There are many ways to preserve the nutrient content in foods without sacrificing taste or other qualities. Cooking certain foods for shorter periods at lower temperatures with minimal water will produce the best results. Cooking temperatures and cooking methods also effect how foods digest, which could either be healthy or unhealthy.

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Cooking Pan over Flame Cooking is the art, technology and craft of preparing food for consumption with the use of Heat. Cooking techniques and ingredients vary widely across the world, from grilling food over an open fire to using electric stoves, to baking in various types of ovens, reflecting unique environmental, economic, and cultural traditions and trends.

Frying - Boiling - Conversions - Cooking Schools - Learning to Cook

Baking is a method of cooking food that uses prolonged dry heat, normally in an oven, but also in hot ashes, or on hot stones. The most common baked item is bread but many other types of foods are baked. Heat is gradually transferred "from the surface of cakes, cookies, and breads to their centre. As heat travels through it transforms batters and doughs into baked goods with a firm dry crust and a softer centre". Baking can be combined with grilling to produce a hybrid barbecue variant by using both methods simultaneously, or one after the other. Baking is related to barbecuing because the concept of the masonry oven is similar to that of a smoke pit. Fancy Cakes.

Oven is a thermally insulated chamber used for the heating, baking or drying of a substance, and most commonly used for cooking. Kilns and furnaces are special-purpose ovens, used in pottery and metalworking, respectively. Different ovens set to the same temperature can vary by as much as 90 degrees. Cooking food in an oven at 350 degrees is about chemistry. It’s hot enough to cook food fairly quickly but no so hot that your food burns.

Solar Ovens (cooking using the energy of the sun).

Kitchen Stove is a kitchen appliance designed for the purpose of cooking food. Kitchen Stoves rely on the application of direct heat for the cooking process and may also contain an oven, used for baking. "Cookstoves" (also called "cooking stoves" or "wood stoves") are heated by burning wood or charcoal; "gas stoves" are heated by gas; and "electric stoves" by electricity. A stove with multiple cooking surfaces is also called a range. Induction Glass Top Stoves.

Cookware for Glass Top Stoves

Cookware and Bake Ware are types of food preparation containers, commonly found in a kitchen. Cookware comprises cooking vessels, such as saucepans and frying pans, intended for use on a stove or range cooktop. Bakeware comprises cooking vessels intended for use inside an oven. Some utensils are considered both cookware and bakeware.

Frying Pan or skillet is a flat-bottomed pan used for frying, searing, and browning foods.

Cutlery includes any hand implement used in preparing, serving, and especially eating food in the Western world. A person who makes or sells cutlery is called a cutler. Usually known as silverware or flatware means knives and related cutting instruments.

Kitchen Utensil is a hand-held, typically small tool or utensil that is used in the kitchen, for food-related functions.

Knife is a tool with a cutting edge or blade. Butcher Knives - Swords.

KNASA Chef Knife Ultra-sharp and stays sharp 5 times longer than other knives, alloy is twice as strong as titanium.

Fork is a tool consisting of a handle with several narrow tines on one end. Metal Working.

Spoon is a utensil consisting of a small shallow bowl, oval or round, at the end of a handle.

Drinking Glass Styles and Shapes

Culinary Art is the art of the preparation, cooking and presentation of food, usually in the form of meals. People working in this field – especially in establishments such as restaurants – are commonly called "chefs" or "cooks", although, at its most general, the terms "culinary artist" and "culinarian" are also used. Table manners ("the table arts") are sometimes referred to as a culinary art. Culinarians are required to have knowledge of food science, nutrition and diet and are responsible for preparing meals that are as pleasing to the eye as well as to the palate. After restaurants, their primary places of work include delicatessens and relatively large institutions such as hotels and hospitals.

Chef is a trained and skilled professional cook who is proficient in all aspects of food preparation of a particular cuisine. The director or head of a kitchen. Chefs can receive both formal training from an institution, as well as through apprenticeship with an experienced chef. Food Chemistry - Heating.

"Chefs are masters of flavor enhancement. They are experts of temperature and time and professionals at measuring ingredients. They are performing artists at preparing a visual experience along with creating a sensory experience that opens a persons eyes to the possibilities of food. Chefs are like magicians who inspire us with their magic. We could easily learn some of their tricks and entertain ourselves with these skills, but sometimes, we like others to do the work for us, so that maybe we can learn from others what we could not learn on our own."

Full Course Dinner is a dinner consisting of multiple dishes, or courses. In its simplest form, it can consist of three or four courses, first course, a main course and dessert. The meal begins with an entrée, a small serving that usually does not include red meat. In Italian custom, antipasto is served, usually finger food that does not contain pasta or any starch. This may be followed by a variety of dishes, including a possible fish course or other light fare. The number and size of these intermittent courses is entirely dependent on local custom. Following these is the main course. This is the most important course and is usually the largest. Next comes the salad course, although salad may often refer to a cooked vegetable, rather than the greens most people associate with the word. Note that in America since around 1960, the salad course (usually a small, simple green salad lightly dressed) is served at some point before the main course. Sometimes, the salad also accompanies the cheese course. The meal may carry on with a cheese selection, accompanied by an appropriate selection of wine. In many countries cheeses will be served before the meal, and in the United States often between the main course and dessert, just like in most European countries. In the UK, more typically the cheese course will follow dessert. Nuts are also a popular after-meal selection (thus the common saying "from soup to nuts," meaning from beginning to end). The meal will often culminate with a dessert, either hot or cold, sometimes followed with a final serving of hot or cold fruit and accompanied by a suitable dessert wine.

