There are many ways to preserve the nutrient content in foods
or other qualities. Cooking certain foods for shorter periods at lower temperatures
with minimal water will produce the best results. Cooking temperatures
cooking methods also effect how foods digest, which could either be
healthy or unhealthy.
is the art, technology and craft of preparing food for
consumption with the use of Heat
. Cooking techniques and
widely across the world, from grilling food over an
electric stoves, to baking in various types of ovens, reflecting unique
environmental, economic, and cultural traditions and trends.
- Learning to Cook
is a method of cooking food that uses prolonged dry heat, normally in an
oven, but also in hot ashes, or on hot stones. The most common baked item
is bread but many other types of foods are baked.
transferred "from the surface of cakes, cookies, and breads to their centre. As heat travels through it transforms batters and doughs into
baked goods with a firm dry crust and a softer centre". Baking can be
combined with grilling to produce a hybrid barbecue variant by using both
methods simultaneously, or one after the other. Baking is related to
barbecuing because the concept of the masonry oven is similar to that of a
smoke pit. Fancy
thermally insulated chamber used for the heating, baking or drying of a
substance, and most commonly used for cooking. Kilns and furnaces are
special-purpose ovens, used in pottery and metalworking, respectively.
Different ovens set to the same temperature can vary by as much as 90
. Cooking food in an oven at 350 degrees is about chemistry.
It’s hot enough to cook food fairly quickly but no so hot that your food
(cooking using the energy of the sun).
a kitchen appliance designed for the purpose of cooking food. Kitchen Stoves
rely on the application of direct heat for the cooking process and may
also contain an oven, used for baking. "Cookstoves" (also called "cooking
stoves" or "wood stoves
heated by burning wood or charcoal; "gas stoves" are heated by gas; and
"electric stoves" by electricity. A stove with multiple cooking surfaces
is also called a range. Induction
Glass Top Stoves
Cookware for Glass Top Stoves
are types of food preparation containers, commonly found in a
kitchen. Cookware comprises cooking vessels, such as saucepans and frying
pans, intended for use on a stove or range cooktop. Bakeware comprises
cooking vessels intended for use inside an oven. Some utensils are
considered both cookware and bakeware.
skillet is a flat-bottomed pan used for frying
, searing, and browning
includes any hand implement used in preparing, serving, and
especially eating food in the Western world. A person who makes or sells
cutlery is called a cutler. Usually known as silverware or flatware means
knives and related cutting instruments.
is a hand-held, typically small tool or utensil that is used in the
kitchen, for food-related functions.
with a cutting edge or blade.
KNASA Chef Knife
Ultra-sharp and stays sharp 5 times longer than other
knives, alloy is twice as strong as titanium.
tool consisting of a handle with several narrow tines on one end.
a utensil consisting of a small shallow bowl, oval or round, at the end of
Drinking Glass Styles and Shapes
is the art of the preparation, cooking and presentation
of food, usually in the form of meals. People working in this field –
especially in establishments such as restaurants – are commonly called
"chefs" or "cooks", although, at its most general, the terms "culinary
artist" and "culinarian" are also used. Table manners ("the table arts")
are sometimes referred to as a culinary art. Culinarians are required to
have knowledge of food science, nutrition and diet and are responsible for
preparing meals that are as pleasing to the eye as well as to the palate.
After restaurants, their primary places of work include delicatessens and
relatively large institutions such as hotels and hospitals.
is a trained and
skilled professional cook who is proficient in all aspects of food
preparation of a particular cuisine. The director or head of a kitchen.
Chefs can receive both formal training from an institution, as well as
with an experienced chef.
"Chefs are masters of
. They are experts of
ingredients. They are
at preparing a
along with creating a
that opens a
persons eyes to the possibilities of food. Chefs are like magicians who
inspire us with their magic. We could easily learn some of their tricks
and entertain ourselves with these skills, but sometimes, we like others
to do the work for us, so that maybe we can learn from others what we
could not learn on our own."
Full Course Dinner
is a dinner consisting of multiple dishes, or
courses. In its simplest form, it can consist of three or four courses,
first course, a main course and dessert. The meal begins with an
, a small serving that usually does
not include red meat. In Italian custom, antipasto is served, usually
that does not contain pasta or any starch. This may be followed
by a variety of dishes, including a possible fish course or other light
fare. The number and size of these intermittent courses is entirely
dependent on local custom. Following these is the
. This is the most important course and is usually the largest. Next comes the
course, although salad may often refer to a cooked vegetable, rather than
the greens most people associate with the word. Note that in America since
around 1960, the salad course (usually a small, simple green salad lightly
dressed) is served at some point before the main course. Sometimes, the
salad also accompanies the cheese course. The meal may carry on with a
cheese selection, accompanied by an appropriate selection of wine. In many
countries cheeses will be served before the meal, and in the United States
often between the main course and dessert, just like in most European
countries. In the UK, more typically the cheese course will follow
Nuts are also a popular after-meal selection (thus the common saying "from
," meaning from beginning to end). The meal will often
culminate with a dessert, either hot or cold, sometimes followed with a
final serving of hot or cold fruit and accompanied by a suitable dessert wine.
