The muscular system in vertebrates is controlled through the nervous system, although some muscles (such as the cardiac muscle) can be completely autonomous. Together with the skeletal system it forms the musculoskeletal system, which is responsible for movement of the human body.

The 3 Types of Skeletal Muscle Fibers:
Type I Fibres (Slow Twitch) / Slow Contraction Speed. (100 milliseconds)
Type IIA Fibres (Fast Twitch) / Fast Contraction Speed (fast oxidative fibers). (50 milliseconds)
Type IIB Fibres / Very Fast Contraction Speed (fast glycolytic fibers). (25 milliseconds)

Myofibril is a basic rod-like unit of a muscle cell. Muscles are composed of tubular cells called myocytes, known as muscle fibers in striated muscle, and these cells in turn contain many chains of myofibrils. They are created during embryonic development in a process known as myogenesis. Myofibrils are composed of long proteins including actin, myosin, and titin, and other proteins that hold them together. These proteins are organized into thick and thin filaments called myofilaments, which repeat along the length of the myofibril in sections called sarcomeres. Muscles contract by sliding the thick (myosin) and thin (actin) filaments along each other.

Myostatin is a myokine, a protein produced and released by myocytes that acts on muscle cells' autocrine function to inhibit myogenesis: muscle cell growth and differentiation. In humans it is encoded by the MSTN gene. Myostatin is a secreted growth differentiation factor that is a member of the TGF beta protein family.

Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue. Epithelial tissues line the outer surfaces of organs and blood vessels throughout the body, as well as the inner surfaces of cavities in many internal organs. An example is the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin. There are three principal shapes of epithelial cell: squamous(characterized by scales or very thin flattened cells), columnar, and cuboidal. These can be arranged in a single layer of cells as simple epithelium, either squamous, columnar, cuboidal, pseudo-stratified columnar or in layers of two or more cells deep as stratified (layered), either squamous, columnar or cuboidal. All glands are made up of epithelial cells. Functions of epithelial cells include secretion, selective absorption, protection, transcellular transport, and sensing. Epithelial layers contain no blood vessels, so they must receive nourishment via diffusion of substances from the underlying connective tissue, through the basement membrane. Cell junctions are well-employed in epithelial tissues.

Sarcoplasm is the cytoplasm of a myocyte (muscle fiber). It is comparable to the cytoplasm of other cells, but it contains unusually large amounts of glycosomes (granules of stored glycogen) and significant amounts of myoglobin, an oxygen-binding protein. The calcium ion concentration in sarcoplasma is also a special element of the muscle fiber; it is the means by which the muscle contractions take place and are regulated. It contains mostly myofibrils (which are composed of sarcomeres), but its contents are otherwise comparable to those of the cytoplasm of other cells. It has a Golgi apparatus near the nucleus, mitochondria just inside the cell membrane (sarcolemma), and a smooth endoplasmic reticulum (specialized for muscle function and called the sarcoplasmic reticulum).

Fascia is a band or sheet of connective tissue, primarily collagen, beneath the skin that attaches, stabilizes, encloses, and separates muscles and other internal organs. Fascia is classified by layer, as superficial fascia, deep fascia, and visceral or parietal fascia, or by its function and anatomical location. Like ligaments, aponeuroses, and tendons, fascia is made up of fibrous connective tissue containing closely packed bundles of collagen fibers oriented in a wavy pattern parallel to the direction of pull. Fascia is consequently flexible and able to resist great unidirectional tension forces until the wavy pattern of fibers has been straightened out by the pulling force. These collagen fibers are produced by fibroblasts located within the fascia. Fasciae are similar to ligaments and tendons as they have collagen as their major component. They differ in their location and function: ligaments join one bone to another bone, tendons join muscle to bone, and fasciae surround muscles and other structures. Fascia is very densely woven, covering and interpenetrating every muscle, bone, nerve, artery and vein, as well as, all of our internal organs including the heart, lungs, brain and spinal cord. Fascia is the biological fabric that holds us together, the connective tissue network. You are about 70 trillion cells — neurons, muscle cells, epithelia — all humming in relative harmony; fascia is the 3D spider web of fibrous, gluey, and Fasciawet proteins that binds them together in their proper placement.

Hyaluronic Acid is an anionic, nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan distributed widely throughout connective, epithelial, and neural tissues.

Fibroblast is a type of biological cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen, produces the structural framework (stroma) for animal tissues, and plays a critical role in wound healing. Fibroblasts are the most common cells of connective tissue in animals.

Muscle Hypertrophy involves an increase in size of skeletal muscle through a growth in size of its component cells. Two factors contribute to hypertrophy: sarcoplasmic hypertrophy, which focuses more on increased muscle glycogen storage; and myofibrillar hypertrophy, which focuses more on increased myofibril size.

Muscle Loss - Muscle Weakness

Sarcopenia is the loss of muscle tissue as a of the aging process and the lack of muscle training exercises. It is the degenerative loss of skeletal muscle mass (0.5–1% loss per year after the age of 50), quality, and strength associated with aging. Sarcopenia is a component of the frailty syndrome. It is often a component of cachexia. It can also exist independently of cachexia; whereas cachexia includes malaise and is secondary to an underlying pathosis (such as cancer), sarcopenia may occur in healthy people and does not necessarily include malaise. The primary treatment for sarcopenia is exercise. Spine Diseases.

Dynapenia is the age-associated loss of muscle strength, rather than muscle mass, and is not caused by neurologic or muscular diseases. Resistance Training has been shown to greatly influence virtually all of the strength related physiological mechanisms of the nervous and skeletal muscle systems - even into very late life.

Fatigue - Paralysis - Entropy - Aging

Muscle Weakness is a lack of muscle strength. The causes are many and can be divided into conditions that have either true or perceived muscle weakness. True muscle weakness is a primary symptom of a variety of skeletal muscle diseases, including muscular dystrophy and inflammatory myopathy. It occurs in neuromuscular junction disorders, such as myasthenia gravis. Muscle weakness can also be caused by low levels of potassium and other electrolytes within muscle cells. It can be temporary or long-lasting (from seconds or minutes to months or years).

Hypotonia is a state of low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to stretch in a muscle), often involving reduced muscle strength.

Atony or atonia is a condition in which a muscle has lost its strength. It is frequently associated with the conditions atonic seizure, atonic colon, uterine atony, gastrointestinal atony (occurs postoperatively) and choreatic atonia. Atony can also refer to the paralyzed or extremely relaxed state of skeletal muscles in rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep) in most warm-blooded animals.

Salk scientists find power switch for muscles. ERRγ gene enables endurance exercise and repairs type of damage seen in neuromuscular diseases.

Restoration of Muscle Mass. Exploring the role of sirtuins, a class of proteins. in endothelial cells, which line the inside of blood vessels. To do that, they deleted the gene for SIRT1, which encodes the major mammalian sirtuin, in endothelial cells of mice. They found that at 6 months of age, these mice had reduced capillary density and could run only half as far as normal 6-month-old mice. The researchers then decided to see what would happen if they boosted sirtuin levels in normal mice as they aged. They treated the mice with a compound called NMN, which is a precursor to NAD, a coenzyme that activates SIRT1. NAD levels normally drop as animals age, which is believed to be caused by a combination of reduced NAD production and faster NAD degradation. After 18-month-old mice were treated with NMN for two months, their capillary density was restored to levels typically seen in young mice, and they experienced a 56 to 80 percent improvement in endurance. Beneficial effects were also seen in mice up to 32 months of age (comparable to humans in their 80s).

Brain cells protect muscles from wasting away. Researchers have found another: cells called glia that release a hormone that boosts the unfolded protein response in the endoplasmic reticulum of the worm's cells, effectively doubling lifespan. How Bears Preserve Muscle Mass During Hibernation.

Physical activity in all of its forms may help maintain muscle mass in midlife. Hormonal changes during menopause decrease muscle mass, but physical activity might slow the decrement. Loss of estrogen has an effect on muscles and leads to a decline in muscle mass. Physical activity in all of its forms may help maintain muscle mass in midlife.

A protein called Sestrin might be responsible for many of the benefits of a good workout. The findings could eventually help scientists combat muscle wasting due to aging and other causes. SESN2 or Sestrin-2 also known as Hi95 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SESN2 gene.

Targeting myostatin/activin A protects against skeletal muscle and bone loss during spaceflight. Among the major health challenges for astronauts during prolonged space travel are loss of muscle mass and loss of bone mass. Here, we investigated the effects of targeting the signaling pathway mediated by the secreted signaling molecules, myostatin and activin A, in mice sent to the International Space Station. We show that targeting this signaling pathway has significant beneficial effects in protecting against both muscle and bone loss in microgravity, suggesting that this strategy may be effective in preventing or treating muscle and bone loss not only in astronauts on prolonged missions but also in people with disuse atrophy on Earth, such as in older adults or in individuals who are bedridden or wheelchair-bound from illness. Activin-A is a dimeric glycoprotein, which belongs to the transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) family. It regulates several biological functions, including hormonal homoeostasis, gonadal functions, muscle growth, immunity, inflammation, and bone remodeling.

Guillain–Barré Syndrome is a rapid-onset muscle weakness caused by the immune system damaging the peripheral nervous system. Typically, both sides of the body are involved, and the initial symptoms are changes in sensation or pain often in the back along with muscle weakness, beginning in the feet and hands, often spreading to the arms and upper body. The symptoms may develop over hours to a few weeks. During the acute phase, the disorder can be life-threatening, with about 15 percent of people developing weakness of the breathing muscles and, therefore, requiring mechanical ventilation. Some are affected by changes in the function of the autonomic nervous system, which can lead to dangerous abnormalities in heart rate and blood pressure.

Activin and Inhibin are two closely related protein complexes that have almost directly opposite biological effects. Identified in 1986, activin enhances FSH biosynthesis and secretion, and participates in the regulation of the menstrual cycle. Many other functions have been found to be exerted by activin, including roles in cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, metabolism, homeostasis, immune response, wound repair, and endocrine function. Conversely, inhibin downregulates FSH synthesis and inhibits FSH secretion.

Muscle Types

Biceps is a two-headed muscle that lies on the upper arm between the shoulder and the elbow.

Triceps is a large muscle on the back of the upper limb of many vertebrates. It is the muscle principally responsible for extension of the elbow joint (straightening of the arm).

Deltoids is the muscle forming the rounded contour of the shoulder.

Pecs is a thick, fan-shaped muscle, situated at the chest (anterior) of the human body. It makes up the bulk of the chest muscles in the male and lies under the breast in the female. Underneath the pectoralis major is the pectoralis minor, a thin, triangular muscle. In sports as well as bodybuilding, the pectoral muscles may colloquially be referred to as "pecs", "pectoral muscle" or "chest muscle". What are Man Breasts??

Abs is a muscle layer of the anterior and lateral (front and side) abdominal wall which is deep to (layered below) the internal oblique muscle. It is thought by most fitness instructors to be a significant component of the core. Core Muscles.

Rectus Abdominis Muscle is a paired muscle running vertically on each side of the anterior wall of the human abdomen.

Mummy Tummy

Core of the body is broadly considered to be the torso. Functional movements are highly dependent on this part of the body, and lack of core muscular development can result in a predisposition to injury. The major muscles of the core reside in the area of the belly and the mid and lower back (not the shoulders), and peripherally include the hips, the shoulders and the neck.
Major muscles included are the pelvic floor muscles, transversus abdominis, multifidus, internal and external obliques, rectus abdominis, erector spinae (sacrospinalis) especially the longissimus thoracis, and the diaphragm.

Gluteals are a group of three muscles which make up the buttocks: the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius and gluteus minimus.

Body Parts (anatomy)

Muscle Weakness from Sitting to Much - Fatigue

Skeletal Muscles Do Not Undergo Apoptosis During Either Atrophy or Programmed Cell Death-Revisiting the Myonuclear Domain Hypothesis.

Human Skeletal Muscle Possesses an Epigenetic Memory of Hypertrophy.

Muscle Nuclei are the factories that power new muscle growth. Rather than dying as muscles lose mass, nuclei added during muscle growth persist and could give older muscles an edge in regaining fitness later on. Muscle cells can be sculpted into many forms and can stretch to volumes 100,000 times larger than a normal cell. Muscle cells gain this flexibility by breaking the biological norm of one nucleus to a cell; some muscle cells house thousands of nuclei. In mammals, these extra nuclei come from stem cells called satellite cells that surround the muscle. When demands on the muscle increase, these satellite cells fuse with muscle cells, combining their nuclei and paving the way for more muscle. To build muscle mass you need to make more of the contractile proteins that create that force. Nuclei power the building of more muscle, making them "a bit like factories. The more nuclei, the bigger and stronger the muscle. But as a muscle shrinks from lack of use, it gets rid of those unnecessary extra nuclei. If we can bank muscle nuclei early in life, when it's easier to build muscle, we could then draw on these later in life to slow the effects of aging. Fourteen days of bed rest induces a decline in satellite cell content and robust atrophy of skeletal muscle fibers in middle-aged adults.

Injuries - Muscle Soreness

Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness is the pain and stiffness felt in muscles several hours to days after unaccustomed or strenuous exercise. The soreness is felt most strongly 24 to 72 Hours after the Exercise. It is thought to be caused by eccentric (lengthening) exercise, which causes microtrauma to the muscle fibers. After such exercise, the muscle adapts rapidly to prevent muscle damage, and thereby soreness, if the exercise is repeated. Delayed onset muscle soreness is one symptom of exercise-induced muscle damage. The other is acute muscle soreness, which appears during and immediately after exercise. When muscle tissue is damaged, not only do resident tissue cells assist in repair and removal of damaged proteins, but also cells of the immune system localize to the damage site to facilitate tissue repair and recovery. A degree of local tissue inflammation occurs at the site as a result, while tissue cells, immune cells, repair and proteins, and other factors that stimulate repair all migrate to the site of damage. Although this process is part of what contributes to pain associated with DOMS, it is an important aspect of response to exercise that does need to occur. Usually after a few days, DOMS subsides and this indicates that the healthy repair process has occurred. Prolonged and extremely painful soreness may be a sign of more severe injury or damage that requires longer recovery time between workouts. Aspects of the exercise itself like exercise intensity, duration, type, and also your fitness level can impact how severe DOMS is after a bout of exercise. Messages - Rubbing Sore Muscles.