Temperature and Time needed to Kill Bacteria

Cooking Temperature and Times Bacteria that causes Food Poisoning multiply quickest in the “Danger Zone” between 40˚ and 140˚ Fahrenheit. The possibility of bacterial growth actually increases as food cools after cooking because the drop in temperature allows bacteria to thrive. But you can keep your food above the safe temperature of 140˚F by using a heat source like a chafing dish, warming tray, or slow cooker. Most bacteria do not live above 120°F, and as you increase the temperature you kill more of them. At 102°F most bacteria can no longer reproduce, which is the protective nature of human fevers. Cooking food to 160 degrees F will kill most bacteria. But if the food has been at room temperature for more than two hours, bacteria may have accumulated to dangerous levels and formed heat-resistant toxins that cannot be killed by cooking. Generally most bacteria causing food borne illnesses die off above 130F (throughout the meat, so not just the outside) held for enough time. Boiling water kills or inactivates viruses, bacteria, protozoa and other pathogens by using heat to damage structural components and disrupt essential life processes (e.g. denature proteins). Boiling is not sterilization and is more accurately characterized as pasteurization. Boiling is the surest method to kill disease-causing organisms, including viruses, bacteria, and parasites. You can improve the flat taste of boiled water by pouring it from one container to another and then allowing it to stand for a few hours. Any active bacteria are killed by holding the stock for a minute at 150 degrees or above, and botulism toxin is inactivated by 10 minutes at the boil. But quickly reheating a contaminated stock just up to serving temperature won't destroy its active bacteria and toxins, and the stock will make people sick. Bacteria grow most rapidly in the range of temperatures between 40 °F and 140 °F, doubling in number in as little as 20 minutes. This range of temperatures is often called the "Danger Zone." Never leave food out of refrigeration over 2 hours. Microwave food thoroughly (to 165 ˚F). To make sure harmful bacteria have been killed in your foods, it’s important to microwave them to 165˚ or higher. Temperature and Taste.

High Heat Cooking Dangers

Be careful how you cook your food because high heat cooking can increase Advanced Glycation End-Products and Heterocyclic amine that could cause Carcinoge, Mutagen, Atherosclerosis, Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Diabetes. To avoid health risks from burning foods with high heat you should Eat more fresh foods or Cook at lower temperatures using moist heat techniques like Steam, boil, poach, baking, broiling or stew foods. Marinate foods in acidic liquids, such as lemon juice and vinegar, rather than sugary sauces, to reduce AGEs. If you choose to use the grill, be sure to clean off any charred remains on the grilling rack before cooking. Turn meat often, every 30 to 60 seconds, to avoid charring. If a food does become charred or blackened, cut off those pieces before eating. Choose thin, lean cuts of meat that require less cooking time. Opt for fish instead of meat because fish cooks faster, leaving less time for AGEs to form. Remove skin when cooking poultry because it chars easily. Heat used during cooking and other conditions can degrade vitamins, preventing adequate absorption.

Phytochemicals in freshly harvested plant foods may be degraded by processing techniques, including cooking. The main cause of phytochemical loss from cooking is thermal decomposition, which is a chemical decomposition caused by heat. The decomposition temperature of a substance is the temperature at which the substance chemically decomposes. The reaction is usually endothermic as heat is required to break chemical bonds in the compound undergoing decomposition. If decomposition is sufficiently exothermic, a positive feedback loop is created producing thermal runaway and possibly an explosion. A converse exists in the case of carotenoids, such as lycopene present in tomatoes, which may remain stable or increase in content from cooking due to liberation from cellular membranes in the cooked food. Food processing techniques like mechanical processing can also free carotenoids and other phytochemicals from the food matrix, increasing dietary intake. In some cases, processing of food is necessary to remove phytotoxins or antinutrients; for example societies that use cassava as a staple have traditional practices that involve some processing (soaking, cooking, fermentation, etc.), which are necessary to avoid getting sick from cyanogenic glycosides present in unprocessed cassava.

N-Acetyltransferase 2 is an enzyme which in humans is encoded by the NAT2 gene. This gene encodes a type of N-acetyltransferase. The NAT2 isozyme functions to both activate and deactivate arylamine and hydrazine drugs and carcinogens. Polymorphisms in this gene are responsible for the N-acetylation polymorphism in which human populations segregate into rapid, intermediate, and slow acetylator phenotypes. Polymorphisms in NAT2 are also associated with higher incidences of cancer and drug toxicity. A second arylamine N-acetyltransferase gene (NAT1) is located near NAT2.