Temperature and Time needed to Kill Bacteria
multiply quickest in the “Danger Zone” between 40˚ and 140˚ Fahrenheit.
The possibility of bacterial growth actually increases as food cools after
cooking because the drop in temperature allows bacteria to thrive. But you
can keep your food above the safe temperature of 140˚F by using a heat
source like a chafing dish, warming tray, or slow cooker. Most bacteria do
not live above 120°F, and as you increase the temperature you kill more of
them. At 102°F most bacteria can no longer reproduce, which is the
protective nature of human fevers. Cooking food to
160 degrees F will kill most bacteria
. But if the food has been at
for more than two hours
, bacteria may have accumulated to dangerous
levels and formed heat-resistant toxins that cannot be killed by cooking.
Generally most bacteria causing food borne illnesses die off above 130F
(throughout the meat, so not just the outside) held for enough time.
Boiling water kills or inactivates viruses, bacteria, protozoa and other
pathogens by using heat to damage structural components and disrupt
essential life processes (e.g. denature proteins). Boiling
is not sterilization and is more accurately characterized as
pasteurization. Boiling is the surest method to kill disease-causing
organisms, including viruses, bacteria, and parasites. You can improve the
flat taste of boiled water by pouring it from one container to another and
then allowing it to stand for a few
. Any active bacteria are killed by holding the stock for a
minute at 150 degrees or above, and botulism toxin is inactivated by 10
minutes at the boil. But quickly reheating a contaminated stock just up to
serving temperature won't destroy its active bacteria and toxins, and the
stock will make people sick. Bacteria grow most rapidly in the range of
temperatures between 40 °F and 140 °F, doubling in number in as little as
20 minutes. This range of temperatures is often called the "Danger Zone."
Never leave food out of refrigeration over 2 hours. Microwave food
thoroughly (to 165 ˚F). To make sure harmful bacteria have been killed in
your foods, it’s important to microwave them to 165˚ or higher.
Temperature and Taste
High Heat Cooking Dangers
Be careful how you cook your food because high heat
cooking can increase
Advanced Glycation End-Products
that could cause
. To avoid health risks from burning foods with high heat you
should Eat more fresh foods or Cook at lower temperatures using moist heat techniques like Steam, boil, poach,
baking, broiling or stew foods. Marinate foods in acidic liquids, such
as lemon juice and vinegar, rather than sugary sauces, to reduce
. If you choose to use the grill, be sure to clean off
any charred remains on the grilling rack before cooking. Turn
often, every 30 to 60 seconds, to avoid charring. If a food
does become charred or blackened, cut off those pieces before
eating. Choose thin, lean cuts of meat that require less cooking
time. Opt for fish instead of meat because fish cooks faster,
leaving less time for AGEs to form. Remove skin when cooking
poultry because it chars easily.
Heat used during cooking and other conditions can
degrade vitamins, preventing
in freshly harvested plant
degraded by processing techniques, including cooking. The main cause of
phytochemical loss from cooking is
, which is a chemical decomposition caused by
. The decomposition temperature of a substance is the temperature at
which the substance chemically
reaction is usually endothermic as heat is required to break chemical
bonds in the compound undergoing decomposition. If decomposition is
sufficiently exothermic, a positive feedback loop is created producing
thermal runaway and possibly an explosion. A converse exists in the case
of carotenoids, such as lycopene present in tomatoes, which may remain
stable or increase in content from cooking due to liberation from cellular
membranes in the cooked food. Food processing techniques like mechanical
processing can also free carotenoids and other phytochemicals from the
food matrix, increasing dietary intake. In some cases, processing of food
is necessary to remove
; for example
societies that use cassava as a staple have traditional practices that
involve some processing (soaking, cooking, fermentation, etc.), which are
necessary to avoid getting sick from
is an enzyme which in humans is encoded by the NAT2 gene. This gene
encodes a type of N-acetyltransferase. The NAT2 isozyme functions to both
activate and deactivate arylamine and hydrazine drugs and carcinogens.
Polymorphisms in this gene are responsible for the N-acetylation
polymorphism in which human populations segregate into rapid,
intermediate, and slow acetylator phenotypes.
Polymorphisms in NAT2
associated with higher incidences of cancer and drug toxicity. A second
arylamine N-acetyltransferase gene (NAT1) is located near NAT2.
Meat in Moderation
is the temperature that cooking
begins to break down and produces smoke and then
burns releasing and volatile compounds, such as free fatty
acids, and short-chain degradation products of oxidation come up
from the oil. These volatile compounds degrade in air to give
. The smoke point indicates the temperature limit up to
which that cooking oil can be used. The smoke point of oil
varies with its quality.