Rhabdomyolysis is a condition in which damaged skeletal muscle breaks down rapidly. Symptoms may include muscle pains, weakness, vomiting, and confusion. There may be tea-colored urine or an irregular heartbeat. Some of the muscle breakdown products, such as the protein myoglobin, are harmful to the kidneys and may lead to kidney failure.

Microtrauma can include the microtearing of muscle fibres, the sheath around the muscle and the connective tissue. It can also include stress to the tendons, and to the bones. It is unknown whether or not the ligaments adapt like this. Microtrauma to the skin (compression, impact, abrasion) can also cause increases in a skin's thickness, as seen from the calluses formed from running barefoot or the hand calluses that result from rock climbing. This might be due to increased skin cell replication at sites under stress where cells rapidly slough off or undergo compression or abrasion. Most microtrauma cause a low level of inflammation that cannot be seen or felt. These injuries can arise in muscle, ligament, vertebrae, and discs, either singly or in combination. Repetitive microtrauma which are not allowed time to heal can result in the development of more serious conditions. Concussions.

Myocyte is the type of cell found in muscle tissue. Myocytes are long, tubular cells that develop from myoblasts to form muscles in a process known as myogenesis. There are various specialized forms of myocytes: cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscle cells, with various properties. The striated cells of cardiac and skeletal muscles are referred to as muscle fibers. Cardiomyocytes are the muscle fibres that form the chambers of the heart, and have a single central nucleus. Skeletal muscle fibers help support and move the body and tend to have peripheral nuclei. Smooth muscle cells control involuntary movements such as the peristalsis contractions in the oesophagus and stomach.

Myosatellite Cells, also known as satellite cells or muscle Stem Cells, are small multipotent cells with very little cytoplasm found in mature muscle. Satellite cells are precursors to skeletal muscle cells, able to give rise to satellite cells or differentiated skeletal muscle cells. They have the potential to provide additional myonuclei to their parent muscle fiber, or return to a quiescent state. More specifically, upon activation, satellite cells can re-enter the cell cycle to proliferate and differentiate into myoblasts. Myosatellite cells are located between the basement membrane and the sarcolemma of muscle fibers, and can lie in grooves either parallel or transversely to the longitudinal axis of the fibre. Their distribution across the fibre can vary significantly. Non-proliferative, quiescent myosatellite cells, which adjoin resting skeletal muscles, can be identified by their distinct location between sarcolemma and basal lamina, a high nuclear-to-cytoplasmic volume ratio, few organelles (e.g. ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, golgi complexes), small nuclear size, and a large quantity of nuclear heterochromatin relative to myonuclei. On the other hand, activated satellite cells have an increased number of caveolae, cytoplasmic organelles, and decreased levels of heterochromatin. Satellite cells are able to differentiate and fuse to augment existing muscle fibers and to form new fibers. These cells represent the oldest known adult stem cell niche, and are involved in the normal growth of muscle, as well as regeneration following injury or disease. In undamaged muscle, the majority of satellite cells are quiescent; they neither differentiate nor undergo cell division. In response to mechanical strain, satellite cells become activated. Activated satellite cells initially proliferate as skeletal myoblasts before undergoing myogenic differentiation. Myonuclei is the nuclei of a muscle fiber or cell. The number of myonuclei may be increased in a muscle cell by fusion of a satellite cell with a muscle fiber.

Tendon stem cells could revolutionize injury recovery. Discovery of tendon stem cells could be a game-changer when it comes to treating tendon injuries, avoiding surgery. The buildup of scar tissue makes recovery from torn rotator cuffs, jumper's knee, and other tendon injuries a painful, challenging process, often leading to secondary tendon ruptures. New research reveals the existence of tendon stem cells that could potentially be harnessed to improve tendon healing and even to avoid surgery.

Ice or Heat? Use ice for acute injuries or pain, along with inflammation and swelling. Use heat for muscle pain or stiffness. Heat vs. Cold Info- Graph (image) - Heat Therapy boosts Mitochondrial Function in Muscles.

Wolff's Law states that bone in a healthy person or animal will adapt to the loads under which it is placed. If loading on a particular bone increases, the bone will remodel itself over time to become stronger to resist that sort of loading. The internal architecture of the trabeculae undergoes adaptive changes, followed by secondary changes to the external cortical portion of the bone, perhaps becoming thicker as a result. The inverse is true as well: if the loading on a bone decreases, the bone will become less dense and weaker due to the lack of the stimulus required for continued remodeling. This reduction in bone density (osteopenia) is known as stress shielding and can occur as a result of a hip replacement (or other prosthesis). The normal stress on a bone is shielded from that bone by being placed on a prosthetic implant.

Knee Diagram showing Ligaments Strain is an injury to a muscle in which the muscle fibers tear as a result of overstretching. A strain is also colloquially known as a pulled muscle or torn muscle. The equivalent injury to a ligament is a sprain.

Sprain is damage to one or more ligaments in a joint, often caused by trauma or the joint being taken beyond its functional range of motion. The severity of sprain ranges from a minor injury which resolves in a few days to a major rupture of one or more ligaments requiring surgical fixation and a period of immobilization. Sprains can occur in any joint but are most common in the ankle and wrist. Stretching (flexibility).

Osteoarthritis is a type of joint disease that results from breakdown of joint cartilage and underlying bone. The most common symptoms are joint pain and stiffness. Usually the symptoms progress slowly over years. Initially they may occur only after exercise but can become constant over time. Other symptoms may include joint swelling, decreased range of motion, and, when the back is affected, weakness or numbness of the arms and legs. The most commonly involved joints are the two near the ends of the fingers and the joint at the base of the thumbs; the knee and hip joints; and the joints of the neck and lower back. Joints on one side of the body are often more affected than those on the other. The symptoms can interfere with work and normal daily activities. Unlike some other types of arthritis, only the joints, not internal organs, are affected.

Joints are the place where two bones meet or connect. Cracking Joints sound is not yet fully understood, it is mainly attributed to nitrogen or carbon dioxide bubbles building up between the joints.

Ligament are a short band of tough, flexible, fibrous connective tissue that connects two bones or cartilages or holds together a joint. Collagen.

Tendon is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone and is capable of withstanding tension. Tendons are similar to ligaments; both are made of collagen. Ligaments join one bone to another bone, while tendons connect muscle to bone.

Diagram showing Bone Tedons Cartilage is a resilient and smooth elastic tissue, rubber-like padding that covers and protects the ends of long bones at the joints, and is a structural component of the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the bronchial tubes, the intervertebral discs, and many other body components. It is not as hard and rigid as Bone, but it is stiffer and less flexible than muscle.

Meniscus is a crescent-shaped fibrocartilaginous anatomical structure that, in contrast to an articular disk, only partly divides a joint cavity. In humans they are present in the knee, wrist, acromioclavicular, sternoclavicular, and temporomandibular joints; in other animals they may be present in other joints. Scaffold helps cells repair torn meniscus in lab tests.

Connective Tissue is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. It develops from the mesoderm. Connective tissue is found in between other tissues everywhere in the body, including the nervous system. In the central nervous system, the three outer membranes (the meninges) that envelop the brain and spinal cord are composed of connective tissue. All connective tissue consists of three main components: fibers (elastic and collagenous fibers), ground substance and cells. Not all authorities include blood or lymph as connective tissue because they lack the fiber component. All are immersed in the body water. The cells of connective tissue include fibroblasts, adipocytes, macrophages, mast cells and leucocytes. Collagen.

Sports Injury are injuries that occur in athletic activities or exercising. In the United States there are about 30 million teenagers and children alone that participate in some form of organized sport.

Repetitive Strain Injury is an "injury to the musculoskeletal and nervous systems that may be caused by repetitive tasks, forceful exertions, vibrations, mechanical compression, or sustained or awkward positions.

Body Smart (nerve damage)

Bursitis is the inflammation of one or more bursae (small sacs) of synovial fluid in the body. They are lined with a synovial membrane that secretes a lubricating synovial fluid. There are more than 150 bursae in the human body. The bursae rest at the points where internal functionaries, such as muscles and tendons, slide across bone. Healthy bursae create a smooth, almost frictionless functional gliding surface making normal movement painless. When bursitis occurs, however, movement relying on the inflamed bursa becomes difficult and painful. Moreover, movement of tendons and muscles over the inflamed bursa aggravates its inflammation, perpetuating the problem. Muscle can also be stiffened.

Massage - Physical Therapy - Pain

Rhabdomyolysis is a condition in which damaged skeletal muscle breaks down rapidly.

Muscles in the Body - Stem Cells

Over-Conditioning Kills: Non-traumatic fatalities in football is preventable. Most non-traumatic fatalities among high school and college football athletes do not occur while playing the game of football, but rather during conditioning sessions which are often associated with overexertion or punishment drills required by coaches and team staff.

Limp is the uneven manner of walking that results from an injured leg. Walk impeded by some physical limitation or injury. Lacking in strength, firmness or resilience. Not having full range of motion because of being impeded by pain and soreness. A reduction in a normal range of motion. A limited range of motion. Concentric motion is the shortening of a muscle- such as going from regular standing to standing on your tiptoes.

Calf Muscles are Tight - Leg Cramps

Fascia or connective tissue of these two muscles comes together to form the achilles tendon at the back of our ankle. If the calf muscles are tight then the Achilles is tight. If the calf muscles are too tight, a person may be more likely to experience plantar fascia because the calf muscles cannot support the foot. The most common symptoms of plantar fasciitis are foot pain when waking and difficulty flexing the foot. Tight Pain that's felt in muscles "downstream" from the narrowed artery. Muscles aren't getting enough blood. It can occur in the buttocks, thigh, calf, or foot, but occurs most often in the calf. The pain tends to come on with walking, gets worse until the person stops walking, and goes away with rest. Stretch and massage. Stretch the cramped muscle and gently rub it to help it relax. For a calf cramp, put your weight on your cramped leg and bend your knee slightly. Use a warm towel or heating pad on tense or tight muscles. Stretching regularly may be your best bet for keeping your calf muscles loose and pain-free. Warm up before stretching and other exercise. A slow walk or jog for a few minutes should be enough to get the blood flowing. Resting helps. It usually takes up to three days for a pulled calf muscle to start feeling better. But a full recovery may take up to six weeks.

Triceps Surae Muscle is a pair of muscles located at the calf - the two-headed gastrocnemius and the soleus. These muscles both insert into the calcaneus, the bone of the heel of the human foot, and form the major part of the muscle of the posterior leg, commonly known as the calf muscle.

Leg Cramps affect the muscles in the calf (the large one is called the gastrocnemius) or along the sole of the foot. Heat (from a heating pad or warm - not hot - water) or massaging of the leg and foot can also help muscles relax, although it's best to try stretching first. Nocturnal leg cramps are quite painful and cause the affected muscles to feel tight or knotted.

When a person feels high levels of stress, the muscles tend to become tense, and this tension, over long periods of time, can leave legs feeling achy.

Effects of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on the Frequency of Skeletal Muscle Cramps: A Prospective Controlled Clinical Trial.

Muscle Cramp - Charley Horse is a sudden, involuntary contraction of one or more muscles (cramp), often in the legs. Muscles of your calf or foot suddenly become hard, tight, and painful. Often the result of long exercise or physical labor, especially in the heat. Many things can trigger a muscle cramp. They include: Working muscles too hard while exercising, Dehydration, Muscle fatigue, Not stretching enough, Poor blood circulation in your legs, Being active in hot temperatures, Magnesium and/or potassium deficiency, Muscle cramps can also occur as a side effect of some drugs or medications. A charley horse is harmless but can be very painful. It often awakens a person during the night. Slowly wiggling your toes and slowly extending your legs and relax. To avoid cramps in muscles try to eat more foods high in vitamins and magnesium and calcium. Stay well-hydrated. stretch properly before exercise. Cramp is a muscle contraction or over-shortening; while generally temporary and non-damaging, they can cause significant pain, and a paralysis-like immobility of the affected muscle. Onset is usually sudden, and it resolves on its own over a period of several seconds, minutes or hours. Cramps may occur in a skeletal muscle or smooth muscle. Skeletal muscle cramps may be caused by muscle fatigue or a lack of electrolytes such as low sodium, low potassium or low magnesium. Cramps of smooth muscle may be due to menstruation or gastroenteritis. Golgi tendon organ (GTO), a structure of the nervous system found throughout the body at the intersection of muscle fibers and tendons. The GTO plays a kind of activity-dampening role limiting the kind of “excitability” that produces muscle contraction. In some circumstances, the GTO’s control is muffled, and so there may be an imbalance in the amount of electrical information reaching the alpha motor neuron (basically, the muscle’s on/off switch) in the spinal cord. cramp threshold,” which is the amount of electrical stimulation needed to trigger a cramp in a given individual. The cramp threshold seems to vary from person to person. If you’re someone with a very low threshold, exercise and sweat-induced fluid imbalances or spending time with your muscles in contracted positions could produce cramps. Any condition that disrupts or kills off motor neuron activity could also lead to the kind of electrical discombobulation that causes muscle cramps. This is partially why muscle cramps are common symptoms of degenerative neurological conditions like ALS. They are also common in patients with Type 2 diabetes, a condition that can cause nerve damage. Aging can also contribute to cramps. Around the same time that we start losing our motor neurons, roughly, a person’s early fifties, rest cramps start to get more common. Heavy exercisers should note that sweating a lot and drinking only water to rehydrate can throw off electrolyte and fluid balances. Stretching the affected muscle while you cramp probably helps abort a cramp. Though Prophylactic stretching before bedtime or other times when you tend to cramp doesn’t seem to do much good.