Meat in Moderation

Smoke Point is the temperature that cooking fat or cooking oil begins to break down and produces smoke and then burns releasing and volatile compounds, such as free fatty acids, and short-chain degradation products of oxidation come up from the oil. These volatile compounds degrade in air to give Soot. The smoke point indicates the temperature limit up to which that cooking oil can be used. The smoke point of oil varies with its quality.

Effects of Chemicals and Toxins on the Human Body and Mind

Food Chemistry - Food Pairing

Barbecue Dangers

Barbecue is both a cooking method and an apparatus. The generally accepted differences between barbecuing and grilling are cooking durations and the types of heat used. Grilling is generally done quickly over moderate-to-high direct heat that produces little smoke, while barbecuing is done slowly over low, indirect heat and the food is flavored by the smoking process.

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon - PAHs can be decreased by 41-89% if drippings are removed and smoke is minimized.

Acrylamide happens when sugar and amino acids are cooked at 150 degrees. In some cooked starchy foods in 2002 prompted concerns about the carcinogenicity of those foods. As of 2016 it is still not clear whether acrylamide consumption affects people's risk of developing cancer. Acrylamide is considered a potential occupational carcinogen by U.S. government agencies and classified as a Group 2A carcinogen by the IARC. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health have set dermal occupational exposure limits at 0.03 mg/m3 over an eight-hour workday. In animal models, exposure to acrylamide causes tumors in the adrenal glands, thyroid, lungs, and testes. Acrylamide is easily absorbed by the skin and distributed throughout the organism; the highest levels of acrylamide post-exposure are found in the blood, non-exposed skin, kidneys, liver, testes, and spleen. Acrylamide can be metabolically-activated by cytochrome P450 to a genotoxic metabolite, glycidamide, which is considered to be a critical mode of action to the carcinogenesis of acrylamide. On the other hand, acrylamide and glycidamide can be detoxified via conjugation with glutathione to form acrylamide- and isomeric glycidamide-glutathione conjugates, subsequently metabolized to mercapturic acids and excreted in urine. Acrylamide has also been found to have neurotoxic effects in humans who have been exposed. Animal studies show neurotoxic effects as well as mutations in sperm. As of 2014 it is still not clear whether dietary acrylamide consumption affects people's risk of developing cancer. Experimental results that are based on feeding acrylamide to animals might not be applicable to humans. Food industry workers exposed to twice the average level of acrylamide do not exhibit higher cancer rates. Acrylamide is also a skin irritant and may be a tumor initiator in the skin, potentially increasing risk for skin cancer. Symptoms of acrylamide exposure include dermatitis in the exposed area and peripheral neuropathy. Laboratory research has found that some phytochemicals may have the potential to be developed into drugs which could alleviate the toxicity of acrylamide. 

Lectin are carbohydrate-binding proteins, macromolecules that are highly specific for sugar moieties of other molecules. Lectins perform recognition on the cellular and molecular level and play numerous roles in biological recognition phenomena involving cells, carbohydrates, and proteins. Lectins also mediate attachment and binding of bacteria and viruses to their intended targets. Lectins are ubiquitous in nature and are found in many foods. Some foods such as beans and grains need to be cooked or fermented to reduce lectin content, but the lectins consumed in a typical balanced diet are not harmful. Some lectins are beneficial, such as CLEC11A which promotes bone growth, while others may be powerful toxins such as ricin. Lectins may be disabled by specific mono- and oligosaccharides, which bind to ingested lectins from grains, legume, nightshade plants and dairy; binding can prevent their attachment to the carbohydrates within the cell membrane. The selectivity of lectins means that they are very useful for analyzing blood type, and they are also used in some genetically engineered crops to transfer traits, such as resistance to pests and resistance to herbicides. Lectins bind to sugar molecules. Leptin.

Fried food linked to heightened risk of early death among older US women. Fried chicken and fried fish in particular seem to be associated with higher risk of death.

Does Dark Roast Coffee have more cancer causing chemicals? Dark doesn’t have to mean burnt. The chemical, acrylamide, is produced during the coffee bean roasting process, as well as when sugars and amino acids found in other foods are cooked at high temperatures. Acrylamide is a byproduct formed when sugars and amino acids naturally occurring in starchy foods, such as potatoes and cereal grains, are cooked at high temperatures. Research has shown that if food is burnt or heated excessively then a certain group of carcinogenic substances are released which are known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Once these substances have been consumed by the individual via the burnt food then they also travel into the intestines and other organs of the human body via the process of blood circulation. In such cases, these polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons not only cause cancer but also tend to increase toxicity of bone marrow, suppression of the immune system, reproductive toxicity, liver toxicity as well as cardiovascular toxicity.

Toasted Bread. The process of toasting bread removes the water from the bread and not the nutrients, so it doesn't affect the calorie content of the piece of Bread before toasting. Lightly Toasted Bread is Better than Darker or Burnt Toast because you can create toxic substances like acrylamide. Although toasting bread doesn't have a large effect on the amount of essential nutrients in the bread, it does cause some chemical changes that affect how healthy the bread is. Some of its amino acids and sugars react together through the Maillard reaction. When you toast bread you continue the Maillard reaction and cause the formation of new compounds, which could be better or worse for you. Food Chemistry.