Effects of Chemicals and Toxins on the Human Body and Mind
is both a cooking method and an apparatus. The generally
accepted differences between barbecuing and grilling are cooking
durations and the types of heat used. Grilling is generally done
quickly over moderate-to-high direct heat that produces little
smoke, while barbecuing is done slowly over low, indirect heat
and the food is flavored by the smoking process.
- PAHs can be decreased by
41-89% if drippings are removed and smoke is minimized.
happens when sugar and amino acids are cooked at 150
degrees. In some cooked starchy foods in 2002 prompted concerns
about the carcinogenicity of those foods. As of 2016 it is still not clear
whether acrylamide consumption affects people's risk of developing cancer.
Acrylamide is considered a potential occupational carcinogen by U.S.
government agencies and classified as a Group 2A carcinogen by the IARC.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the National
Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
have set dermal occupational
exposure limits at 0.03 mg/m3 over an eight-hour workday. In animal
models, exposure to acrylamide causes tumors in the
thyroid, lungs, and testes. Acrylamide is easily absorbed by the skin and
distributed throughout the organism; the highest levels of acrylamide
post-exposure are found in the blood, non-exposed skin, kidneys, liver,
testes, and spleen. Acrylamide can be metabolically-activated by
cytochrome P450 to a genotoxic metabolite, glycidamide, which is
considered to be a critical mode of action to the carcinogenesis
acrylamide. On the other hand, acrylamide and glycidamide can be
detoxified via conjugation with glutathione to form acrylamide- and
isomeric glycidamide-glutathione conjugates, subsequently metabolized to
mercapturic acids and excreted in urine. Acrylamide has also been found to
have neurotoxic effects in humans who have been exposed. Animal studies
show neurotoxic effects as well as mutations in sperm. As of 2014 it is
still not clear whether dietary acrylamide consumption affects people's
risk of developing cancer. Experimental results that are based on feeding
acrylamide to animals might not be applicable to humans. Food industry
workers exposed to twice the average level of acrylamide do not exhibit
higher cancer rates. Acrylamide is also a skin irritant
and may be a tumor
initiator in the skin, potentially increasing risk for
Symptoms of acrylamide exposure include dermatitis in the exposed area and
peripheral neuropathy. Laboratory research has found that some
phytochemicals may have the potential to be developed into drugs which
could alleviate the toxicity of acrylamide.
are carbohydrate-binding proteins, macromolecules that are highly specific
for sugar moieties of other molecules. Lectins perform recognition on the
cellular and molecular level and play numerous roles in biological
recognition phenomena involving cells, carbohydrates, and proteins.
Lectins also mediate attachment and binding of bacteria and viruses to
their intended targets. Lectins are ubiquitous in nature and are found in
many foods. Some foods such as beans and grains need to be cooked or
fermented to reduce lectin content, but the lectins consumed in a typical
balanced diet are not harmful. Some lectins are beneficial, such as
CLEC11A which promotes bone growth, while others
may be powerful toxins
such as ricin. Lectins may be disabled by
specific mono- and oligosaccharides, which bind to ingested lectins from
grains, legume, nightshade plants and dairy; binding can prevent their
attachment to the carbohydrates within the cell membrane. The selectivity
of lectins means that they are very useful for analyzing blood type, and
they are also used in some genetically engineered crops to transfer
traits, such as resistance to pests and resistance to herbicides. Lectins
bind to sugar molecules. Leptin
Fried food linked to heightened risk of early death among older US women
Fried chicken and fried fish in particular seem to be associated with
higher risk of death.
Does Dark Roast Coffee
have more cancer causing chemicals? Dark doesn’t have to mean burnt. The
chemical, acrylamide, is produced during the coffee bean roasting process,
as well as when sugars and
found in other foods are cooked at high temperatures.
Acrylamide is a byproduct formed when sugars
and amino acids naturally
occurring in starchy foods, such as potatoes and cereal grains, are cooked
at high temperatures. Research has shown that if food is burnt or heated
excessively then a certain group of carcinogenic substances are released
which are known as
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
(PAHs). Once these substances have
been consumed by the individual via the burnt food then they also travel
into the intestines and other organs of the human body via the process of
blood circulation. In such cases, these polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
not only cause cancer but also tend to increase toxicity of bone marrow,
suppression of the immune system
liver toxicity as well as
The process of toasting bread removes the water from the
and not the
, so it doesn't affect the calorie content of the piece of
Lightly Toasted Bread is Better
or Burnt Toast because you can create toxic substances like acrylamide.
Although toasting bread doesn't have a large effect on the amount of
essential nutrients in the bread, it does cause some chemical changes that
affect how healthy the bread is. Some of its amino acids and sugars react
together through the Maillard reaction. When you toast bread you continue
the Maillard reaction and cause the formation of new compounds, which
could be better or worse for you.
is a chemical reaction between
reducing sugars that gives browned food its distinctive
steaks, pan-fried dumplings, cookies and other kinds of biscuits, breads,
toasted marshmallows, and many other foods undergo this reaction. It is
named after French chemist Louis-Camille Maillard, who first described it
in 1912 while attempting to reproduce biological protein synthesis. The
reaction is a form of non-enzymatic browning which typically proceeds
rapidly from around 140 to 165 °C (280 to 330 °F
). Many recipes call for
an oven temperature high enough to ensure that a Maillard reaction occurs.