Lactate Threshold is the exercise intensity at which the blood concentration of lactate and/or Lactic Acid begins to exponentially increase. Often expressed as 85% of maximum heart rate or 75% of maximum oxygen intake. When exercising at or below the LT, any lactate produced by the muscles is removed by the body without it building up. The onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA) is often confused with the lactate threshold. With a higher exercise intensity the lactate production exceeds at a rate which it cannot be broken down, the blood lactate concentration will show an increase equal to 4.0mM; it then accumulates at the muscle and then moves to the bloodstream. Regular endurance exercise leads to adaptations in skeletal muscle which prevent lactate levels from rising. This is mediated via activation of PGC-1α which alters the isoenzyme composition of the LDH complex and decreases the activity of the lactate generating enzyme LDHA, while increasing the activity of the lactate metabolizing enzyme LDHB.

Lactic Acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH. In its solid state, it is white and water-soluble. In its liquid state, it is colorless. It is produced both naturally and synthetically. With a hydroxyl group adjacent to the carboxyl group, lactic acid is classified as an alpha-hydroxy acid (AHA). In the form of its conjugate base called lactate, it plays a role in several biochemical processes. In animals, L-lactate is constantly produced from pyruvate via the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in a process of fermentation during normal metabolism and exercise. It does not increase in concentration until the rate of lactate production exceeds the rate of lactate removal, which is governed by a number of factors, including monocarboxylate transporters, concentration and isoform of LDH, and oxidative capacity of tissues. The concentration of blood lactate is usually 1–2 mmol/L at rest, but can rise to over 20 mmol/L during intense exertion and as high as 25 mmol/L afterward. In industry, lactic acid fermentation is performed by lactic acid bacteria, which convert simple carbohydrates such as glucose, sucrose, or galactose to lactic acid. These bacteria can also grow in the mouth; the acid they produce is responsible for the tooth decay known as caries. During power exercises such as sprinting, when the rate of demand for energy is high, glucose is broken down and oxidized to pyruvate, and lactate is then produced from the pyruvate faster than the body can process it, causing lactate concentrations to rise. Pyruvic Acid (wiki).

The surprising reason our Muscles Get Tired - Christian Moro (youtube)

Motor Neurons - ATP - Action Potential - Sodium, Potassium, Calcium Ions.

Spasm is a sudden involuntary contraction of a muscle, a group of muscles, or a hollow organ such as the heart. A spasmodic muscle contraction may be caused by many medical conditions, including dystonia. Most commonly, it is a muscle cramp which is accompanied by a sudden burst of pain. A muscle cramp is usually harmless and ceases after a few minutes. It is typically caused by ion imbalance or muscle overload. Reflex.

Muscle Contraction is the activation of tension-generating sites within muscle fibers. In physiology, muscle contraction does not necessarily mean muscle shortening because muscle tension can be produced without changes in muscle length such as holding a heavy book or a dumbbell at the same position. The termination of muscle contraction is followed by muscle relaxation, which is a return of the muscle fibers to their low tension-generating state. There are other causes of involuntary muscle contractions, and some of these may cause a health problem. Muscle contractions can be described based on two variables: length and tension. A muscle contraction is described as isometric if the muscle tension changes but the muscle length remains the same. In contrast, a muscle contraction is isotonic if muscle tension remains the same throughout the contraction. If the muscle length shortens, the contraction is concentric; if the muscle length lengthens, the contraction is eccentric. In natural movements that underlie locomotor activity, muscle contractions are multifaceted as they are able to produce changes in length and tension in a time-varying manner. Therefore, neither length nor tension is likely to remain the same in muscles that contract during locomotor activity. In vertebrates, skeletal muscle contractions are neurogenic as they require synaptic input from motor neurons to produce muscle contractions. A single motor neuron is able to innervate multiple muscle fibers, thereby causing the fibers to contract at the same time. Once innervated, the protein filaments within each skeletal muscle fiber slide past each other to produce a contraction, which is explained by the sliding filament theory. The contraction produced can be described as a twitch, summation, or tetanus, depending on the frequency of action potentials. In skeletal muscles, muscle tension is at its greatest when the muscle is stretched to an intermediate length as described by the length-tension relationship. Unlike skeletal muscle, the contractions of smooth and cardiac muscles are myogenic (meaning that they are initiated by the smooth or heart muscle cells themselves instead of being stimulated by an outside event such as nerve stimulation), although they can be modulated by stimuli from the autonomic nervous system. The mechanisms of contraction in these muscle tissues are similar to those in skeletal muscle tissues.

Sarcomere is the complicated unit of striated muscle tissue. It is the repeating unit between two Z lines. Skeletal muscles are composed of tubular muscle cells (myocytes called muscle fibers or myofibers) which are formed in a process known as myogenesis. Muscle fibers contain numerous tubular myofibrils. Myofibrils are composed of repeating sections of sarcomeres, which appear under the microscope as alternating dark and light bands. Sarcomeres are composed of long, fibrous proteins as filaments that slide past each other when a muscle contracts or relaxes. The costamere is a different component that connects the sarcomere to the sarcolemma. Two of the important proteins are myosin, which forms the thick filament, and actin, which forms the thin filament. Myosin has a long, fibrous tail and a globular head, which binds to actin. The myosin head also binds to ATP, which is the source of energy for muscle movement. Myosin can only bind to actin when the binding sites on actin are exposed by calcium ions. Actin molecules are bound to the Z line, which forms the borders of the sarcomere. Other bands appear when the sarcomere is relaxed. A muscle fiber from a biceps muscle may contain 100,000 sarcomeres. The myofibrils of smooth muscle cells are not arranged into sarcomeres.

Lower Motor Neuron are motor neurons located in either the anterior grey column, anterior nerve roots (spinal lower motor neurons) or the cranial nerve nuclei of the brainstem and cranial nerves with motor function (cranial nerve lower motor neurons). All voluntary movement relies on spinal lower motor neurons, which innervate skeletal muscle fibers and act as a link between upper motor neurons and muscles. Cranial nerve lower motor neurons control movements of the eyes, face and tongue, and contribute to chewing, swallowing and vocalization. Damage to the lower motor neurons can lead to flaccid paralysis, absent deep tendon reflexes and muscle atrophy.

Twitching can occur after physical activity because lactic acid accumulates in the muscles used during exercise. It most often affects the arms, legs, and back. Muscle twitches caused by stress and anxiety are often called “nervous ticks.”

Muscle Cramp - Charley Horse - Muscle Injuries - Soreness from Exercise

Elastic Energy is the potential mechanical energy stored in the configuration of a material or physical system as work is performed to distort its volume or shape. Elastic energy occurs when objects are compressed and stretched, or generally deformed in any manner. Elasticity theory primarily develops formalisms for the mechanics of solid bodies and materials. Elastic Energy Storage in Shoulder.

Lungs - Breathing

Respiratory System is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for the process of respiration in an organism. The respiratory system is involved in the intake and exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between an organism and the environment. In air-breathing vertebrates like human beings, respiration takes place in the respiratory organs called Lungs. The passage of air into the lungs to supply the body with oxygen is known as inhalation, and the passage of air out of the lungs to expel carbon dioxide is known as exhalation; this process is collectively called breathing or ventilation. In humans and other mammals, the anatomical features of the respiratory system include trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, lungs, and diaphragm. Molecules of oxygen and carbon dioxide are passively exchanged, by diffusion, between the gaseous external environment and the blood. This exchange process occurs in the alveoli (air sacs) in the lungs. 79% of each breath is simply exhaled without being absorbed by your lungs.

VO2 max - Focused Breathing - Pulse Oximetry (O2 Measuring).

Respiration in physiology is defined as the movement of oxygen from the outside environment to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. The physiological definition of respiration differs from the biochemical definition, which refers to cellular respiration, a metabolic process by which an organism obtains energy (in the form of ATP) by oxidizing nutrients and releasing waste products. Although physiologic respiration is necessary to sustain cellular respiration and thus life in animals, the processes are distinct: cellular respiration takes place in individual cells of the organism, while physiologic respiration concerns the diffusion and transport of metabolites between the organism and the external environment. In animals with lungs, physiological respiration involves respiratory cycles of inhaled and exhaled breaths. Inhalation (breathing in) is usually an active movement. The contraction of the diaphragm muscle cause a pressure variation, which is equal to the pressures caused by elastic, resistive and inertial components of the respiratory system. In contrast, exhalation (breathing out) is usually a passive process. Breathing in, brings air into the lungs where the process of gas exchange takes place between the air in the alveoli and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries. The process of breathing does not fill the alveoli with atmospheric air during each inhalation (about 350 ml per breath), but the inhaled air is carefully diluted and thoroughly mixed with a large volume of gas (about 2.5 liters in adult humans) known as the functional residual capacity which remains in the lungs after each exhalation, and whose gaseous composition differs markedly from that of the ambient air. Physiological respiration involves the mechanisms that ensure that the composition of the functional residual capacity is kept constant, and equilibrates with the gases dissolved in the pulmonary capillary blood, and thus throughout the body. Thus, in precise usage, the words breathing and ventilation are hyponyms, not synonyms, of respiration; but this prescription is not consistently followed, even by most health care providers, because the term respiratory rate (RR) is a well-established term in health care, even though it would need to be consistently replaced with ventilation rate if the precise usage were to be followed.

Spirometer or Pulmonary Function Testing is an apparatus for measuring the volume of air inspired and expired by the lungs. A spirometer measures ventilation, the movement of air into and out of the lungs. The spirogram will identify two different types of abnormal ventilation patterns, obstructive and restrictive. There are various types of spirometers which use a number of different methods for measurement (pressure transducers, ultrasonic, water gauge).

Pulmonary Function Testing evaluation of the Respiratory System.

Plethysmograph measures the functional residual capacity (FRC) of the lungs.

Functional Residual Capacity is the volume of air present in the lungs at the end of passive expiration.

5-minute workout with Inspiratory Muscle Strength Training improves Blood Pressure, may Boost Brain Function.

Empty Nose Syndrome is people who have clear nasal passages experience a range of symptoms, most commonly feelings of nasal obstruction, nasal dryness and crusting, and a sensation of being unable to breathe. Otorhinolaryngology ear, nose, and throat (ENT).

Airway Resistance is the resistance of the respiratory tract to airflow during inspiration and expiration. Airway resistance can be measured using body plethysmography, which is an instrument for measuring changes in volume within an organ or whole body (usually resulting from fluctuations in the amount of blood or air it contains).

Asthma is a common long term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs. Congestion (Colds)

Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome is a sleep disorder characterized by airway resistance to breathing during sleep.

Lung Volumes refer to the volume of air associated with different phases of the respiratory cycle. Lung volumes are directly measured; lung capacities are inferred from lung volumes. The average total lung capacity of an adult human male is about 6 litres of air. Tidal breathing is normal, resting breathing; the tidal volume is the volume of air that is inhaled or exhaled in only a single such breath. The average human respiratory rate is 30-60 breaths per minute at birth, decreasing to 12-20 breaths per minute in adults.

Lungs are the primary organs of respiration in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails. In mammals and most other vertebrates, two lungs are located near the backbone on either side of the heart. Their function in the respiratory system is to extract oxygen from the atmosphere and transfer it into the bloodstream, and to release carbon dioxide from the bloodstream into the atmosphere, in a process of gas exchange. Respiration is driven by different muscular systems in different species. Mammals, reptiles and birds use their musculoskeletal systems to support and foster breathing. In early tetrapods, air was driven into the lungs by the pharyngeal muscles via buccal pumping, a mechanism still seen in amphibians. In humans, the primary muscle that drives breathing is the diaphragm. The lungs also provide airflow that makes vocal sounds including human speech possible. Humans have two lungs, a right lung and a left lung. They are situated within the thoracic cavity of the chest. The right lung is bigger than the left, which shares space in the chest with the heart. The lungs together weigh approximately 1.3 kilograms (2.9 lb), and the right is heavier. The lungs are part of the lower respiratory tract that begins at the trachea and branches into the bronchi and bronchioles and which receive air breathed in via the conducting zone. These divide until air reaches microscopic alveoli, where the process of gas exchange takes place. Together, the lungs contain approximately 2,400 kilometres (1,500 mi) of airways and 300 to 500 million alveoli. The lungs are enclosed within the pleural sac which allows the inner and outer walls to slide over each other whilst breathing takes place, without much friction. This sac encloses each lung and also divides each lung into sections called lobes. The right lung has three lobes and the left has two. The lobes are further divided into bronchopulmonary segments and lobules. The lungs have a unique blood supply, receiving deoxygenated blood sent from the heart for the purposes of receiving oxygen (the pulmonary circulation) and a separate supply of oxygenated blood (the bronchial circulation).The tissue of the lungs can be affected by a number of diseases, including pneumonia and lung cancer. Chronic diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema can be related to smoking or exposure to harmful substances. Diseases such as bronchitis can also affect the respiratory tract. In embryonic development, the lungs begin to develop as an outpouching of the foregut, a tube which goes on to form the upper part of the digestive system. When the lungs are formed the fetus is held in the fluid-filled amniotic sac and so they do not function to breathe. Blood is also diverted from the lungs through the ductus arteriosus. At birth however, air begins to pass through the lungs, and the diversionary duct closes, so that the lungs can begin to respire. The lungs only fully develop in early childhood.

Pulmonary Alveolus is a hollow cup-shaped cavity found in the lung parenchyma where gas exchange takes place. Lung alveoli are found in the acini at the beginning of the respiratory zone. They are located sparsely on the respiratory bronchioles, line the walls of the alveolar ducts, and are more numerous in the blind-ended alveolar sacs. The acini are the basic units of respiration, with gas exchange taking place in all the alveoli present. The alveolar membrane is the gas exchange surface, surrounded by a network of capillaries. Across the membrane oxygen is diffused into the capillaries and carbon dioxide released from the capillaries into the alveoli to be breathed out. Alveoli are particular to mammalian lungs. Different structures are involved in gas exchange in other vertebrates. Lungs of Birds are relatively small, but are connected to 8 or 9 air sacs that extend through much of the body, and are in turn connected to air spaces within the bones. On inhalation, air travels through the trachea of a bird into the air sacs. Air then travels continuously from the air sacs at the back, through the lungs, which are relatively fixed in size, to the air sacs at the front. From here, the air is exhaled. These fixed size lungs are called "circulatory lungs", as distinct from the "bellows-type lungs" found in most other animals. Blood–Air Barrier exists in the gas exchanging region of the lungs. It exists to prevent air bubbles from forming in the blood, and from blood entering the alveoli. It is formed by the type 1 pneumocytes of the alveolar wall, the endothelial cells of the capillaries and the basement membrane between the two cells. The barrier is permeable to molecular oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and many other gases.

Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis is a type of chronic Lung Disease characterized by a progressive and irreversible decline in lung function. Symptoms typically include gradual onset of shortness of breath and a dry cough. Other changes may include feeling tired and nail clubbing. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a type of lung disease that results in scarring (fibrosis) of the lungs for an unknown reason. Over time, the scarring gets worse and it becomes hard to take in a deep breath and the lungs cannot take in enough oxygen. Complications may include pulmonary hypertension, heart failure, pneumonia, or pulmonary embolism. The cause is unknown. Risk factors include a cigarette smoking, certain viral infections, and a family history of the condition. The underlying mechanism involves scarring of the lungs. Diagnosis requires ruling out other potential causes and may be supported by a CT scan or lung biopsy. It is a type of interstitial lung disease (ILD). People often benefit from pulmonary rehabilitation and supplemental oxygen. Certain medications like pirfenidone or nintedanib may slow the progression of the disease. Lung transplantation may also be an option. About 5 million people are affected globally. The disease newly occurs in about 12 per 100,000 people per year. Those in their 60s and 70s are most commonly affected. Males are affected more often than females. Average life expectancy following diagnosis is about four years. Dentists and people who work in their offices are exposed to a specific set of  hazards, particularly silica, polyvinyl siloxane, alginate and other toxic substances that can be inhaled when they're polishing dental appliances or preparing amalgams.

Cystic Fibrosis is a genetic disorder that affects mostly the lungs, but also the pancreas, liver, kidneys, and intestine. Long-term issues include difficulty breathing and coughing up mucus as a result of frequent lung infections. Other signs and symptoms may include sinus infections, poor growth, fatty stool, clubbing of the fingers and toes, and infertility in most males. Different people may have different degrees of symptoms. Pneumonia.

Potential cystic fibrosis treatment uses 'molecular prosthetic' for missing lung protein. An approved drug normally used to treat fungal infections could also do the job of a protein channel that is missing or dysfunctional in the lungs of people with cystic fibrosis, operating as a prosthesis on the molecular scale, says new research.

Silicosis is a lung disease. It usually happens in jobs where you breathe in dust that contains silica. That's a tiny crystal found in sand, rock, or mineral ores like quartz. Over time, silica can build up in your lungs and breathing passages. This leads to scarring that makes it hard to breathe.

Surprising New Role for Lungs: Making Blood.

Tracheal Tube is a catheter that is inserted into the trachea for the primary purpose of establishing and maintaining a patent airway and to ensure the adequate exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Many different types of tracheal tubes are available, suited for different specific applications: An endotracheal tube is a specific type of tracheal tube that is nearly always inserted through the mouth (orotracheal) or nose (nasotracheal). A tracheostomy tube is another type of tracheal tube; this 2–3-inch-long (51–76 mm) curved metal or plastic tube may be inserted into a tracheostomy stoma (following a tracheotomy) to maintain a patent lumen. A tracheal button is a rigid plastic cannula about 1 inch in length that can be placed into the tracheostomy after removal of a tracheostomy tube to maintain patency of the lumen. Misplaced Breathing Tubes can cause death.

Ventilator is a machine designed to provide mechanical ventilation by moving breathable air into and out of the lungs, to deliver breaths to a patient who is physically unable to breathe, or breathing insufficiently. While modern ventilators are computerized machines, patients can be ventilated with a simple, hand-operated bag valve mask. Ventilators are chiefly used in intensive care medicine, home care, and emergency medicine (as standalone units) and in anesthesiology (as a component of an anesthesia machine). Medical ventilators are sometimes colloquially called "respirators", a term stemming from commonly used devices in the 1950s (particularly the "Bird Respirator"). However, in modern hospital and medical terminology, these machines are never referred to as respirators, and use of "respirator" in this context is now a deprecated anachronism signaling technical unfamiliarity. In the present-day medical field, the word "respirator" refers to a protective face mask.

Sharing of Ventilators - Ventilator sharing has been explored in a few scientific studies and has been used twice in crisis situations. COVID-19 How to Use One Ventilator to Save Multiple Lives (youtube).

Mechanical Ventilation is the medical term for artificial ventilation where mechanical means are used to assist or replace spontaneous breathing. This may involve a machine called a ventilator, or the breathing may be assisted manually by a suitably qualified professional, such as an anesthesiologist, Registered Nurse, respiratory therapist, or paramedic, by compressing a bag valve mask device. Modes of Mechanical Ventilation (wiki).

Iron Lung is a mechanical respirator which enables a person to breathe on his or her own in a normal manner, when muscle control is lost, or the work of breathing exceeds the person's ability. Need for this treatment may result from certain diseases (e.g. polio, botulism) and certain poisons (e.g. barbiturates, tubocurarine).

Artificial Ventilation is means of assisting or stimulating respiration, a metabolic process referring to the overall exchange of gases in the body by pulmonary ventilation, external respiration, and internal respiration. It may take the form of manually providing air for a person who is not breathing or is not making sufficient respiratory effort, or it may be mechanical ventilation involving the use of a mechanical ventilator to move air in and out of the lungs when an individual is unable to breathe on their own, for example during surgery with general anesthesia or when an individual is in a coma. CPAP - Dyson Designs Ventilator in 10 Days for COVID-19 Patients.

An analysis of pulmonary function in different lying positions. (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC, FEV1/FVC), vital capacity (VC), functional residual capacity (FRC), maximal expiratory pressure (PEmax), maximal inspiratory pressure (PImax), peak expiratory flow (PEF), total lung capacity (TLC), residual volume (RV), and diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO). Standing, sitting, supine, and right- and left-side lying positions were studied. DLCO. diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide. DLCO/VA. diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide divided by alveolar volume.

Positioning can have a great effect on clients with respiratory difficulties - Rolling Coronavirus Patients onto their Stomachs may save lives. Sleeping Positions.

Chest Physiotherapy are treatments generally performed by physical therapists and respiratory therapists, whereby breathing is improved by the indirect removal of mucus from the breathing passages of a patient. Other terms, include respiratory or cardio-thoracic physiotherapy. Chest Physiotherapy consists of external mechanical maneuvers, such as chest percussion, postural drainage, and vibration, to augment mobilization and clearance of airway secretions. It is indicated for patients in whom cough is insufficient to clear thick, tenacious, copious, or loculated secretions.

Running - Breathing

Women Running for Exercise Improper breathing technique can impair speed and performance. One breath for every two foot strikes taking two steps (one left, one right) while breathing in and two steps while breathing out 2:2 rhythm. Synchronizing the breath to running cadence will keep the organs from putting unnecessary pressure on the diaphragm, which can impede breathing (and make running more uncomfortable than it needs to be). There is also the 3:2 inhale-to-exhale ratio; full inhales and full exhales. This means you INHALE on the LEFT, RIGHT, LEFT foot strikes and EXHALE fully on the RIGHT, LEFT foot strikes. Aerobics - Heart Pulse Rate.

Running Websites for Runners - When starting to run, concentrate solely on form. Keep your hips, spine and neck aligned. Minimize up and down movement. Run in as straight a line as possible.

Women Run Faster after taking newly developed supplement combo of minerals and other nutrients in forms of iron, copper and zinc along with two other nutrients – carnitine (derived from an amino acid) and phosphatidylserine (made up of fatty acids and amino acids).

Sprinting is running over a short distance in a limited period of time. It is used in many sports that incorporate running, typically as a way of quickly reaching a target or goal, or avoiding or catching an opponent. Human Physiology dictates that a runner's near-top speed cannot be maintained for more than 30–35 seconds due to the depletion of phosphocreatine stores in muscles, and perhaps secondarily to excessive metabolic acidosis as a result of anaerobic glycolysis.

High Interval Training

Foot Speed is the maximum speed at which a human can run. It is affected by many factors, varies greatly throughout the population, and is important in athletics and many sports, such as association football, rugby, American football, track and field, hockey, baseball and basketball. The record was 44.72 km/h (27.8 mph), seen during the final 100 meters sprint of the World Championships in Berlin on 16 August 2009 by Usain Bolt. Action Physics.

Long Slow Distance is a form of aerobic endurance training in running and cycling. Physiological adaptations to LSD training include improved cardiovascular function, improved thermoregulatory function, improved mitochondrial energy production, increased oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle, and increased utilization of fat for fuel. Ernst van Aaken, a German physician and coach, is generally recognized as the founder of the long slow distance method of endurance training. Long slow distance training is a form of continuous training performed at a constant pace of low to moderate intensity over an extended distance or duration. The moderate training intensity of LSD is effective in improving endurance and maximum oxygen uptake in individuals who are undertrained or moderately trained. Long slow distance training is thought not to be effective when used in isolation by well-trained athletes, who in order to achieve further improvements in metabolic conditioning require higher training intensities that are not sustainable at the work durations associated with LSD.

Catch My Breath means to rest after exercise to restore normal breathing.

Out of Breath means that you are gasping for air, typically after exercise.

Winded is to have difficulty breathing because of exertion.

Gasp is to strain to take a deep breath. Inhale suddenly with the mouth open, out of pain or astonishment.

Why do I Bend Over after I Run? Slumping over is actually better for breathing. Bending over helps your diaphragm (the major breathing muscle) suck in more air. The bent over position also helps you use your abs to breathe out more forcefully, and may signal your nervous system to relax. It will also lower your heart rate more quickly than standing up with your hands behind your head. Heavy breathing during running is more of a function of getting the carbon dioxide out. Secondly, delivery of both Oxygen to the muscles and CO2 and other by products to the lungs is the issue. When you stop running, blood tends to pool in the legs because you no longer have that leg pump to help pump the blood upwards, against gravity, back to the heart. When you stop, the body has the problem of pumping blood against gravity. The reason you bend over or even lie down after hard exercise is that the body is trying make it where the heart is essentially on the same plane as the rest of the body, so that pumping the blood is easier, and not against gravity.

Why do my Lungs Burn during Strenuous Exercise? During high-intensity aerobic activities such as running, cycling, or swimming, you increase the need for oxygen, ventilation and both the rate and the depth of breathing. As a result many people experience a burning sensation in their lungs and windpipe. A variety of factors affect the degree to which people experience this sensation. If you are new to exercising and are not yet accustomed to the rigors of intense activity, you breathe through your mouth and not just your nose, so the air rushing toward your lungs tends to dry the mucus membranes in your mouth and bronchial passages, resulting in irritation and a burning sensation. This condition gets worse in cold weather. And if you are suffering from an acute condition that originates in or affects the lungs or airways, such as bronchitis, emphysema, pneumonia, asthma or strep throat, then any burning sensation you experience when breathing during exercise is apt to be exacerbated. And if you are a smoker or exercise in an environment heavy in lung irritants, such as an industrial zone, consider removing the source of the physiological distress by moving indoors or quitting smoking. If you have no health issues, with improved conditioning, you will adapt to this and feel less irritation, and the burning sensation will be minimal. Dry Mouth. (dehydration).

Nose Breathing increases circulating blood oxygen and carbon dioxide levels, which can create a more calming effect. Breathing in through the nose can also help warm the air entering the lungs. The breath should come from the diaphragm, which is the most efficient breathing muscle—not the chest. Breathing deeper, calmer, and more efficiently can also give athletes a psychological edge.

Mouth Breathing is breathing through the mouth rather than the nose. Healthy humans may breathe through their nose, their mouth, or both. During rest, breathing through the nose is common for most individuals. Breathing through both nose and mouth during exercise is also normal, a behavioral adaptation to increase air intake and hence supply more oxygen to the muscles. Mouth breathing may be called abnormal when an individual breathes through the mouth even during rest. Some sources use the term "mouth breathing habit" but this incorrectly implies that the individual is fully capable of normal nasal breathing, and is breathing through their mouth out of preference. However, in about 85% of cases, mouth breathing represents an involuntary, subconscious adaptation to reduced patency of the nasal airway, and mouth breathing is a requirement simply in order to get enough air. Chronic mouth breathing in children may have implications on dental and facial growth. It also may cause gingivitis (inflamed gums) and halitosis (bad breath), especially upon waking if mouth breathing occurs during sleeping.

Breathing through the mouth only becomes necessary when you have nasal congestion due to allergies or a cold.  In children, mouth breathing can cause crooked teeth, facial deformities, or poor growth. In adults, chronic mouth breathing can cause bad breath and gum disease. It can also worsen symptoms of other illnesses.

Rarámuri are a group of indigenous people of the Americas living in the state of Chihuahua in Mexico. They are renowned for their long-distance running ability. These people developed a tradition of long-distance running up to 200 miles (320 km) in one session, over a period of two days through their homeland of rough canyon country, for inter-village communication, transportation, and hunting. The Tarahumara word for themselves, Rarámuri, means "runners on foot" or "those who run fast" in their native tongue.

Running Upright: The minuscule movements that keep us from falling. The human body is constantly calibrating, making microscopic adjustments and corrections to keep us from falling.

Running Heel-toe or toe-heel? New research suggests there is no evidence that changing a runner's strike pattern will help prevent injuries or give them a speed boost.

Walking in Sand requires a greater effort than walking on a hard surface. Your muscles and tendons will work harder as your foot moves around. Walking at a slower pace while your feet sink in sand requires more effort than walking fast or even jogging. Sand is soft and loosely held and marshy soil is wet and slippery which reduce the friction so when we walk on the sand we push the sand with our feet but the sand yields, it does not react back with the same force because of less friction. That is why it is difficult to walk on sand or marshy land. Sand walking can be beneficial due to the added stress and strain that is placed on the muscles, tendons and joints. This instability helps to strengthen the ankle and foot muscles and enables the lower extremity to be able to move you forward. (Snowshoes or Mesh Slip-On work great on the sand. Sandals are most popular for their ease at emptying sand. Barefoot). Beach Volleyball (wiki).

Exercises - Breathing

Bench Press Breathing Tip: Exhale slowly and continuously while pressing the bar, then inhale at the top of the lift or on the return. Some say you should always exhale on exertion. For example, when you are pushing a bench press off your chest, you exhale on the push and inhale as you bring it slowly to your chest.