Maillard Reaction is a chemical reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars that gives browned food its distinctive flavour. Seared steaks, pan-fried dumplings, cookies and other kinds of biscuits, breads, toasted marshmallows, and many other foods undergo this reaction. It is named after French chemist Louis-Camille Maillard, who first described it in 1912 while attempting to reproduce biological protein synthesis. The reaction is a form of non-enzymatic browning which typically proceeds rapidly from around 140 to 165 °C (280 to 330 °F). Many recipes call for an oven temperature high enough to ensure that a Maillard reaction occurs. At higher temperatures, caramelization and subsequently pyrolysis become more pronounced. The reactive carbonyl group of the sugar reacts with the nucleophilic amino group of the amino acid, and forms a complex mixture of poorly characterized molecules responsible for a range of aromas and flavors. This process is accelerated in an alkaline environment (e.g., lye applied to darken pretzels; see lye roll), as the amino groups (RNH3+ → RNH2) are deprotonated, hence have an increased nucleophilicity. The type of the amino acid determines the resulting flavor. This reaction is the basis for many of the flavoring industry's recipes. At high temperatures, a potential carcinogen called acrylamide can be formed. In the process, hundreds of different flavor compounds are created. These compounds, in turn, break down to form yet more new flavor compounds, and so on. Each type of food has very distinctive flavor compounds that are formed during the Maillard reaction. Flavor scientists have used these same compounds over the years to make artificial flavors.

Caramelization is the browning of sugar, a process used extensively in cooking for the resulting sweet nutty flavor and brown color. The brown colours are produced by three groups of polymers: caramelans (C24H36O18), caramelens (C36H50O25), and caramelins (C125H188O80). As the process occurs, volatile chemicals such as diacetyl are released, producing the characteristic caramel flavor. Like the Maillard reaction, caramelization is a type of non-enzymatic browning. However, unlike the Maillard reaction, caramelization is pyrolytic, as opposed to being a reaction with amino acids. When caramelization involves the disaccharide sucrose, it is broken down into the monosaccharides fructose and glucose. Sucrose: 160° C, 320° F / Glucose: 160° C, 320° F / Fructose: 110° C, 230° F / Lactose: 203° C, 397° F.

Several key nutrients are reduced with some cooking methods. Although cooking improves digestion and the absorption of many nutrients, the levels of some vitamins and minerals may decrease. Cooking food improves digestion and increases absorption of many nutrients. Protein in cooked eggs is 180% more digestible than in raw eggs.

The following Nutrients are often Reduced during Cooking: Water-Soluble Vitamins: Vitamin C and the B vitamins — thiamin (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), pantothenic acid (B5), pyridoxine (B6), folic acid (B7) and cobalamin (B8). Fat-Soluble Vitamins: Vitamins A, D, E and K. Minerals: primarily potassium, magnesium, sodium and calcium.

Poaching: less than 180°F / 82°C.

Simmering: 185-200°F / 85-93°C.

Boiling: 212°F / 100°C. - Bacteria

Vegetables are generally a great source of vitamin C, but a large amount of it is lost when cooked in water. Boiling reduces vitamin C more than any other cooking. While water-based cooking methods cause the greatest losses of water-soluble vitamins, they have very little effect on omega-3 fats.

Parboiling is the partial boiling of food as the first step in cooking. The word is from the Old French 'parboillir' (to boil thoroughly) but by mistaken association with 'part' it has acquired its current meaning. The word is often used when referring to parboiled rice. Parboiling can also be used for removing poisonous or foul-tasting substances from foodstuffs, and to soften vegetables before roasting them. The food items are added to boiling water and cooked until they start to soften, then removed before they are fully cooked. Parboiling is usually used to partially cook an item which will then be cooked another way such as braising, grilling, or stir-frying. Parboiling differs from blanching in that one does not cool the items using cold water or ice after removing them from the boiling water. Steeping.

Blanching is a cooking process wherein a food, usually a vegetable or fruit, is scalded in boiling water, removed after a brief, timed interval, and finally plunged into iced water or placed under cold running water (shocking or refreshing) to halt the cooking process. Blanching foods will help reduce quality loss over time. Blanching is often used as a pre-treatment used prior to freezing, drying, or canning in which vegetables or fruits are heated in order to inactivate enzymes, modify texture, remove the peel, and wilt tissue. Blanching is also utilized to preserve color, flavor, and nutritional value. The process has three stages: preheating, blanching, and cooling. The most common blanching methods for vegetables/fruits are hot water and steam, while cooling is either done using cold water or cool air. Other benefits of blanching include removing pesticide residues and decreasing microbial load. Drawbacks to the blanching process can include leaching of water-soluble and heat sensitive nutrients and the production of effluent.