At higher temperatures
, caramelization and subsequently pyrolysis become
more pronounced. The reactive carbonyl group of the sugar reacts with the
nucleophilic amino group of the amino acid, and forms a complex mixture of
poorly characterized molecules responsible for a range of aromas and
flavors. This process is accelerated in an alkaline environment (e.g., lye
applied to darken pretzels; see lye roll), as the amino groups (RNH3+ →
RNH2) are deprotonated, hence have an increased nucleophilicity. The type
of the amino acid determines the resulting flavor. This reaction is the
basis for many of the flavoring industry's recipes. At high temperatures,
a potential carcinogen called acrylamide can be formed. In the process,
hundreds of different flavor compounds are created. These compounds, in
turn, break down to form yet more new flavor compounds, and so on. Each
type of food has very distinctive flavor compounds that are formed during
the Maillard reaction. Flavor scientists have used these same compounds
over the years to make artificial flavors.
is the browning of sugar, a process used extensively in
cooking for the resulting sweet nutty flavor and brown color. The brown
colours are produced by three groups of polymers: caramelans (C24H36O18),
caramelens (C36H50O25), and caramelins (C125H188O80). As the process
occurs, volatile chemicals such as diacetyl are released, producing the
characteristic caramel flavor. Like the Maillard reaction, caramelization
is a type of non-enzymatic browning. However, unlike the Maillard
reaction, caramelization is pyrolytic, as opposed to being a reaction with
amino acids. When caramelization involves the disaccharide sucrose, it is
broken down into the monosaccharides fructose and glucose. Sucrose: 160°
C, 320° F / Glucose: 160° C, 320° F / Fructose: 110° C, 230° F / Lactose:
203° C, 397° F.
nutrients are reduced with some cooking methods.
Although cooking improves
digestion and the absorption of many nutrients, the levels of
some vitamins and minerals may decrease.
Cooking food improves digestion and increases absorption
of many nutrients. Protein in cooked eggs is
than in raw eggs.
The following Nutrients are often
Reduced during Cooking: Water-Soluble
: Vitamin C and the B vitamins — thiamin (B1),
riboflavin (B2), niacin
(B3), pantothenic acid (B5), pyridoxine (B6), folic acid (B7)
and cobalamin (B8). Fat-Soluble Vitamins
Vitamins A, D, E and K. Minerals:
primarily potassium, magnesium, sodium and calcium.
: less than 180°F / 82°C.
: 185-200°F / 85-93°C.
: 212°F / 100°C.
Vegetables are generally a great source of vitamin C, but a
large amount of it is lost when cooked in water.
vitamin C more than any other cooking. While water-based cooking
methods cause the greatest losses of water-soluble vitamins,
they have very little effect on
is the partial boiling
of food as the first step in
cooking. The word is from the Old French 'parboillir' (to boil thoroughly)
but by mistaken association with 'part' it has acquired its current
meaning. The word is often used when referring to parboiled rice.
Parboiling can also be used for removing poisonous or foul-tasting
substances from foodstuffs, and to soften vegetables before roasting them.
The food items are added to boiling water and cooked until they start to
soften, then removed before they are fully cooked. Parboiling is usually
used to partially cook an item which will then be cooked another way such
as braising, grilling, or stir-frying. Parboiling differs from blanching
in that one does not cool the items using cold water or ice after removing
them from the boiling water.
is a cooking process wherein a food, usually a vegetable or
fruit, is scalded in
water, removed after a
brief, timed interval, and finally plunged into iced water or placed under
cold running water (shocking or refreshing) to halt the cooking process.
Blanching foods will help reduce quality loss over time. Blanching is
often used as a pre-treatment used prior to freezing, drying, or canning
in which vegetables or fruits are heated in order to inactivate enzymes,
modify texture, remove the peel, and wilt tissue. Blanching is also
utilized to preserve color, flavor, and nutritional value. The process has
three stages: preheating, blanching, and cooling. The most common
blanching methods for vegetables/fruits are hot water and steam, while
cooling is either done using cold water or cool air. Other benefits of
blanching include removing pesticide residues and decreasing microbial
load. Drawbacks to the blanching process can include leaching of
water-soluble and heat sensitive nutrients and the production of effluent.