Pull-Up Breathing Tip: You exhale on the pulling up motion and inhale on the way down. "Inhale on the less strenuous phase of the exercise, and exhale on the more demanding phase of the exercise.

How to Breathe in every type Exercise
Breathing while Exercising

Breathalyzers - Vitals

Correct Workout Breathing Techniques for Better Results ! (youtube)
Breathing Techniques During Exercise | Day #10 WellFit 365 (youtube)

Stretching and Yoga
Breathing Exercises for Stress Relief

POWERbreathe - How it Works (youtube)

Breathe Strong Faqs
Power Lung

Shallow Breathing thoracic breathing, or chest breathing is the drawing of minimal breath into the lungs, usually by drawing air into the chest area using the intercostal muscles rather than throughout the lungs via the diaphragm. Shallow breathing can result in or be symptomatic of rapid breathing and hypoventilation. Most people who breathe shallowly do it throughout the day and are almost always unaware of the condition. In upper lobar breathing, clavicular breathing, or clavicle breathing air is drawn predominantly into the chest by the raising of the shoulders and collarbone (clavicles), and simultaneous contracting of the abdomen during inhalation. Maximum amount of air can be drawn this way only for short periods of time, since it requires a lot of effort. When used for prolonged time, this is the most superficial mode of shallow breathing.

Hypoventilation occurs when ventilation is inadequate (hypo meaning "below") to perform needed gas exchange. By definition it causes an increased concentration of carbon dioxide (hypercapnia) and respiratory acidosis. Hypoventilation is not synonymous with respiratory arrest, in which breathing ceases entirely and death occurs within minutes due to hypoxia and leads rapidly into complete anoxia, although both are medical emergencies. Hypoventilation can be considered a precursor to hypoxia and its lethality is attributed to hypoxia with carbon dioxide toxicity.

Oxygen - High Intensity Training - Breathing Hard

Red Blood Cell delivers oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.

Aerobic Organism is an organism that can survive and grow in an oxygenated environment. Aerobic Exercising.
Anaerobic Organism is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth. Some anaerobes react negatively or even die if oxygen is present.

VO2 Max is the maximum rate of oxygen consumption measured during incremental exercise (exercise of increasing intensity). The name is derived from V - volume, O2 - Oxygen, max - maximum. Maximal oxygen consumption reflects the cardiorespiratory fitness of an individual and is an important determinant of their endurance capacity during prolonged exercise. Accurately measuring VO2 max involves a physical effort sufficient in duration and intensity to fully tax the aerobic energy system. In general clinical and athletic testing, this usually involves a graded exercise test (either on a treadmill or on a cycle ergometer) in which exercise intensity is progressively increased while measuring: ventilation and oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration of the inhaled and exhaled air. VO2 max is reached when oxygen consumption remains at a steady state despite an increase in workload. he average untrained healthy male will have a VO2 max of approximately 35–40 mL/(kg·min).

vVO2 Max is an intense running or swimming pace. This is the minimum speed for which the organism's maximal oxygen uptake is reached (after a few minutes of exercise at this intensity); at higher paces, additional power is entirely delivered by anaerobic processes. At this pace, blood lactate in the muscles reaches levels around 8-10 mM. Vitals.

Mitochondrial Biogenesis is the process by which cells increase their individual mitochondrial mass and copy number to increase the production of ATP as a response to greater energy expenditure. It was first described by John Holloszy in the 1960s, when it was discovered that physical endurance training induced higher mitochondrial content levels, leading to greater glucose uptake by muscles. Mitochondrial biogenesis is activated by numerous different signals during times of cellular stress or in response to environmental stimuli, such as aerobic exercise.

Wingate Test is an anaerobic exercise test, most often performed on a stationary bicycle, that measures peak anaerobic power and anaerobic capacity. The test, which can also be performed on an arm crank ergometer, consists of a set time pedaling at maximum speed against a given resistance. Lungs - Hyperbaric Medicine.

Anaerobic Exercise Tests are divided into tests measuring anaerobic power and anaerobic capacity. Anaerobic power tests include force-velocity tests, vertical jump tests, staircase tests, and cycle ergometer tests. The values of maximal anaerobic power obtained with these different protocols are different but generally well correlated. Differences between tests include factors such as whether average power or instantaneous power is measured, active muscle mass is the same in all the protocols, the legs act simultaneously or successively, maximal power is measured at the very beginning of exercise or after several seconds, inertia of the devices and body segments are taken into account. Force-velocity tests have the advantage of enabling the estimation of the force and velocity components of power, which is not possible with tests such as a staircase test, a vertical jump, the Wingate test and other long-duration cycle ergometer protocols. Maximal anaerobic capacity tests are subdivided into maximal oxygen debt test, ergometric tests (all-out tests and constant load tests), measurement of oxygen deficit during a constant load test and measurement of peak blood lactate. The measurement of the maximal oxygen debt is not valid and reliable enough to be used as an anaerobic capacity test. The aerobic metabolism involvement during anaerobic capacity tests, and the ignorance of the mechanical efficiency, limit the validity of the ergometric tests which are only based on the measurement of work. The amount of work performed during the Wingate test depends probably on glycolytic and aerobic power as well as anaerobic capacity. The fatigue index (power decrease) of the all-out tests is not reliable and depends probably on aerobic power as well as the fast-twich fibre percentage. Reliability of the constant load tests has seldom been studied and has been found to be rather low. In theory, the measure of the oxygen deficit during a constant load test is more valid than the other tests but its reliability is unknown. The validity and reliability of postexercise blood lactate as a test of maximal anaerobic capacity are probably not better than that of the current erogmetric tests. The choice of an anaerobic test depends on the aims and subjects of a study and its practicability within a testing session.

Anaerobic Exercise is a physical exercise intense enough to cause Lactate to form. It is used by athletes in non-endurance sports to promote strength, speed and power and by body builders to build muscle mass. Muscle energy systems trained using anaerobic exercise develop differently compared to aerobic exercise, leading to greater performance in short duration, high intensity activities, which last from mere seconds to up to about 2 minutes. Any activity lasting longer than about two minutes has a large aerobic metabolic component. Anaerobic metabolism is a natural part of whole-body metabolic energy expenditure. Fast twitch muscle (as compared to slow twitch muscle) operates using anaerobic metabolic systems, such that any recruitment of fast twich muscle fibers leads to increased anaerobic energy expenditure. Intense exercise lasting upwards of about four minutes (e.g., a mile race) may still have a considerable anaerobic energy expenditure component. High-intensity interval training, although based on aerobic exercises like running, cycling and rowing, effectively becomes anaerobic when performed in excess of 90% maximum heart rate. Anaerobic energy expenditure is difficult to accurately quantify, although several reasonable methods to estimate the anaerobic component to exercise are available. Aerobic Organism.

Anaerobic Respiration is respiration using electron acceptors other than molecular oxygen (O2). Although oxygen is not used as the final electron acceptor, the process still uses a respiratory electron transport chain called physolmere; it is respiration without oxygen. In aerobic organisms undergoing respiration, electrons are shuttled to an electron transport chain, and the final electron acceptor is oxygen. Molecular oxygen is a highly oxidizing agent and, therefore, is an excellent electron acceptor. In anaerobes, other less-oxidizing substances such as sulfate (SO42−), nitrate (NO3−), sulphur (S), or fumarate are used. These terminal electron acceptors have smaller reduction potentials than O2, meaning that less energy is released per oxidized molecule. Therefore, generally speaking, anaerobic respiration is less efficient than aerobic.

High-Intensity Interval Training is a form of interval training, a cardiovascular exercise strategy alternating short periods of intense anaerobic exercise with less intense recovery periods. HIIT is the concept where one performs a short burst of high-intensity (or max-intensity) exercise followed by a brief low-intensity activity, repeatedly, until too exhausted to continue. Though there is no universal HIIT session duration, these intense workouts typically last under 30 minutes, with times varying based on a participant's current fitness level. Sprinting. Interval training may shed more pounds than continuous moderate intensity workout. And sprint interval training may be most effective for weight loss, the analysis indicates. High Intensity Interval Training alternates between high-intensity and low-intensity exercise. For example, sprinting for 30-seconds, then walking for 60-seconds is high intensity interval training. HIIT can be used both anaerobically in the gym with weights and aerobically with cardio.

High Intensity Training is a form of strength training that focuses on performing quality weight training repetitions to the point of momentary muscular failure. The training takes into account the number of repetitions, the amount of weight, and the amount of time the muscle is exposed to tension in order to maximize the amount of muscle fiber recruitment.

Threshold Training is a physical exercise intense enough to cause lactate to form. It is used by athletes in non-endurance sports to promote strength, speed and power and by body builders to build muscle mass. Muscle energy systems trained using anaerobic exercise develop differently compared to aerobic exercise, leading to greater performance in short duration, high intensity activities, which last from mere seconds to up to about 2 minutes. Any activity lasting longer than about two minutes has a large aerobic metabolic component.

Plyometrics are exercises in which muscles exert maximum force in short intervals of time, with the goal of increasing power (speed-strength). This training focuses on learning to move from a muscle extension to a contraction in a rapid or "explosive" manner, such as in specialized repeated jumping. Plyometrics are primarily used by athletes, especially martial artists, sprinters and high jumpers, to improve performance, and are used in the fitness field to a much lesser degree. (also known as "jump training" or "plyos").

Slow Heart Rate - Athletic Heart Syndrome - Bradycardia

Vigorous Exercise, Fasting and Hormones improve elimination of toxic, misfolded, unnecessary proteins in mouse and human cells.

Humans Need Oxygen to Live, but Oxygen can also Hurt Us

Oxygen Toxicity is a condition resulting from the harmful effects of breathing molecular oxygen or O2 at increased partial pressures. CO2 - Atmosphere Knowledge.

Anaerobic Organism is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth. It may react negatively or even die if free oxygen is present. In contrast, an aerobic organism or aerobe is an organism that requires an oxygenated environment.

Reactive Oxygen Species are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen. Examples include peroxides, superoxide, hydroxyl radical, and singlet oxygen. A type of unstable molecule that contains oxygen and that easily reacts with
other molecules in a cell. A build up of reactive oxygen species in cells may cause damage to DNA, RNA, and proteins, and may cause cell death. Reactive oxygen species are free radicals. Also called oxygen radical.

Oxidative Stress reflects an imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species and a biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage. Disturbances in the normal redox state of cells can cause toxic effects through the production of peroxides and free radicals that damage all components of the cell, including proteins, lipids, and DNA. Oxidative stress from oxidative metabolism causes base damage, as well as strand breaks in DNA. Base damage is mostly indirect and caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated, e.g. O2- (superoxide radical), OH (hydroxyl radical) and H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide). Further, some reactive oxidative species act as cellular messengers in redox signaling. Thus, oxidative stress can cause disruptions in normal mechanisms of cellular signaling. In humans, oxidative stress is thought to be involved in the development of ADHD, cancer, Parkinson's disease, Lafora disease, Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis, heart failure, myocardial infarction, fragile X syndrome, sickle-cell disease, lichen planus, vitiligo, autism, infection, chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), and depression and seems to be characteristic of individuals with Asperger syndrome. However, reactive oxygen species can be beneficial, as they are used by the immune system as a way to attack and kill pathogens. Short-term oxidative stress may also be important in prevention of aging by induction of a process named mitohormesis.

Antioxidant is a molecule that inhibits the oxidation of other molecules.

Radical is an atom, molecule, or ion that has unpaired valence electrons. Mitochondria.

Hypoxemia is an abnormally low level of oxygen in the blood. More specifically, it is oxygen deficiency in arterial blood. Hypoxemia has many causes, often respiratory disorders, and can cause tissue hypoxia as the blood is not supplying enough oxygen to the body.

Hypoxia is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level. Hypoxia may be classified as either generalized, affecting the whole body, or local, affecting a region of the body. Although hypoxia is often a pathological condition, variations in arterial oxygen concentrations can be part of the normal physiology, for example, during hypoventilation training or strenuous physical exercise. Hypoxia differs from hypoxemia and anoxemia in that hypoxia refers to a state in which oxygen supply is insufficient, whereas hypoxemia and anoxemia refer specifically to states that have low or zero arterial oxygen supply. Hypoxia in which there is complete deprivation of oxygen supply is referred to as anoxia. Generalized hypoxia occurs in healthy people when they ascend to high altitude, where it causes altitude sickness leading to potentially fatal complications: high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and high altitude cerebral edema (HACE). Hypoxia also occurs in healthy individuals when breathing mixtures of gases with a low oxygen content, e.g. while diving underwater especially when using closed-circuit rebreather systems that control the amount of oxygen in the supplied air. Mild, non-damaging intermittent hypoxia is used intentionally during altitude training to develop an athletic performance adaptation at both the systemic and cellular level. Hypoxia is a common complication of preterm birth in newborn infants. Because the lungs develop late in pregnancy, premature infants frequently possess underdeveloped lungs. To improve lung function, doctors frequently place infants at risk of hypoxia inside incubators (also known as humidicribs) that provide continuous positive airway pressure. Almost all the oxygen in the blood is bound to Hemoglobin, so interfering with this carrier molecule limits oxygen delivery to the periphery. Hemoglobin increases the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood by about 40-fold, with the ability of hemoglobin to carry oxygen influenced by the partial pressure of oxygen in the environment, a relationship described in the oxygen–hemoglobin dissociation curve. When the ability of hemoglobin to carry oxygen is interfered with, a hypoxic state can result.

How cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability. William G. Kaelin Jr., Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe and Gregg L. Semenza discovered how cells can sense and adapt to changing oxygen availability. They identified molecular machinery that regulates the activity of genes in response to varying levels of oxygen. A key physiological response to hypoxia is the rise in levels of the hormone erythropoietin (EPO), which leads to increased production of red blood cells (erythropoiesis). When oxygen levels are high, cells contain very little HIF-1a. However, when oxygen levels are low, the amount of HIF-1a increases so that it can bind to and thus regulate the EPO gene as well as other genes with HIF-binding DNA segments.