Parcooking refers to the technique of partially cooking foods so that they can be finished later. There are two primary reasons for using this technique. First, it allows foods to be prepared ahead of time, and quickly heated prior to serving. Since the second reheat finishes the cooking process, foods are not overcooked as leftovers often are. This is a common technique in the processed food industry, and most frozen and prepared foods are par-cooked. A second reason is to take advantage of different cooking techniques. For example, one method of preparing french fries involves first boiling, then frying the potatoes, so they have a crisp exterior and fluffy interior. In stir-fries or other mixed dishes, meats, root vegetables, and other foods that take a long time to cook, will be par-cooked so they finish at the same time as other foods.

Parbaking is a cooking technique in which a bread or dough product is partially baked and then rapidly frozen for storage. The raw dough is baked normally, but halted at about 80% of the normal cooking time, when it is rapidly cooled and frozen. The partial cooking kills the yeast in the bread mixture, and sets the internal structure of the proteins and starches (the spongy texture of the bread), so that the inside is sterile and stable, but the loaf has not generated "crust" or other externally desirable qualities that are difficult to preserve once fully cooked. A parbaked loaf of semi-cooked bread is in a form that is relatively stable against aging. It can be transported easily, and stored until needed. Parbaked loaves are kept in sealed containers that prevent moisture loss. They are also usually frozen. A parbaked loaf appears as a risen loaf of bread, with much of the firmness of a finished loaf, but without a browned or golden crust (in the case of a normally light colored bread). It does not age or become stale like a fully baked loaf of bread. When the final bread product is desired, a parbaked loaf is "finished off" by baking it at normal temperatures for an additional 10 to 15 minutes. The exact time must be determined by testing, and varies by the product. The final bread is then often indistinguishable from freshly baked bread.

Eat pasta Al dente to lower the glycemic index for better blood sugar control - and eat smaller portions of pasta to avoid creating a carbohydrate overload and a spike in high blood sugar. Buy pasta with a low glycemic index.

Microwaving is the best method for retaining the antioxidant activity in garlic and mushrooms.

Roasting and Baking refer to cooking food in an oven with dry heat. Roasting or baking does not have a significant effect on most vitamins and minerals, with the exception of B vitamins. Food Chemistry.

Sautéing and Stir-Frying, food is cooked in a saucepan over medium to high heat in a small amount of oil or butter. Absorption of beta-carotene was 6.5 times greater in stir-fried carrots than in raw. Blood lycopene levels increased 80% more when people consumed tomatoes sautéed in olive oil rather than without. Sautéing and stir-frying improve the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins and some plant compounds, but they decrease the amount of vitamin C in vegetables.

Frying tuna has been shown to degrade its omega-3 content by up to 70-85%, while baking caused only minimal losses. When oil is heated to a high temperature for a long period of time, toxic substances called aldehydes are formed. Use one of the healthiest oils for frying. Coconut Oil is the Healthiest Oil For Deep Frying. Others good oils are Olive oil, Avocado Oil, Peanut oil, and Palm oil. Oils for deep frying to avoid are Soybean oil, Corn oil, Sesame oil, Canola oil (also called rapeseed oil), Cottonseed oil, Safflower oil, Rice bran oil, Grape seed oil and Sunflower oil.

Steaming is one of the best cooking methods for preserving nutrients, including water-soluble vitamins that are sensitive to heat and water steaming broccoli, spinach and lettuce reduces their vitamin C content by only 9-15%. Steaming is one of the best cooking methods for preserving nutrients, including water-soluble vitamins.

Here are 10 tips to reduce nutrient loss while cooking:
Use as little water as possible for poaching or boiling.
Consume the liquid left in the pan after cooking vegetables.
Add back juices from meat that drip into the pan.
Don’t peel vegetables until after cooking them. Better yet, don’t peel at all to maximize fiber and nutrient density.
Cook vegetables in smaller amounts of water to reduce loss of vitamin C and B vitamins.
Try to finish cooked vegetables within a day or two, as vitamin C content may continue to decline when the cooked food is exposed to air.
Cut food after rather than before cooking, if possible. When food is cooked whole, less of it is exposed to heat and water.
Cook vegetables for only a few minutes whenever possible. - Low-Temperature Cooking
When cooking meat, poultry and fish, use the shortest cooking time needed for safe consumption.
Don’t use baking soda when cooking vegetables. Although it helps maintain color, vitamin C will be lost in the alkaline environment produced by baking soda.

Rice - Starches: Cooking rice to have healthier carbohydrates that do not cause spikes in blood sugar and insulin levels. Poor digestibility of starch may have negative effects on the utilization of protein and minerals but is likely to have positive effects on the availability of certain vitamins. Depending on the method of preparation, rive undergoes observable chemical changes. Most notably, fried rice and pilaf style rice have a greater proportion of resistant starch than the most commonly eaten type, steamed rice.

New Method: Cook the rice as you normally do, but when the water is boiling, before adding the raw rice, add coconut oil—about 3 percent of the weight of the rice you're going to cook, After it was ready, let it cool in the refrigerator for about 12 hours.