refers to the technique of partially cooking foods so that
they can be finished later. There are two primary reasons for using this
technique. First, it allows foods to be prepared ahead of time, and
quickly heated prior to serving. Since the second reheat finishes the
cooking process, foods are not overcooked as leftovers often are. This is
a common technique in the processed food industry, and most frozen and
prepared foods are par-cooked. A second reason is to take advantage of
different cooking techniques. For example, one method of preparing french
fries involves first boiling, then frying the potatoes, so they have a
crisp exterior and fluffy interior. In stir-fries or other mixed dishes,
meats, root vegetables, and other foods that take a long time to cook,
will be par-cooked so they finish at the same time as other foods.
is a cooking technique in which a bread or dough product is
and then rapidly frozen for storage. The raw dough is
baked normally, but halted at about 80% of the normal cooking time, when
it is rapidly cooled and frozen. The partial cooking kills the yeast in
the bread mixture, and sets the internal structure of the proteins and
starches (the spongy texture of the bread), so that the inside is sterile
and stable, but the loaf has not generated "crust" or other externally
desirable qualities that are difficult to preserve once fully cooked. A parbaked loaf of semi-cooked bread is in a form that is relatively stable
against aging. It can be transported easily, and stored until needed.
Parbaked loaves are kept in sealed containers that prevent moisture loss.
They are also usually frozen. A parbaked loaf appears as a risen loaf of
bread, with much of the firmness of a finished loaf, but without a browned
or golden crust (in the case of a normally light colored bread). It does
not age or become stale like a fully baked loaf of bread. When the final
bread product is desired, a parbaked loaf is "finished off" by baking it
at normal temperatures for an additional 10 to 15 minutes. The exact time
must be determined by testing, and varies by the product. The final bread
is then often indistinguishable from freshly baked bread.
to lower the
control - and eat smaller portions of
to avoid creating a
and a spike in high blood sugar. Buy
pasta with a low glycemic index.
is the best method for retaining the antioxidant
activity in garlic and mushrooms.
refer to cooking food in an oven with dry heat.
Roasting or baking does not have a significant effect on most
vitamins and minerals, with the exception of B vitamins.
, food is cooked in a saucepan over medium to
high heat in a small amount of oil or butter. Absorption of
beta-carotene was 6.5 times greater in stir-fried carrots than
in raw. Blood lycopene levels increased 80% more when people
consumed tomatoes sautéed in olive oil rather than without.
Sautéing and stir-frying improve the absorption of fat-soluble
vitamins and some plant compounds, but they decrease the amount
of vitamin C in vegetables.
tuna has been shown to degrade its omega-3 content by
up to 70-85%, while baking caused only minimal losses. When oil
is heated to a high temperature for a long period of time, toxic
are formed. Use one of the healthiest oils for
frying. Coconut Oil is the Healthiest Oil For Deep Frying.
Others good oils are Olive oil, Avocado Oil, Peanut oil, and
Palm oil. Oils for deep frying to avoid
are Soybean oil, Corn oil, Sesame oil, Canola oil (also called
rapeseed oil), Cottonseed oil, Safflower oil, Rice bran oil,
Grape seed oil and Sunflower oil.
is one of the best cooking methods for preserving
nutrients, including water-soluble vitamins that are sensitive
to heat and water steaming broccoli, spinach and lettuce reduces
their vitamin C content by only 9-15%. Steaming is one of the
best cooking methods for preserving nutrients, including
Here are 10 tips to reduce nutrient loss
Use as little water as possible for poaching or boiling.
Consume the liquid left in the pan after cooking vegetables.
Add back juices from meat that drip into the pan.
Don’t peel vegetables until after cooking them. Better yet,
don’t peel at all to maximize fiber
and nutrient density.
Cook vegetables in smaller amounts of water to reduce loss of
vitamin C and B vitamins.
Try to finish cooked vegetables within a day or two, as vitamin
C content may continue to
decline when the cooked food is exposed to air.
Cut food after rather than before cooking, if possible. When
food is cooked whole, less of it
is exposed to heat and water.
Cook vegetables for only a few minutes whenever possible. -
When cooking meat, poultry and fish, use the shortest cooking
time needed for safe consumption.
Don’t use baking soda when cooking vegetables. Although it helps
maintain color, vitamin C will
be lost in the alkaline environment produced by baking soda.
Cooking rice to have healthier
that do not cause
spikes in blood sugar and insulin levels. Poor digestibility of
starch may have negative effects on the utilization of protein
and minerals but is likely to have positive effects on the
availability of certain vitamins. Depending on the method of
preparation, rive undergoes observable chemical changes. Most
notably, fried rice and pilaf style rice have a greater
proportion of resistant starch than the most commonly eaten
type, steamed rice.New Method:
Cook the rice as you
normally do, but when the water is boiling, before adding the
raw rice, add coconut oil—about 3 percent of the weight of the
rice you're going to cook, After it was ready, let it cool in
the refrigerator for about 12 hours.
Not all starches
are created equal
. Some, known as digestible starches, take only
a little time to digest, are quickly turned into
, and then later
. Excess glycogen ends up adding to the size of our
guts if we don't expend enough energy to burn it off. Other
starches, meanwhile, called resistant starches, take a long time
for the body to process, aren't converted into glucose or
glycogen because we lack the ability to digest them, and add up
to fewer calories.