Animal that doesn’t need oxygen to survive. The tiny, less than 10-celled parasite Henneguya salminicola lives in salmon muscle. As it evolved, the animal, which is a myxozoan relative of jellyfish and corals, gave up breathing and consuming oxygen to produce energy. A multicellular organism has been found that has no mitochondrial genome. According to scientists, life started to develop the ability to metabolise oxygen sometimes over 1.45 billion years ago. A larger archaeon engulfing a smaller bacterium, resulted in a symbiotic relationship and eventually those bacteria ensconced within became organelles called mitochondria. Every cell in our body (except red blood cells) has large numbers of mitochondria, which are essential for respiration process as they break down oxygen to produce molecule called adenosine triphosphate, which is used by the multicellular organisms to power cellular processes.

Ozone is a colorless unstable toxic gas with a pungent odor and powerful oxidizing properties, formed from oxygen by electrical discharges or ultraviolet light. It differs from normal oxygen (O2) in having three atoms in its molecule (O3). Trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula O3. It is a pale blue gas with a distinctively pungent smell. It is an allotrope of oxygen that is much less stable than the diatomic allotrope O2, breaking down in the lower atmosphere to O2 (dioxygen). Ozone is formed from dioxygen by the action of ultraviolet light (UV) and electrical discharges within the Earth's atmosphere. It is present in very low concentrations throughout the latter, with its highest concentration high in the ozone layer of the stratosphere, which absorbs most of the Sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Ozone's odour is reminiscent of chlorine, and detectable by many people at concentrations of as little as 0.1 ppm in air. Ozone's O3 structure was determined in 1865. The molecule was later proven to have a bent structure and to be diamagnetic. In standard conditions, ozone is a pale blue gas that condenses at progressively cryogenic temperatures to a dark blue liquid and finally a violet-black solid. Ozone's instability with regard to more common dioxygen is such that both concentrated gas and liquid ozone may decompose explosively at elevated temperatures or fast warming to the boiling point. It is therefore used commercially only in low concentrations. Ozone is a powerful oxidant (far more so than dioxygen) and has many industrial and consumer applications related to oxidation. This same high oxidising potential, however, causes ozone to damage mucous and respiratory tissues in animals, and also tissues in plants, above concentrations of about 0.1 ppm. While this makes ozone a potent respiratory hazard and pollutant near ground level, a higher concentration in the ozone layer (from two to eight ppm) is beneficial, preventing damaging UV light from reaching the Earth's surface.

Oxygen Therapy is the use of oxygen as a medical treatment. This can include for low blood oxygen, carbon monoxide toxicity, cluster headaches, and to maintain enough oxygen while inhaled anesthetics are given. Long-term oxygen is often useful in people with chronically low oxygen such as from severe COPD or cystic fibrosis. Oxygen can be given in a number of ways including nasal cannula, face mask, and inside a hyperbaric chamber. Oxygen is required for normal cell metabolism. Excessively high concentrations can cause oxygen toxicity such as lung damage or result in respiratory failure in those who are predisposed. Higher oxygen concentrations also increase the risk of fires, particularly while smoking, and without humidification can also dry out the nose. The target oxygen saturation recommended depends on the condition being treated. In most conditions a saturation of 94–96% is recommended, while in those at risk of carbon dioxide retention saturations of 88–92% are preferred, and in those with carbon monoxide toxicity or cardiac arrest they should be as high as possible. Air is typically 21% oxygen by volume while oxygen therapy increases this by some amount up to 100%. The use of oxygen in medicine became common around 1917. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The cost of home oxygen is about US$150 a month in Brazil and US$400 a month in the United States. Home oxygen can be provided either by oxygen tanks or an oxygen concentrator. Oxygen is believed to be the most common treatment given in hospitals in the developed world.

Oxygen Concentrator is a device that concentrates the oxygen from a gas supply or ambient air by selectively removing nitrogen to supply an oxygen-enriched product gas stream. Clean dry air at sea level is made up of approximately 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 0.9% argon, 0.03% carbon dioxide, and a combination of 12 other elements in minute traces. Supplemental oxygen increases the percentage of oxygen in each breath. Instead of inhaling 21% oxygen, you will be adding a supplement of 87% to 95% oxygen to each breath you take. Normal lungs usually only absorb about 20% of the air they breathe in, the other 80% is exhaled.

Altitude Sickness or the mildest form of acute mountain sickness, is the negative health effect of high altitude, caused by rapid exposure to low amounts of oxygen at high elevation. Symptoms may include headaches, vomiting, tiredness, trouble sleeping, and dizziness. Acute mountain sickness can progress to high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) with associated shortness of breath or high altitude cerebral edema (HACE) with associated confusion. Chronic mountain sickness may occur after long term exposure to high altitude. Altitude sickness typically occurs only above 2,500 metres (8,000 ft), though some are affected at lower altitudes. Risk factors include a prior episode of altitude sickness, a high degree of activity, and a rapid increase in elevation.Diagnosis is based on symptoms and is supported in those who have more than a minor reduction in activities. It is recommended that at high-altitude any symptoms of headache, nausea, shortness of breath, or vomiting be assumed to be altitude sickness. Prevention is by gradually increasing elevation by no more than 300 metres (1,000 ft) per day. Being physically fit does not decrease the risk. Treatment is generally by descending to a lower altitude and sufficient fluids. Mild cases may be helped by ibuprofen, acetazolamide, or dexamethasone. Severe cases may benefit from oxygen therapy and a portable hyperbaric bag may be used if descent is not possible. Treatment efforts, however, have not been well studied. AMS occurs in about 20% of people after rapidly going to 2,500 metres (8,000 ft) and 40% of people going to 3,000 metres (10,000 ft). While AMS and HACE occurs equally frequently in males and females, HAPE occurs more often in males. The earliest description of altitude sickness is attributed to a Chinese text from around 30 BCE which describes "Big Headache Mountains" possibly referring to the Karakoram Mountains around Kilik Pass.

Oxygen Enrichment. Increased water intake may also help in acclimatization to replace the fluids lost through heavier breathing in the thin, dry air found at altitude, although consuming excessive quantities ("over-hydration") has no benefits and may cause dangerous hyponatremia. The only reliable treatment, and in many cases the only option available, is to descend. Attempts to treat or stabilize the patient in situ (at altitude) are dangerous unless highly controlled and with good medical facilities. However, the following treatments have been used when the patient's location and circumstances permit: Oxygen may be used for mild to moderate AMS below 3,700 metres (12,000 ft) and is commonly provided by physicians at mountain resorts. Symptoms abate in 12 to 36 hours without the need to descend. For more serious cases of AMS, or where rapid descent is impractical, a Gamow bag, a portable plastic hyperbaric chamber inflated with a foot pump, can be used to reduce the effective altitude by as much as 1,500 m (5,000 ft). A Gamow bag is generally used only as an aid to evacuate severe AMS patients, not to treat them at altitude. Acetazolamide 250 mg twice daily dosing assists in AMS treatment by quickening altitude acclimatization. A study by the Denali Medical Research Project concluded: "In established cases of acute mountain sickness, treatment with acetazolamide relieves symptoms, improves arterial oxygenation, and prevents further impairment of pulmonary gas exchange." The folk remedy for altitude sickness in Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia is a tea made from the coca plant. See mate de coca. Steroids can be used to treat the symptoms of pulmonary or cerebral edema, but do not treat the underlying AMS. Two studies in 2012 showed that Ibuprofen 600 milligrams three times daily was effective at decreasing the severity and incidence of AMS; it was not clear if HAPE or HACE was affected. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) has also shown to be as good as ibuprofen for altitude sickness when tested on climbers ascending Everest.

Acetazolamide is a medication used to treat glaucoma, epilepsy, altitude sickness, periodic paralysis, idiopathic intracranial hypertension (raised brain pressure of unclear cause), and heart failure. It may be used long term for the treatment of open angle glaucoma and short term for acute angle closure glaucoma until surgery can be carried out. It is taken by mouth or injection into a vein. Common side effects include numbness, ringing in the ears, loss of appetite, vomiting, and sleepiness. It is not recommended in those with significant kidney problems, liver problems, or who are allergic to sulfonamides. Acetazolamide is in the diuretic and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor families of medication. It works by decreasing the amount of hydrogen ions and bicarbonate in the body. Acetazolamide came into medical use in 1952. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system. Acetazolamide is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the developing world is about US$1.40–16.93 per month. In the United States the wholesale cost is about US$125.34 per month. Sold under the trade name Diamox among others. Acetazolamide is a prescription drug that increases a person's breathing rate so that more oxygen is taken in. It helps the body adjust to higher altitudes more quickly and reduces minor symptoms of altitude sickness. A 15- or 20-minute dose of O2 can help alleviate mild symptoms of acute altitude sickness—fatigue, shortness of breath, headache, and nausea—that many people suffer from in mountain environments.

Dizzy - Head Spins - Fainting

Lightheadedness is a common and typically unpleasant sensation of dizziness and/or a feeling that one may faint. The sensation of lightheadedness can be short-lived, prolonged, or, rarely, recurring. In addition to dizziness, the individual may feel as though his or her head is weightless. The individual may also feel as though the room is what causes the "spinning" or moving (vertigo) associated with lightheadedness. Most causes of lightheadedness are not serious and either cure themselves quickly or are easily treated. Keeping a sense of balance requires the brain to process a variety of information received from the eyes, the nervous system, and the inner ears. If the brain is unable to process these signals, such as when the messages are contradictory, or if the sensory systems are improperly functioning, an individual may experience lightheadedness or dizziness.

Dizziness is an impairment in spatial perception and stability.

Faint is a sudden loss of consciousness. Pass out from weakness, physical or emotional distress due to a loss of blood supply to the brain. Blackout (memory loss).

What Causes a Head Rush During Exercise?

Orthostatic Hypotension or head rush, occurs when a person's blood pressure falls when suddenly standing up from a lying or sitting position.

Syncope or fainting, is defined as a short loss of consciousness and muscle strength, characterized by a fast onset, short duration, and spontaneous recovery. It is due to a decrease in blood flow to the entire brain usually from low blood pressure. There are sometimes symptoms before the loss of consciousness such as lightheadedness, sweating, pale skin, blurred vision, nausea, vomiting, or feeling warm. Syncope may also be associated with a short episode of muscle twitching. When consciousness and muscle strength are not completely lost, it is called presyncope. It is recommended that presyncope be treated the same as syncope. Causes range from non-serious to potentially fatal. There are three broad categories of causes: heart or blood vessel related, reflex also known as neurally mediated, and orthostatic hypotension. Issues with the heart and blood vessels are the cause in about 10% and typically the most serious while neurally mediated is the most common. Heart related causes may include an abnormal heart rhythm, problems with the heart valves or heart muscle and blockages of blood vessels from a pulmonary embolism or aortic dissection among others. Neurally mediated syncope occurs when blood vessels expand and heart rate decreases inappropriately. This may occur from either a triggering event such as exposure to blood, pain, strong feelings or a specific activity such as urination, vomiting, or coughing. This type of syncope may also occur when an area in the neck known as the carotid sinus is pressed. The third type of syncope is due to a drop in blood pressure from standing up. This is often due to medications that a person is taking but may also be related to dehydration, significant bleeding or infection.

Vasovagal Response is a malaise mediated by the vagus nerve. When it leads to fainting.

Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo is a disorder arising from a problem in the inner ear. Symptoms are repeated, brief periods of vertigo with movement, characterized by a spinning sensation upon changes in the position of the head. This can occur with turning in bed or changing position. Each episode of vertigo typically lasts less than one minute. Nausea is commonly associated. BPPV is one of the most common causes of vertigo. Things that you may want to pay attention to: low blood pressure, low blood sugar, sleep apnea, dehydration, medications, heart failure, neurological disorder or multiple sclerosis.

Vertigo is the sensation of spinning or having one's surroundings spin about them. It's a condition where a person has the sensation of moving or of surrounding objects moving when they are not. Often it feels like a spinning or swaying movement. This may be associated with nausea, vomiting, sweating, or difficulties walking. It is typically worse when the head is moved. Vertigo is the most common type of dizziness.

Ménière's Disease is a disorder of the inner ear that is characterized by episodes of feeling like the world is spinning (vertigo), ringing in the ears (tinnitus), hearing loss, and a fullness in the ear.

Labyrinthitis is the inflammation of the inner ear.

Balance Disorder is a disturbance that causes an individual to feel unsteady, for example when standing or walking. It may be accompanied by feelings of giddiness, or wooziness, or having a sensation of movement, spinning, or floating. Balance is the result of several body systems working together: the visual system (eyes), vestibular system (ears) and proprioception (the body's sense of where it is in space). Degeneration or loss of function in any of these systems can lead to balance deficits.

Dizziness of unknown cause may be perception disorder. Problems with the processing of sensory-motor signals in the brain that resemble those associated with dizziness due to organic causes.

Human Senses - Immune System

Alcohol Effects. Alcohol thins the blood which distorts the shape of the inner ear creating a false signal. The swollen ear parts push on the tiny sensory hairs, deceiving the brain into producing the sense of motion, or spinning. When in the dark the spinning sense is enhanced, since you can no longer rely upon visual cues to counteract the false sense of motion.

Vestibular System is the sensory system that provides the leading contribution about the sense of balance and spatial orientation for the purpose of coordinating movement with balance, in your ear is a set of three fluid-filled canals which work like a three-directional spirit level. So your head knows which direction your head is moving.

Endolymph is the fluid contained in the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear. It is also called Scarpa's fluid, after Antonio Scarpa

Ampullary Cupula is a structure in the vestibular system, providing the sense of spatial orientation

Dizzy - Tommy Roe (youtube)

Vestibulo-ocular Reflex is a reflex eye movement that elicits eye movement by stimulating the vestibular system. This reflex functions to stabilize images on the retinas (in yoked vision) during head movement by producing eye movements in the direction opposite to head movement, thus preserving the image on the center of the visual field(s). For example, when the head moves to the right, the eyes move to the left, and vice versa. Since slight head movement is present all the time, the VOR is very important for stabilizing vision: patients whose VOR is impaired find it difficult to read using print, because they cannot stabilize the eyes during small head tremors, and also because damage to the VOR can cause vestibular nystagmus.