Not all starches are created equal. Some, known as digestible starches, take only a little time to digest, are quickly turned into glucose, and then later glycogen. Excess glycogen ends up adding to the size of our guts if we don't expend enough energy to burn it off. Other starches, meanwhile, called resistant starches, take a long time for the body to process, aren't converted into glucose or glycogen because we lack the ability to digest them, and add up to fewer calories.

Rapidly Digestible Starch (RDS)
Slowly Digestible Starch (SDS)
Resistant Starch (RS)

Resistant Starch refers to starch and starch degradation products that escape from digestion in the small intestine of healthy individuals. Resistant starch occurs naturally in foods but is also added to foods by the addition of isolated or manufactured types of resistant starch.

Potatoes go from having the right kind of starch to the less healthful kind when they are cooked or mashed. The process of heating and cooling certain vegetables, like peas and sweet potatoes, can also alter the amount of resistant starches, according to a 2009 study.

Studies on effect of multiple heating/cooling cycles on the resistant starch formation in cereals, legumes and tubers.

Marination is the process of soaking foods in a seasoned, often acidic, liquid before cooking. The origin of the word alludes to the use of brine (aqua marina) in the pickling process, which led to the technique of adding flavor by immersion in liquid. The liquid in question, the marinade, can be either acidic (made with ingredients such as vinegar, lemon juice, or wine) or enzymatic (made with ingredients such as pineapple, papaya, yogurt, or ginger), or have a neutral pH. In addition to these ingredients, a marinade often contains oils, herbs, and spices to further flavor the food items. It is commonly used to flavor foods and to tenderize tougher cuts of meat. The process may last seconds or days. Marinades vary between different cuisines. For example, in Indian cuisine the marinade is usually prepared with a mixture of spices. Marination is similar to brining, except that brining generally does not involve a significant amount of acid. It is also similar to pickling, except that pickling is generally done for much longer periods, primarily as a means of food preservation, whereas marination is usually only performed for a few hours to a day, generally as a means of enhancing the flavor of the food. Infusion - Pickling.

Maceration is softening or breaking into pieces using a liquid. Raw, dried or preserved fruit or vegetables are soaked in a liquid to soften the food, or absorb the flavor of the liquid into the food. In the case of fresh fruit, particularly soft fruit such as strawberries and raspberries, the fruit is often simply sprinkled with sugar (and sometimes a small amount of salt) and left to sit and release its own juices. This process makes the food more flavorful and easier to chew and digest. Maceration is often confused with marination, which is the process of soaking foods in a seasoned, often acidic, liquid before cooking. Some herbal preparations call for maceration, as it is one way to extract delicate or highly volatile herbal essences without applying heat and thus to preserve their signature more accurately. Sometimes a cooking oil is used as the liquid for maceration – especially olive or some other vegetable oil. Maceration is the chief means of producing a flavored alcoholic beverage, such as cordials and liqueurs. Maceration of byproducts from food processing plants and other organic byproducts such as cooking oil, stubble, wood chips or manure can involve the use of a chopper pump to create a slurry which can be used to create compost or co-digestion feedstock in biogas plants (or both). Steeping.


Soup is a primarily liquid food, generally served warm or hot (but may be cool or cold), that is made by combining ingredients of meat or vegetables with stock, juice, water, or another liquid. Hot soups are additionally characterized by boiling solid ingredients in liquids in a pot until the flavors are extracted, forming a broth. In traditional French cuisine, soups are classified into two main groups: clear soups and thick soups. The established French classifications of clear soups are bouillon and consommé. Thick soups are classified depending upon the type of thickening agent used: purées are vegetable soups thickened with starch; bisques are made from puréed shellfish or vegetables thickened with cream; cream soups may be thickened with béchamel sauce; and veloutés are thickened with eggs, butter, and cream. Other ingredients commonly used to thicken soups and broths include egg, rice, lentils, flour, and grains; many popular soups also include pumpkin, carrots, and potatoes. Soups are similar to stews, and in some cases there may not be a clear distinction between the two; however, soups generally have more liquid (broth) than stews. "No Soup for You".

Asian Soups are soups traditionally prepared and consumed in the cultures of Asia. Such soups are usually based solely on broths and lacking in dairy products such as milk or cream. Thickening for the soups usually consists of refined starches from corn or sweet potatoes.