Rapidly Digestible Starch (RDS)
Slowly Digestible Starch (SDS)
Resistant Starch (RS)
refers to starch and starch
degradation products that escape from digestion in the small
intestine of healthy individuals. Resistant starch occurs
naturally in foods but is also added to foods by the addition of
isolated or manufactured types of resistant starch.
Potatoes go from having the right kind of starch to the less
healthful kind when they are cooked or mashed. The process of
heating and cooling certain vegetables, like peas and sweet
potatoes, can also alter the amount of resistant starches,
according to a 2009 study.
Studies on effect of multiple heating/cooling cycles on the
resistant starch formation in cereals, legumes and tubers.
the process of soaking foods in a
, often acidic,
liquid before cooking. The origin of the word alludes to the use of brine
(aqua marina) in the pickling process, which led to the technique of
adding flavor by immersion in liquid. The liquid in question, the
marinade, can be either acidic (made with ingredients such as vinegar,
lemon juice, or wine) or enzymatic (made with ingredients such as
pineapple, papaya, yogurt, or ginger), or have a neutral pH. In addition
to these ingredients, a marinade often contains oils, herbs, and spices to
further flavor the food items. It is commonly used to flavor foods and to
tenderize tougher cuts of meat. The process may last seconds or days.
Marinades vary between different cuisines. For example, in Indian cuisine
the marinade is usually prepared with a mixture of spices. Marination is
similar to brining, except that brining generally does not involve a
significant amount of acid. It is also similar to pickling, except that
pickling is generally done for much longer periods, primarily as a means
of food preservation, whereas marination is usually only performed for a
few hours to a day, generally as a means of enhancing the flavor of the
is softening or breaking into
pieces using a liquid. Raw, dried or preserved fruit or
are soaked in a liquid
to soften the food, or absorb the flavor of the liquid into the food. In
the case of fresh fruit, particularly soft fruit such as strawberries and
raspberries, the fruit is often simply sprinkled with sugar (and sometimes
a small amount of salt) and left to sit and release its own juices. This
process makes the food more flavorful and easier to chew and digest.
Maceration is often confused with marination, which is the process of
in a seasoned, often acidic,
liquid before cooking. Some herbal preparations call for maceration, as it
is one way to extract delicate or highly volatile herbal essences without
applying heat and thus to preserve their signature more accurately.
Sometimes a cooking oil is used as the liquid for maceration – especially
olive or some other vegetable oil. Maceration is the chief means of
producing a flavored alcoholic beverage, such as cordials and liqueurs.
Maceration of byproducts from food processing plants and other organic
byproducts such as cooking oil, stubble, wood chips or manure can involve
the use of a chopper pump to create a slurry which can be used to create
compost or co-digestion feedstock in biogas plants (or both).
is a primarily
liquid food, generally served warm or hot (but may be cool or cold), that
is made by combining ingredients
of meat or vegetables with stock, juice,
water, or another liquid. Hot soups are additionally characterized by
boiling solid ingredients in liquids in a pot until the flavors are
extracted, forming a broth. In traditional French cuisine, soups are
classified into two main groups: clear soups and thick soups. The
established French classifications of clear soups are bouillon and
consommé. Thick soups are classified depending upon the type of thickening
agent used: purées are vegetable soups thickened with starch; bisques are
made from puréed shellfish or vegetables thickened with cream; cream soups
may be thickened with béchamel sauce; and veloutés are thickened with
eggs, butter, and cream. Other ingredients commonly used to thicken soups
and broths include egg, rice, lentils, flour, and grains; many popular
soups also include pumpkin, carrots, and potatoes. Soups are similar to
stews, and in some cases there may not be a clear distinction between the
two; however, soups generally have more liquid (broth) than stews. "No
Soup for You
are soups traditionally prepared and consumed in the cultures of Asia.
Such soups are usually based solely on broths and lacking in dairy
products such as milk or cream. Thickening for the soups usually consists
of refined starches from corn or sweet potatoes.
is a type of clear soup made from richly flavored stock, or bouillon that
has been clarified, a process which uses egg whites to remove fat and
sediment. A consommé is made by adding a mixture of ground meats, together
with mirepoix (a combination of carrots, celery, and onion), tomatoes, and
egg whites into either bouillon or stock. The key to making a high quality
consommé is simmering; the act of simmering, combined with frequent
stirring, brings impurities to the surface of the liquid, which are
further drawn out due to the presence of acid from the tomatoes.