Image Stabilization are techniques that reduce blurring associated with the motion of a camera or other imaging device during exposure.

Fixation Reflex concerned with attracting the eye on a peripheral object. For example, when a light shines in the periphery, the eyes shift gaze on it. It is controlled by the occipital lobe of the cerebral cortex.

Spatial Intelligence - Body Kinesthetic Intelligence

Reflex Asystolic Syncope is a form of syncope encountered mainly, but not exclusively, in young children. Reflex anoxic seizures are not epileptic seizures or epilepsy. This is usually a consequence of a reduction in cerebral perfusion by oxygenated blood. It can be a result of either a sudden reduction in the blood flow to the brain, a drop in the oxygen content of the blood supplying the brain, or a combination of the two. Syncope can have different meanings ranging from transient loss of consciousness, usually accompanied by a decrease or loss in postural tone (the principal manifestations of “simple faints”), to tonic and myoclonic events and nonepileptic spasms.

The muscles wrapped around the Z-axis of your eyes are there to keep everything level – up to a point. This reduces the amount of processing power your brain needs to decode the world around you – provided that your head is within about 15 degrees of vertical. (This is why it’s harder to recognize someone when you’re standing on your head, or their face isn’t the same way up as yours). Once your head tilts past that point, your eyes stop trying to keep things horizontal, and gives up, untwisting themselves.

Mal de débarquement syndrome or MdDS is characterized by a feeling of rocking and swaying, and typically follows prolonged exposure to motion, such as being on a boat or plane. Mal de debarquement is a neurological condition usually occurring after a cruise, aircraft flight, or other sustained motion event. It is a rare cause of imbalance encountered in a neurology practice.

Motion Sickness occurs due to a difference between actual and expected motion. Symptoms commonly include nausea, vomiting, cold sweat, headache, sleepiness, yawning, loss of appetite, and increased salivation. Complications may rarely include dehydration, electrolyte problems, or a lower esophageal tear. The cause of motion sickness is either real or perceived motion. This may include from car travel, air travel, sea travel, space travel, or reality simulation. Risk factors include pregnancy, migraines, and Meniere’s disease. The diagnosis is based on symptoms. Treatment may include behavioral measures or medications. Behavioral measures include keeping the head still and focusing on the horizon. Three types of medications are useful: antimuscarinics such as scopolamine, H1 antihistamines such as dimenhydrinate, and amphetamines such as dexamphetamine. Side effects, however, may limit the use of medications. A number of medications used for nausea such as ondansetron are not effective for motion sickness. Nearly all people are affected with sufficient motion. Susceptibility, however, is variable. Women are more easily affected than men. Motion sickness has been described since at least the time of Hippocrates. "Nausea" is from the Greek naus meaning ship.

Spatial Disorientation of an aviator is the inability to determine angle, altitude or speed. It is most critical at night or in poor weather, when there is no visible horizon, since vision is the dominant sense for orientation. Auditory systems and the vestibular (inner ear) system for co-ordinating movement with balance can also create illusory nonvisual sensations, as can other sensory receptors located in the skin, muscles, tendons and joints. Sensory Deprivation.

Sensory illusions in aviation are adapted for use on the ground, navigating by sensory input alone during flight can be dangerous: sensory input does not always accurately reflect the movement of the aircraft, causing sensory illusions. These illusions can be extremely dangerous for pilots.

Otorhinolaryngology deals with the surgical and medical management of conditions of the head and neck. Doctors who specialize in this area are called otorhinolaryngologists, otolaryngologists, head and neck surgeons, or ENT surgeons or physicians. Patients seek treatment from an otorhinolaryngologist for diseases of the ear, nose, throat, base of the skull, head, and neck. These commonly include functional diseases that affect the senses and activities of eating, drinking, speaking, breathing, swallowing, and hearing. In addition, ENT surgery encompasses the surgical management and reconstruction of cancers and benign tumors of the head and neck as well as plastic surgery of the face and neck.

Weights - Strength Training

A repetition is a single exercise, one squat is s rep, and a set is a series of reps or repetitions, 10 squats is one set

Man Lifting Weight for ExerciseWeight Training is a common type of strength training for developing the strength and size of skeletal muscles. It utilizes the force of gravity in the form of weighted bars, dumbbells or weight stacks in order to oppose the force generated by muscle through concentric or eccentric contraction. Weight training uses a variety of specialized equipment to target specific muscle groups and types of movement. Sports where strength training is central are bodybuilding, weightlifting, powerlifting, and strongman, highland games, shot put, discus throw, and javelin throw. Many other sports use strength training as part of their training regimen, notably; mixed martial arts, American football, wrestling, rugby football, track and field, rowing, lacrosse, basketball, baseball, and hockey. Strength training for other sports and physical activities is becoming increasingly popular. Using heavier weights instead of light weights can you save time when exercising. The best weight to use is a weight that you can only lift 5 to 10 times or no more than 10 reps. Lifting slowly may help decrease Injuries. Proper Form, Good Technique and Breathing properly is essential for every workout. Benefits.

Weight Training Exercises List (PDF)

Resistance Training is a type of physical exercise specializing in the use of resistance to induce muscular contraction which builds the strength, anaerobic endurance, and size of skeletal muscles.

Strength Training is a type of physical exercise specializing in the use of resistance to induce muscular contraction which builds the strength, anaerobic endurance, and size of skeletal muscles.

Weight-Bearing Exercises Promote Bone Formation in Men. Human hormone and protein linked to bone mass are impacted by 12 months of targeted exercise.

1-Rep Max is the most weight you can lift once for an exercise. (warm up first).

Hans und Franz - Pump you up! (youtube)

Push-ups is raising and lowering the body using the arms from a stretched out position on the floor, hits six muscles at once. The ONLY Push Up Exercises You Really Need! (youtube).

Military Press is lifting weights over your head using your arms, targets the deltoid muscles in the shoulders as well as the triceps. Additionally, it works the core and legs, which the lifter uses to help stabilize the weight.

Pull-ups is using your hands to hang from a bar and then pull your self up using your arms where your chin comes close to the top of a bar. Pull Ups and Lat Pull Downs both effectively activated the lats.

Lat Pull Downs is using a weight machine that you use to pull down a bar from the sitting position using your arms, designed to develop the latissimus dorsi muscle. It performs the functions of downward rotation and depression of the scapulae combined with adduction and extension of the shoulder joint.

Sit-ups begins with lying with the back flat on the floor with legs bent, and then lift the upper body until you come close to touching your knees. Abdominal Exercise are those that affect the abdominal muscles (colloquially known as the stomach muscles or "abs"). Abdominal Bracing Exercise.

Pelvis is either the lower part of the trunk of the human body between the abdomen and the thighs. Yoga

Squats starts in the standing position and then bending your knees into a squatting position and the back up again. Squats are a full body exercise that trains primarily the muscles of the thighs, hips and buttocks, quadriceps femoris muscle (vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius and rectus femoris), hamstrings, as well as strengthening the bones, ligaments and insertion of the tendons throughout the lower body. Squats are considered a vital exercise for increasing the strength and size of the legs as well as developing core strength. Squats are typically used to hone back, thigh, and hip stability. Isometrically, the lower back, the upper back, the abdominals, the trunk muscles, the costal muscles, and the shoulders and arms are all essential to the exercise and thus are trained when squatting with the proper form. The squat is one of the three lifts in the strength sport of powerlifting, together with deadlifts and bench press. It is also considered a staple in many popular recreational exercise programs.

Leg Press is a weight machine training exercise in which the individual pushes a weight or resistance away from them using their legs, while in the sitting position.

Deadlifts is using a loaded barbell or bar that is lifted off the ground to the level of the hips, then lowered to the ground.

Lunges is where one leg is positioned forward with knee bent and foot flat on the ground while the other leg is positioned behind.

Burpee or Squat Thrust is a full body exercise used in strength training and as an aerobic exercise. Begins in a standing position. Move into a squat position with your hands on the ground. (count 1), then Kick your feet back into a plank position, while keeping your arms extended. (count 2), then Immediately return your feet into squat position. (count 3), then Stand up from the squat position (count 4).

Calf Raises are a method of exercising the gastrocnemius, tibialis posterior and soleus muscles of the lower leg. The movement performed is plantar flexion, a.k.a. ankle extension.

FORM Lifting: Train Smarter Real-time feedback. Every rep. Every workout. Every time.

Proper Form when Exercising

Proper Weightlifting Techniques (youtube)

Exercise Machine is any machine used for physical exercise. These range from simple spring-like devices to computerized electromechanical rides to recirculating-stream swimming pools. Most exercise machines incorporate an Ergometer. An ergometer is an apparatus for measuring the work a person exerts while exercising as used in training or cardiac stress tests or other medical tests.

Stationary Bicycle that creates Electricity (Human Energy Machines)

Super Slow - Time Under Load is a form of strengthening physical exercise (resistance training). Super Slow involves the combination of very slow speeds of lifting and lowering the weight, along with the general principles of the High intensity training approach.

Benefits of Super Slow Workouts

Oxygen consumption during Constant-Load Exercise Oxygen consumption (VO2) continues to rise after the initial 2- to 3-min transient period of exercise when work exceeds approximately 60% of VO2 max.

Building Muscle without Weights

AXIUS: Functional Core Balance and Mobility System using varied levels of instability

Isometric Exercise are a type of strength training in which the joint angle and muscle length do not change during contraction (compared to concentric or eccentric contractions, called dynamic/isotonic movements). Isometrics are done in static positions, rather than being dynamic through a range of motion.

Plank as an exercise is an isometric core strength exercise that involves maintaining a position similar to a push-up for the maximum possible time.

Dynamic Tension is a self-resistance exercise method which pits muscle against muscle. The practitioner tenses the muscles of a given body part and then moves the body part against the tension as if a heavy weight were being lifted. Dynamic Tension exercises are not merely isometrics, since they call for movement. Instead, the method comprises a combination of exercises in three disciplines: isotonic, isokinetic, and some exercises in the isometric discipline. Gyrotonic

Bodyweight Exercise are strength training exercises that do not require free weights or machines as the individual's own weight provides resistance against gravity. It is recognized that bodyweight exercises can enhance a range of bio-motor abilities including strength, power, endurance, speed, flexibility, coordination and balance. This type of strength training has grown in popularity for both recreational and professional athletes, with a range of sports disciplines using bodyweight resistance training as part of their fitness programs. Bodyweight training utilizes simple abilities such as pushing, pulling, squatting, bending, twisting and balancing. Movements such as the push-up, the pull-up, and the sit-up are some of the most common bodyweight exercises.

Whole Body Vibration is when a vibration of a particular frequency is transferred to the human body. Sometimes standing or lying on a machine with a vibrating platform. When the machine vibrates, it transmits energy to the body, and muscles contract and relax multiple times during each second. Vibration Training  on the other hand is a discipline where varying frequencies/amplitudes/forces will be transferred into separate body parts using precise joint angles for any limited time (approximately 1 minute sets). This is done to create a purely eccentric muscle reaction and enable anaerobic activity (burning energy without oxygen – the opposite of cardio).

Mix it Up - Have Verity in your Workouts - Having a varied workout routine has many benefits. Moving your body in different directions and planes of motion helps reduce strain on the muscles and joints that come from doing the same motions over and over. Variety in your workouts makes you more interested in exercise.

Single-Arm Dumbbell Snatch Motion GifCross Fit incorporates elements from high-intensity interval training, Olympic weightlifting, plyometrics, powerlifting, gymnastics, girevoy sport, calisthenics, strongman, and other exercises.

Cross Fit - Cross Fit done Right - Cross Fit Kids

Cross Training resistance training, sprint intervals, stretching/yoga/Pilates and endurance exercise.

Interval Training alternates between two activities, typically requiring different rates of speed, degrees of effort, etc. A type of physical training that involves a series of low- to high-intensity exercise workouts interspersed with rest or relief periods. The high-intensity periods are typically at or close to anaerobic exercise, while the recovery periods involve activity of lower intensity. Varying the intensity of effort exercises the heart muscle, providing a cardiovascular workout, improving aerobic capacity and permitting the person to exercise for longer and/or more intense levels.

My Workout Routine - I mix yoga, weight lifting, aerobics and a few other exercises into one workout, usually with some music. (Around 40 minutes exercising at home). First I Warm Up. Air Swimming Exercises with arm movements just as if I were swimming in water, backstroke, freestyle, breaststroke and butterfly drill. Then I do some twisting and bending exercises along with some deep breaths at the same time. (10 minutes). Then the Ground Work. Some sit-ups, push ups, yoga, planking and a few other exercises. (15 minutes). Then Aerobics. I do one Tabata set, then a 20 second rest, then 10 military presses with dumbbells, then a 20 second rest, then another tabata exercise set, then 10 dumbbell curls, and so on and so on. Regular Tabata is 5 different exercises: Jumping Jacks - Split Squats - Washing Machine - Star Jumps - Burpees. (20 seconds work, 10 seconds rest, 8 times). (15 minutes total). Then on other days I either walk, hike or ride my bicycle. And of course eat healthy.

Tabata Style 20 Min. Cardio (youtube)

Strength Exercise as Vital as Aerobic. Push ups and sit ups could add years to your life.

Plank - Isometric - Biomechanics (body smart)

Compound Exercises are multi-joint movements that work several muscles or muscle groups at one time. A great example of a compound exercise is the squat exercise, which engages many muscles in the lower body and core, including the quadriceps, the hamstrings, the calves, the glutes, the lower back and the core.

Stretching is a form of physical exercise in which a specific muscle or tendon (or muscle group) is deliberately flexed or stretched in order to improve the muscle's felt elasticity and achieve comfortable muscle tone. The result is a feeling of increased muscle control, flexibility, and range of motion. Stretching is also used therapeutically to alleviate cramps. Yoga.

Calisthenics are exercises consisting of a variety of gross motor movements; often rhythmical and generally without equipment or apparatus.

Calisthenics Exercises - Calisthenics Workout

General Fitness Training works towards broad goals of overall health and well-being, rather than narrow goals of sport competition, larger muscles or concerns over appearance. A regular moderate workout regimen and healthy diet can improve general appearance markers of good health such as muscle tone, healthy skin, hair and nails, while preventing age or lifestyle-related reductions in health and the series of heart and organ failures that accompany inactivity and poor diet. Diet itself helps to increase calorie burning by boosting metabolism, a process further enhanced while gaining more lean muscle. An aerobic exercise program can burn fat and increase the metabolic rate.