Consommé is a type of clear soup made from richly flavored stock, or bouillon that has been clarified, a process which uses egg whites to remove fat and sediment. A consommé is made by adding a mixture of ground meats, together with mirepoix (a combination of carrots, celery, and onion), tomatoes, and egg whites into either bouillon or stock. The key to making a high quality consommé is simmering; the act of simmering, combined with frequent stirring, brings impurities to the surface of the liquid, which are further drawn out due to the presence of acid from the tomatoes. Eventually, the solids begin to congeal at the surface of the liquid, forming a 'raft', which is caused by the proteins in the egg whites. Once the 'raft' begins to form, the heat is reduced, and the consommé is simmered at a lower heat until it reaches the desired flavor, which usually takes anywhere from 45 minutes to over an hour. The resulting concoction is a clear liquid that has either a rich amber colour (for beef or veal consommé) or a very pale yellow colour (for poultry consommé). It is then carefully drawn from the pot and passed again through a filter to ensure its purity, and is then put through a lengthy process where all of the visible fat is skimmed from the surface. To ensure total purification, the consommé can be refrigerated, which draws out remaining fat, which can easily be skimmed off with a cheesecloth. Alternatively, the consommé can be placed in a wide, shallow container such as a sauté pan or large bowl and wide strips of parchment paper can be dragged along the surface; the tiny amounts of remaining fat adhere to the parchment, leaving the consommé perfectly de-greased. Cartilage and tendons should be left on the meat because of the gelatin they contain, which enhances the mouthfeel of the soup. If beef or veal is used, shin meat is ideal because it is very low in fat and very high in gristle, and although it is undesirable for most other purposes, it is near essential for the flavour of the consommé. The meat is best if it is ground very fine, as if for a mousseline.

Stew is a combination of solid food ingredients that have been cooked in liquid and served in the resultant gravy. Ingredients in a stew can include any combination of vegetables (such as carrots, potatoes, onions, beans, peppers, mushrooms, and tomatoes) and may include meat, especially tougher meats suitable for slow-cooking, such as beef. Poultry, sausages, and seafood are also used. While water can be used as the stew-cooking liquid, stock is also common. Seasoning and flavourings may also be added. Stews are typically cooked at a relatively low temperature (simmered, not boiled), allowing flavours to mingle. Stewing is suitable for the least tender cuts of meat that become tender and juicy with the slow moist heat method. This makes it popular in low-cost cooking. Cuts having a certain amount of marbling and gelatinous connective tissue give moist, juicy stews, while lean meat may easily become dry. Stews may be thickened by reduction or with flour, either by coating pieces of meat with flour before searing, or by using a roux or beurre manié, a dough consisting of equal parts of fat and flour. Thickeners like cornstarch or arrowroot may also be used. Stews are similar to soups, and in some cases there may not be a clear distinction between the two. Generally, stews have less liquid than soups, are much thicker and require longer cooking over low heat. While soups are almost always served in a bowl, stews may be thick enough to be served on a plate with the gravy as a sauce over the solid ingredients.

Stock, Broth, and Bouillon are almost the same thing. Stocks are made primarily from animal bones, as opposed to meat, and therefore contain more gelatin, giving them a thicker texture. Sometimes stock is cooked longer than broth and therefore has a more intense flavor. Stock is left unseasoned for use in other recipes, while broth is salted and otherwise seasoned and can be eaten alone.

Stock is a flavored liquid preparation. It forms the basis of many dishes, particularly soups, stews and sauces. Making stocks involves simmering animal bones or meat, seafood, or vegetables in water or wine, adding mirepoix or other aromatics for more flavor.

Broth is a savory liquid made of water in which bones, meat, or vegetables have been simmered. It can be eaten alone, but it is most commonly used to prepare other dishes, such as soups, gravies, and sauces. Commercially prepared liquid broths are available, typically for chicken broth, beef broth, fish broth, and vegetable broth. Broth is different from stock because it's made by mainly simmering meat and bones (sometimes roasted, sometimes not) with herbs and mirepoix (a mix of onions, carrots and celery) for less time.

Bouillon Cube is dehydrated bouillon (French for broth) or stock formed into a small cube about 13 mm (1/2 in) wide. It is typically made from dehydrated vegetables, meat stock, a small portion of fat, MSG, salt, and seasonings, shaped into a small cube. Vegetarian and vegan types are also made. Bouillon is also available in granular, powdered, or liquid form.

Mirepoix is a flavour base made from diced vegetables that are cooked, usually with butter, oil, or other fat, for a long time on a low heat without colour or browning. It is not sautéed or otherwise hard cooked because the intention is to sweeten the ingredients rather than caramelise them.

Good Soup is like having a party in your mouth, there's so many different flavors. And you have to pay attention to each flavor and make sure that you recognize each flavor, because if you don't, the party will be boring. There's no sense going to a party if you don't talk to anyone or notice anything interesting. If things are made to be enjoyed, they should be enjoyed. And if you don't know how to enjoy things, you should definitely learn how to enjoy things, because there are so many things to enjoy in this world, and food is just one of many things to enjoy.

Soup du jour is the soup featured by a restaurant on a particular day. The soup of the day.

Bon Appetit is said when you are serving others food and you wish for them to enjoy their meal. French from bon‎ (“good”) + appétit ‎(“appetite”).

Food Preparation Tips

Plan meals in order of what needs to be used up first, this way you can eat things before they go bad.

Food Preparation Techniques (PDF)

Cook in large amounts and freeze leftovers. Place enough food for 1-2 meals in each container.

Waste less with smaller servings. To avoid second serving temptation, store extra servings in the refrigerator before sitting down for the meal.

Leftover Makeover! Spice up leftovers by adding new fruits and vegetables to create something new for the next day. Last night’s dinner makes a great inexpensive lunch for today. Turn a chicken dinner into a veggie-rich soup or extra veggie sides into a veggie casserole or lasagna. Get creative with your leftover fruits and vegetables. Make salsa from your tomatoes and freezer jam from your fruits!