Eventually, the solids begin to congeal at the surface of the liquid,
forming a 'raft', which is caused by the proteins in the egg whites. Once
the 'raft' begins to form, the heat is reduced, and the consommé is
simmered at a lower heat until it reaches the desired flavor, which
usually takes anywhere from 45 minutes to over an hour. The resulting
concoction is a clear liquid that has either a rich amber colour (for beef
or veal consommé) or a very pale yellow colour (for poultry consommé). It
is then carefully drawn from the pot and passed again through a filter to
ensure its purity, and is then put through a lengthy process where all of
the visible fat is skimmed from the surface. To ensure total purification,
the consommé can be refrigerated, which draws out remaining fat, which can
easily be skimmed off with a cheesecloth. Alternatively, the consommé can
be placed in a wide, shallow container such as a sauté pan or large bowl
and wide strips of parchment paper can be dragged along the surface; the
tiny amounts of remaining fat adhere to the parchment, leaving the
consommé perfectly de-greased. Cartilage and tendons should be left on the
meat because of the gelatin they contain, which enhances the mouthfeel of
the soup. If beef or veal is used, shin meat is ideal because it is very
low in fat and very high in gristle, and although it is undesirable for
most other purposes, it is near essential for the flavour of the consommé.
The meat is best if it is ground very fine, as if for a mousseline.
is a combination
of solid food ingredients that have been cooked in liquid and served in
the resultant gravy. Ingredients in a stew can include any combination of
vegetables (such as carrots, potatoes, onions, beans, peppers, mushrooms,
and tomatoes) and may include meat, especially tougher meats suitable for
slow-cooking, such as beef. Poultry, sausages, and seafood are also used.
While water can be used as the stew-cooking liquid, stock is also common.
Seasoning and flavourings may also be added. Stews are typically cooked at
a relatively low temperature (simmered, not boiled), allowing flavours to
mingle. Stewing is suitable for the least tender cuts of meat that become
tender and juicy with the slow moist heat method. This makes it popular in
low-cost cooking. Cuts having a certain amount of marbling and gelatinous
connective tissue give moist, juicy stews, while lean meat may easily
become dry. Stews may be thickened by reduction or with flour, either by
coating pieces of meat with flour before searing, or by using a roux or
beurre manié, a dough consisting of equal parts of fat and flour.
Thickeners like cornstarch or arrowroot may also be used. Stews are
similar to soups, and in some cases there may not be a clear distinction
between the two. Generally, stews have less liquid than soups, are much
thicker and require longer cooking over low heat. While soups are almost
always served in a bowl, stews may be thick enough to be served on a plate
with the gravy as a sauce over the solid ingredients.
Stock, Broth, and Bouillon are almost the same
Stocks are made primarily from animal bones, as opposed to
meat, and therefore contain more gelatin, giving them a thicker texture.
Sometimes stock is cooked longer than broth and therefore has a more
intense flavor. Stock is left unseasoned for use in other recipes, while
broth is salted and otherwise seasoned and can be eaten alone.
is a flavored liquid preparation. It forms the basis of many dishes,
particularly soups, stews and sauces. Making stocks involves simmering
animal bones or meat, seafood, or
in water or wine, adding mirepoix or other aromatics for more flavor.
is a savory liquid
made of water in which bones, meat, or vegetables have been simmered. It
can be eaten alone, but it is most commonly used to prepare other dishes,
such as soups, gravies, and sauces. Commercially prepared liquid broths
are available, typically for chicken broth, beef broth, fish broth, and
vegetable broth. Broth is different from stock because it's
made by mainly
simmering meat and bones
(sometimes roasted, sometimes not) with herbs and mirepoix (a mix of onions, carrots and celery) for less time.
dehydrated bouillon (French for broth) or stock formed into a small cube
about 13 mm (1/2 in) wide. It is typically made from dehydrated
vegetables, meat stock, a small portion of fat, MSG, salt, and seasonings,
shaped into a small cube. Vegetarian and vegan types are also made.
Bouillon is also available in granular, powdered, or liquid form.
is a flavour base made from diced vegetables that are cooked,
usually with butter, oil, or other fat, for a long time on a low heat
without colour or browning. It is not sautéed or otherwise hard cooked
because the intention is to sweeten the ingredients rather than
Soup is like having a party in your mouth
, there's so many
different flavors. And you have to pay attention to each flavor and make
sure that you recognize each flavor, because if you don't, the party will
be boring. There's no sense going to a party if you don't talk to anyone
or notice anything interesting. If things are made to be enjoyed, they
should be enjoyed. And if you don't know how to enjoy things, you should
definitely learn how to enjoy things, because there are so many things to
enjoy in this world, and food is just one of many things to enjoy.
Soup du jour
is the soup featured by a
restaurant on a particular day. The soup of the day.
is said when you are
serving others food and you wish for them to enjoy their meal. French from
bon (“good”) + appétit (“appetite”).
Food Preparation Tips
Plan meals in order of what needs to be used up first, this way you can
eat things before they go bad.
Cook in large amounts and freeze
leftovers. Place enough food for 1-2 meals in each container.