15 minute Extreme Full Body Home Workout ( Using just 5 Movements ) (youtube)

Metabolic Training Workout
Core Strength
Caveman Power

Toning Exercises are physical exercises that are used with the aim of developing a physique with a large emphasis on musculature. In this context, the term toned implies leanness in the body (low levels of body fat), noticeable muscle definition and shape, but not significant muscle size ("bulk").

Vertical Training vs Horizontal Training
44 Best Bodyweight Exercises Ever! (High Def) (youtube)
Sports A to Z

Circuit Training is a form of body conditioning or resistance training using high-intensity aerobics. It targets strength building and muscular endurance. An exercise "circuit" is one completion of all prescribed exercises in the program. When one circuit is complete, one begins the first exercise again for the next circuit. Traditionally, the time between exercises in circuit training is short, often with rapid movement to the next exercise.

Dumbbell Romanian Deadlift Motion Gif Upper-body
Squat ups
Bench dips
Back extensions
Medicine ball chest pass
Bench lift
Inclined press up

Core & trunk
Sit ups (lower abdominal)
Stomach crunch (upper abdominal)
Back extension chest raise

Squat jumps
Compass jumps
Astride jumps
Step ups
Shuttle runs
Hopping shuttles
Bench squat

Squat thrusts

Basic Exercises you can do almost anywhere in 15 minutes.

Basic Exercises done Anywhere in 15 Minutes You need to train smarter, not harder. Using principles of size, all it takes is 3 exercises, 3 days a week. - Abs Workout, 30 Day's Progressive Routine

1. Bench press
2. Chinup
3. Deadlift

Do 25 total reps of each exercise, using a weight you can lift 4 to 6 times before your speed slows down or your form changes. Rest about 60 seconds between sets.

Tuesday: Rest

1. Dumbbell single-arm shoulder press
2. Dumbbell single-arm row
3. Dumbbell lunge or stepup

Do 40 total reps of each exercise with each arm or each leg, using a weight you can lift 10 to 12 times before your speed slows down or your form changes. Do all the reps of each exercise before resting. Rest 45 seconds between sets.

Thursday: Rest

1. Barbell bent-over row
2. Dip
3. Squat

Do 15 total reps of each exercise, using a weight you can lift 2 to 3 times before your speed slows down or your form changes. Rest about 90 seconds between sets.

Project day, Organizing day, Cleaning day

Do what you want day: walk, hike, bike, meditate or learn something new.

Super Compensation is the post training period during which the trained function/parameter has a higher performance capacity than it did prior to the training period.

Exhale Core Fusion
Adventure Competitions
Functional Movement Exercises
Working out for Real Life Functions

Tracy Anderson (youtube)

Hand and Finger Exercises 

Running - Swimming

Aquatic Therapy for Recovering Addicts

Somasole Exercise when Traveling 

Easy Exercises to do When Traveling - (Info-Graph)

Bodybuilding Supplements (wiki) - Vitamins

Why are Steroids dangerous?

Athletic Heart Syndrome which the human heart is enlarged, and the resting heart rate is lower than normal. Athlete's heart is common in athletes who routinely exercise more than an hour a day, and occurs primarily in endurance athletes, though it can occasionally arise in heavy weight trainers. The condition is generally considered benign, but may occasionally hide a serious medical condition, or may even be mistaken for one. Also known as athlete's heart, athletic bradycardia, or exercise-induced cardiomegaly

Physical Education
Adventure Schools and Courses

Practice Good Posture by keeping your back straight and your shoulders back.

You don’t have to spend a lot of time on your fitness, but you definitely need to be aware of how much exercise your mind and body actually needs. You need to exercise a particular muscle if you want that muscle to stay strong. If you want a certain ability in the Brain to stay strong, you have to exercise that ability almost like you would a muscle. There is no short cut to achieving good fitness. Whether it’s a strong body or a sharp mind, you still have to make the time, and you still have to understand what exercising is all about and learning Proper Techniques. This is you thinking logically, this is you learning to love yourself, and this is you excepting the responsibilities for the inside of you as well as for the outside of you. 

Exercising Tips and Videos

Of all the different things that I will exercise this year I will exercise my ability of Self Control the most. Use it or lose it.

Shaping the body using exercise: Body builders do it and so do actors and actresses and other people. Body Builders are not necessarily more athletic. It's more about competition and body image then it is about practical optimal all around athletic ability. Not to say that body building is bad, because it's good to know the capabilities of the human body and knowing how big and strong muscles can grow. But keep in mind when Body Shaping that larger muscles can hinder certain mobility and motions, like running fast and running long distance. And Smaller and weaker muscles can hinder some strength movements. So it makes sense not to cause any hindrance or minimize any of your physical abilities that you have, or can have. All around athletic ability should be your goal unless you have a specific reason like a particular competition or special physical needs.

Hexoskin Advanced Exercise Clothing

I always here women say that they don't want to lift weights because they are afraid of bulking up to much, which they think would stop them from looking feminine. And I always say "I'm not saying to lift weights for 2-4 hours a day, I'm just saying that a few minutes every other day would benefit you. But some how they believe that lifting weights magically inflates your muscles, which it doesn't of course unless you put in the extra time and effort. Reaching your physical goals takes time and sacrifice, but once you reach your goal you will have more time to enjoy your beautiful physique because maintaining a good physical condition takes less time then getting there.

transformation Do Hot Girls make you want to exercise more or are they just fun to watch?
Body Rock (youtube)

Body Sculpting

Are beautiful bodies and faces inspiring? Or are they just distracting and unrealistic? Body Image

How much time, effort, and disciplined diet, does it take to have a beautiful and Athletic body?

Bikini Model Fitness (youtube) 
Classic Bodyshaping - Deprise Brescia & Jennifer Dempster (youtube)
Bodyshaping - Kiana Kimiko Jen (youtube)
Brittany Diamond at the Arnold Strongman Classic (youtube)

Women Body Builders Photograph (image)
The Different Body Types of Athletes Photograph (image)

Exercising is not about looking good, because that's irrelevant.
The main goals of exercise should be about increasing your energy level, having less pain and discomforts, having greater endurance, and having a higher threshold for stress. Looking good just happens to be a pleasant side effect of having a strong and healthy body. Your body should be strong enough to handle most of the physically demanding challenges that we have in our world today. And a physically fit person is healthier and stronger, as long as they eat healthy too. And a strong and healthy body is also more efficient, so very little food energy is wasted. But of course all these benefits from being healthy and strong can only be worth the time and effort if the person is being more productive in the areas of life that produce the most positive outcomes. You don't want to waste good looks, but more importantly, you don't want to waste time and energy either. And you definitely don't want to be over confident. You also don't want to end up being so in love with yourself that you spend more time in front of the mirror, because that would just waste your good health and strong body on your own vanity.

"Your body doesn't have to be perfect, you just have to use your body perfectly." Body Image.

Sweat - Perspiration - Don't Sweat the Small Stuff

Drink Water after Execising Perspiration also known as sweating or diaphoresis is the production of fluids secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals. Two types of sweat glands can be found in humans: eccrine glands and apocrine glands. The eccrine sweat glands are distributed over much of the body. In humans, sweating is primarily a means of thermoregulation, which is achieved by the water-rich secretion of the eccrine glands. Maximum sweat rates of an adult can be up to 2–4 liters per hour or 10–14 liters per day (10–15 g/min•m²), but is less in children prior to puberty. Evaporation of sweat from the skin surface has a cooling effect due to evaporative cooling. Hence, in hot weather, or when the individual's muscles heat up due to exertion, more sweat is produced. Animals with few sweat glands, such as dogs, accomplish similar temperature regulation results by panting, which evaporates water from the moist lining of the oral cavity and pharynx. Primates and horses have armpits that sweat like those of humans. Although sweating is found in a wide variety of mammals, relatively few (exceptions include humans and horses) produce large amounts of sweat in order to cool down. On average, you lose about one liter (approx. 34 ounces) of fluid per hour of exercise.

Dew Point Effects - Heat Index - Body Temperature - Hydration

Your feet can produce a pint of sweat a day: There are 500,000 (250,000 for each) sweat glands in your feet, and that can mean a great deal of stinky sweat.

Prickly Heat or Heat Rash, happens to adults and children when sweat becomes trapped under the skin. The rash may appear as blisters or red lumps. Heat rash may cause itchiness or a prickly feeling. Heat rash usually goes away on its own. Use of fans and lightweight clothing can help.

Macro Close-Up Of Fingers Sweating (youtube)

How much Water should I Drink when Exercising (Info-Graph Image)

It's recommended that Women drink around a half gallon of water per day and up to one gallon of water a day for men.

Dehydration (water loss dangers)

Water Knowledge (Oxygen + Water = Fat Burn)

Water Intake and Water Loss A person loses about 800ml of water per day, half through the skin and half through respiration or breathing out and exhaling, which depends on activity, body temperature and the air humidity of your environment (desert, high altitude or arctic area versus rainforest). In a tropical environment with nearly 100 % humidity the water loss thru the lungs comes to zero. So if the humidity of exhaled air is 100% and the inhaled air is 20%, and using the carrying capacity of 1kg of air to be 20g of water vapour, we can calculate how much water is lost simply by breathing. When you inhale, you are typically inhaling cooler, less humid air. Your body moistens the surface of your lungs and adds moisture to the air as it passes through your air passageways.

Camel is an even-toed ungulate in the genus Camelus that bears distinctive fatty deposits known as "humps" on its back. The average life expectancy of a camel is 40 to 50 years. A full-grown adult camel stands 1.85 m (6 ft 1 in) at the shoulder and 2.15 m (7 ft 1 in) at the hump. Camels can run at up to 65 km/h (40 mph) in short bursts and sustain speeds of up to 40 km/h (25 mph). Bactrian camels weigh 300 to 1,000 kg (660 to 2,200 lb) and dromedaries 300 to 600 kg (660 to 1,320 lb). The widening toes on a camel's hoof provide supplemental grip for varying soil sediments. Camels have a series of physiological adaptations that allow them to withstand long periods of time without any external source of water. The dromedary camel can drink as seldom as once every 10 days even under very hot conditions, and can lose up to 30% of its body mass due to dehydration. Unlike other mammals, camels' red blood cells are oval rather than circular in shape. This facilitates the flow of red blood cells during dehydration and makes them better at withstanding high osmotic variation without rupturing when drinking large amounts of water: a 600 kg (1,300 lb) camel can drink 200 L (53 US gal) of water in three minutes. When the camel exhales, water vapor becomes trapped in their nostrils and is reabsorbed into the body as a means to conserve water. Camels eating green herbage can ingest sufficient moisture in milder conditions to maintain their bodies' hydrated state without the need for drinking. The kidneys and intestines of a camel are very efficient at reabsorbing water. Camels are able to withstand changes in body temperature that ranges from 34 °C (93 °F) at dawn and steadily increases to 40 °C (104 °F) by sunset, before they cool off at night again. In general, to compare between camels and the other livestock, camels lose only 1.3 liters of fluid intake every day while the other livestock lose 20 to 40 liters per day. Body Oder - Hygiene.

Why does Saliva increase during strenuous exercise? When exercising you inhale a lot more air at once, this needs to be cleaned before entering your body otherwise you have a risk of infections, therefore, your body produced mucus and saliva to remove the large dust molecules and bacteria. When you exercise your body takes in a lot more air at a quicker pace, so you produce more mucus to help clean it. It is important that you regularly blow your nose and spit to get rid of the excess and old mucus that is full of bacteria and dust particles from the air. Swallowing your saliva completely goes against the point of your mucus as the dust and bacteria can then enter your body anyway! So make sure that you do not swallow your spit and you blow your nose regularly when exercising. Make sure that you also drink fluid during and after exercise to replace the water levels that have gone. You should be made of about 80% water, so it's important that you drink water to enable all the processes in the body to work properly. - Drool (sleeping) - Cortisol (wiki).

Certified Personal Trainers - Certified Fitness Instructor

Personal Trainer is an individual certified to have a varying degree of knowledge of general fitness involved in exercise prescription and instruction. They motivate clients by setting goals and providing feedback and accountability to clients. Trainers also measure their client's strengths and weaknesses with fitness assessments. These fitness assessments may also be performed before and after an exercise program to measure their client's improvements in physical fitness. They may also educate their clients in many other aspects of wellness besides exercise, including general health and nutrition guidelines. Qualified personal trainers recognize their own areas of expertise. If a trainer suspects that one of his or her clients has a medical condition that could prevent the client from safe participation in an exercise program, they must refer the client to the proper health professional for prior clearance.

personal trainer American Fitness Professionals & Associates
American Sport and Fitness
Fitness Certifications
Physical Education
Nutrition Consulting
International Sports Sciences Association
National Exercise Trainers Association
Personal Trainer Certification
International Fitness Association
Water Fitness Association
Find a Personal Trainer
Personal Trainers Search
Occupation Outlook Stats
Skulpt Aim: The Ultimate Fitness Tracker

Books about Exercise

The No Sweat Exercise Plan: Lose Weight, Get Healthy, and Live Longer (Harvard Medical School Guides) Paperback – December 19, 2006 (amazon)
Complete Physical Education Plans for Grades 7-12 [With CDROM] Paperback – July 1, 2001 (amazon)
The Human Body (An Illustrated Guide to Its Structure, Function, and Disorders) Hardcover – April 4, 1995 (amazon)
Health, Mind & Body Books (amazon)
On a Mission of Nutrition, Paperback – October 22, 2015 by Joseph Esposito (amazon)

Exercise Videos

30-Minute Workout Plan with Ivy (Core & Balance) (youtube)
Tony Horton creator of P90X, P90X2 Exercise (youtube)
The Best Calorie Burning Workout Routine! (youtube)

Health Videos - Health provides whole-life advice and inspiration for the woman who knows who she is and wants to live well in every way. We empower. We encourage. We educate.

Health Central - Find details about a wide range of conditions.

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