Food Chemistry

Mad Feed organization that works to expand knowledge of food to make every meal a better meal; not just at restaurants, but every meal cooked and served.

Make Homemade soup that’s chockfull of fruits and veggies. Homemade soup is a healthy and tasty way to use fall fruits & vegetables. Make a big batch and & freeze leftovers in small lunch-size containers. Try these: butternut squash, mushroom and barley, or carrot and apple. Search Recipes

Eat at home more often. Eating at restaurants or buying packaged and processed foods can increase the amount you spend on food. Buy basic ingredients, such as fruits and vegetables, to cook more simple meals at home. See Fruits & Vegetables on a Budget

Create a weekly meal plan that uses the same ingredients in different ways. For instance, extra grilled chicken can be used in a casserole or salad at another meal. Keeping in mind the specific ways you like to eat it.

Cooking and Recipes 

The Right Way to Kill a Fish (youtube) - Slow suffocation in the open air. It’s easy for fishers, but it causes fish tons of stress, and floods their bodies with chemicals like cortisol, adrenaline, and lactic acid. Those chemicals make the fish taste bad, smell “fishy,” and rot quickly. But there's a better way: a four-step Japanese method called ikejime. It involves sharp knives. And a brain spike. Ikejime is a method of slaughtering fish to maintain the quality of its meat. It lso stays fresher longer. Exsanguination is the loss of blood to a degree sufficient to cause death. Exsanguination is used as a method of slaughter. Before the fatal incision is made, the animal may be rendered insensible to pain by various methods, including captive bolt, electricity or chemical. Without prior sedation, stunning or anesthetic, this method of slaughter causes a high degree of anxiety.

Food Preserving Tips - Making Food Last Longer

Food Spoilage is the process in which food deteriorates to the point in which it is not edible to humans or its quality of edibility becomes reduced. Various external forces are responsible for the spoilage of food. Food that is capable of spoiling is referred to as perishable food.

Food Safety - Food Waste - Sustainable Farming

Conversions - Measuring Ingredients

1 US gallon = 128 US fluid ounces
1 Gallon = 16 Cups
1 Gallon = 4 Quarts
1 Quart = 4 Cups
1 Quart = 32 Ounces
1 Quart = 2 Pints
1 Pint = 2 Cups
1 Cup = 8 Ounces
1 Cup = 16 Tablespoons
1 Cup = 48 Teaspoons
1 Gallon = 3.78541178 Liters
1 dash = 1/8 tsp
1 pinch = 1/16 tsp (1/2 dash)
1 smidgen = 1/32 tsp (1/4 dash)
1 nip = 1/64 tsp (1/8 dash)

Granulated sugar: 1 cup = 200 grams
Brown sugar: 1 cup, packed = 220 grams
Sifted white flour: 1 cup = 125 grams
White rice, uncooked: 1 cup = 185 grams
White rice, cooked: 1 cup = 175 grams
Butter: 1 cup = 227 grams
Almonds, slivered: 1 cup = 108 grams
Oil: 1 cup = 224 grams
Maple syrup: 1 cup = 322 grams
Milk, non-fat: 1 cup = 245 grams
Milk, sweetened condensed: 306 grams
Broccoli, flowerets: 1 cup = 71 grams
Raisins: 1 cup, packed = 165 grams
Milk, dry: 1 cup = 68 grams
Yogurt: 1 cup = 245 grams
Water: 1 cup = 236 grams
Confectioners sugar: 1 C = 110 g
Cocoa: 1 C = 125 g

Bread Flour
Cups         Grams     Ounces
1/4 cup      34 g        1.2 oz
1/3 cup      45 g        1.6 oz
1/2 cup      68 g;       2.4 oz
1 cup         136 g      4.8 oz

Conversion of Units is the conversion between different units of measurement for the same quantity, typically through multiplicative conversion factors. The process of conversion depends on the specific situation and the intended purpose. This may be governed by regulation, contract, technical specifications or other published standards. Engineering judgment may include such factors as: The precision and accuracy of measurement and the associated uncertainty of measurement. The statistical confidence interval or tolerance interval of the initial measurement. The number of significant figures of the measurement. The intended use of the measurement including the engineering tolerances. Historical definitions of the units and their derivatives used in old measurements; e.g., international foot vs. US survey foot. Some conversions from one system of units to another need to be exact, without increasing or decreasing the precision of the first measurement. This is sometimes called soft conversion. It does not involve changing the physical configuration of the item being measured. By contrast, a hard conversion or an adaptive conversion may not be exactly equivalent. It changes the measurement to convenient and workable numbers and units in the new system. It sometimes involves a slightly different configuration, or size substitution, of the item. Nominal values are sometimes allowed and used.

Measurement Conversion Resources
Measurement Conversions
Stabb Conversion Tool
Traditional Oven
Online Conversion
Convert World
Unit Juggler
Rapid Tables

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