Waste less with smaller servings. To avoid second serving temptation,
store extra servings in the refrigerator before sitting down for the
Leftover Makeover! Spice up leftovers by adding new fruits
and vegetables to create something new for the next day. Last night’s
dinner makes a great inexpensive lunch for today. Turn a chicken dinner
into a veggie-rich soup or extra veggie sides into a veggie casserole or
lasagna. Get creative with your leftover fruits and vegetables. Make salsa
from your tomatoes and freezer jam from your fruits!
organization that works to expand knowledge of food to make every
meal a better meal; not just at restaurants, but every meal cooked and
Make Homemade soup that’s chockfull of fruits and veggies.
Homemade soup is a healthy and tasty way to use fall fruits &
vegetables. Make a big batch and & freeze leftovers in small
lunch-size containers. Try these: butternut squash, mushroom and
barley, or carrot and apple. Search Recipes
Eat at home more
often. Eating at restaurants or buying packaged and processed foods
can increase the amount you spend on food. Buy basic ingredients, such
as fruits and vegetables, to cook more simple meals at home. See
Fruits & Vegetables on a Budget
Create a weekly meal plan that
uses the same ingredients in different ways. For instance, extra
grilled chicken can be used in a casserole or salad at another meal.
Keeping in mind the specific ways you like to eat it.
Cooking and Recipes
The Right Way to
Kill a Fish
(youtube) - Slow suffocation in the open air. It’s easy
for fishers, but it causes fish tons of stress, and floods their bodies
with chemicals like cortisol, adrenaline, and lactic acid. Those chemicals
make the fish taste bad, smell “fishy,” and rot quickly. But there's a
better way: a four-step Japanese method called ikejime. It involves sharp
knives. And a brain spike.
is a method of slaughtering fish to maintain the quality of its meat. It
lso stays fresher longer.
is the loss of blood to a degree sufficient to cause
death. Exsanguination is used as a method of slaughter. Before the fatal
incision is made, the animal may be rendered insensible to pain by various
methods, including captive bolt, electricity or chemical. Without prior
sedation, stunning or anesthetic, this method of slaughter causes a high
degree of anxiety.
Food Preserving Tips
Making Food Last Longer
is the process in which food deteriorates to the point in
which it is not edible to humans or its quality of edibility becomes
reduced. Various external forces are responsible for the spoilage of food.
Food that is capable of spoiling is referred to as perishable food.
Conversions - Measuring Ingredients
1 US gallon = 128 US fluid ounces
1 Gallon = 16 Cups
1 Gallon = 4 Quarts
1 Quart = 4 Cups
1 Quart = 32 Ounces
1 Quart = 2 Pints
1 Pint = 2 Cups
1 Cup = 8 Ounces
1 Cup = 16 Tablespoons
1 Cup = 48 Teaspoons
1 Gallon = 3.78541178 Liters
1 dash = 1/8 tsp
1 pinch = 1/16 tsp (1/2 dash)
1 smidgen = 1/32 tsp (1/4 dash)
1 nip = 1/64 tsp (1/8 dash)
Granulated sugar: 1 cup = 200 grams
Brown sugar: 1 cup, packed = 220 grams
Sifted white flour: 1 cup = 125 grams
White rice, uncooked: 1 cup = 185 grams
White rice, cooked: 1 cup = 175 grams
Butter: 1 cup = 227 grams
Almonds, slivered: 1 cup = 108 grams
Oil: 1 cup = 224 grams
Maple syrup: 1 cup = 322 grams
Milk, non-fat: 1 cup = 245 grams
Milk, sweetened condensed: 306 grams
Broccoli, flowerets: 1 cup = 71 grams
Raisins: 1 cup, packed = 165 grams
Milk, dry: 1 cup = 68 grams
Yogurt: 1 cup = 245 grams
Water: 1 cup = 236 grams
Confectioners sugar: 1 C = 110 g
Cocoa: 1 C = 125 g
Cups Grams Ounces
1/4 cup 34 g 1.2 oz
1/3 cup 45 g 1.6 oz
1/2 cup 68 g; 2.4 oz
1 cup 136 g 4.8 oz
Conversion of Units
is the conversion between different units of
for the same quantity, typically through multiplicative
conversion factors. The process of conversion depends on the specific
situation and the intended purpose. This may be governed by regulation,
contract, technical specifications or other published
Engineering judgment may include such factors as: The precision and
of measurement and the associated uncertainty of measurement. The
confidence interval or tolerance interval of the initial
measurement. The number of significant figures of the measurement. The
intended use of the measurement including the engineering tolerances.
Historical definitions of the units and their derivatives used in old
measurements; e.g., international foot vs. US survey foot.
conversions from one system of units to another
need to be exact, without
increasing or decreasing the precision of the first measurement. This is
sometimes called soft conversion. It does not involve changing the
physical configuration of the item being measured. By contrast, a hard
conversion or an adaptive conversion may not be exactly equivalent
changes the measurement to convenient and workable numbers and units in
the new system. It sometimes involves a slightly different configuration,
or size substitution, of the item. Nominal values are sometimes allowed
Measurement Conversion Resources