Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence - Body Smart

Body Smart entails the potential of using one’s whole body or parts of the body to solve problems. It is the acquisition and clarification of values related to the physical environment. Kinesiology is a scientific study of human or non-human body movement. Kinesiology addresses physiological, biomechanical, and psychological mechanisms of movement. Senses.

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Body Language - Handshake - Non-Verbal Communication - Body Mind Connections

Muscle Memory has been used synonymously with motor learning, which is a form of procedural memory that involves consolidating a specific motor task into memory through repetition. When a movement is repeated over time, a long-term muscle memory is created for that task, eventually allowing it to be performed without conscious effort. This process decreases the need for attention and creates maximum efficiency within the motor and memory systems. Examples of muscle memory are found in many everyday activities that become automatic and improve with practice, such as riding a bicycle, typing on a keyboard, typing in a PIN, playing a musical instrument, martial arts or even dancing. The body is a multi-tasking machine.

Body Memory is a hypothesis that the body itself is capable of storing memories, as opposed to only the brain.

Dance - Music - Exercising - Sensory Memory

Movement helps us to think. Unrestrained walking and the freedom to make self determined movements and the freedom to move without external constraints, helps us to think and be creative. Motor restrictions impair divergent thinking.

Motor Learning is a change, resulting from practice or a new experience, in the capability for responding. It often involves improving the smoothness and accuracy of movements and is obviously necessary for complicated movements such as speaking, playing the piano, and climbing trees; but it is also important for calibrating simple movements like reflexes, as parameters of the body and environment change over time.

Child Development - Boys with good motor skills excel at problem-solving

Motor Cortex is the region of the cerebral cortex involved in the planning, control, and execution of voluntary movements. Classically the motor cortex is an area of the frontal lobe located in the posterior precentral gyrus immediately anterior to the central sulcus. Compass.

The Cerebellum does more than just control muscle activity. It also plays a role in cognitive functions.

Psychomotor Learning is the relationship between cognitive functions and physical movement. Psychomotor learning is demonstrated by physical skills such as movement, coordination, manipulation, dexterity, grace, strength, speed; actions which demonstrate the fine motor skills such as use of precision instruments or tools. Behavioral examples include driving a car, throwing a ball, and playing a musical instrument. In psychomotor learning research, attention is given to the learning of coordinated activity involving the arms, hands, fingers, and feet, while verbal processes are not emphasized.

Movement in Learning is a teaching method based on the concept that humans learn better through movement. This teaching method can be applied to students, who should have the opportunity throughout a class period to move around to take "brain breaks" to refocus their attention so they can learn new material. Brain research suggests that physical activity prior to class (in PE for example) and during class, increases students' ability to process and retain new material. Evidence regarding the benefits of incorporating movement in the classroom is promising.

Physical exercise boosts motor learning -- and remembering what one has learned. Violinists, surgeons and gamers can benefit from physical exercise both before and after practicing their new skills. The same holds true for anyone seeking to improve their fine motor skills.

Stress seems to have a negative effect on the learning of movements -- at least in mice. This is the conclusion of a recent study at the University of Bonn. According to the study, the neurons of rodents lose some of their contacts with other neurons after stress. The animals also developed motor deficits.

Learning by doing: How the brain's motor system can support vocabulary learning. Neuroscientists present new findings on how the motor cortex can help learn foreign vocabulary more quickly. The new data suggests that learning techniques that involve the performance of gestures instead of simple audio or visual information can benefit learners. The motor cortex is a brain region known to control the body's voluntary movements. However, the team of neuroscientists have now shown that it can also help translating foreign language words into one's native language.

Somatic are actions affecting or characteristic of the body as opposed to the mind or spirit.

How does our brain process and store movement? Scientists find the answer, with implications for multiple diseases as well as machine learning. Researchers examining the brain at a single-neuron level found that computation happens not just in the interaction between neurons, but within each individual neuron. Each of these cells, it turns out, is not a simple switch, but a complicated calculating machine. From the moment we are born, and even before that, we interact with the world through movement. We move our lips to smile or to talk. We extend our hand to touch. We move our eyes to see. We wiggle, we walk, we gesture, we dance. How does our brain remember this wide range of motions? How does it learn new ones? How does it make the calculations necessary for us to grab a glass of water, without dropping it, squashing it, or missing it?

Movement Coach might look at normal daily tasks like a persons ability to bend, lift, twist, reach, push and pull, how easy they find it to get in and out of chairs or climb stairs. For an athlete or sportsperson, a Movement Coach might develop their ability to run, jump, throw, kick or punch, enhancing sport specific strength, speed, power or endurance. For those clients who have suffered injury or that suffer aches or pains, Movement Coaching can help regain mobility and support recovery. In each case, the philosophy is the same. A Movement Coach observes, evaluates and prescribes ‘natural authentic movement’. Learn to observe, evaluate and then prescribe exercise to improve fundamental patterns of movement like walking, running, bending, lifting, twisting, pushing, pulling and reaching. STRIVE Movement Coaching is based on three, very simple principles. Natural Movement, Intelligent Training and Functional Rehabilitation. Physical Therapy.

Children living in countryside outperform children living in metropolitan area in motor skills. Finnish children living in the countryside spent more time outdoors and had better motor skills than their age peers in the metropolitan area. On the other hand, children living in the metropolitan area participated the most in organized sports.

Scientists shed new light on neural processes behind learning and motor behaviors. There are four regions in the basal ganglia: the striatum, globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra. While we already understand the neural circuitry between these regions, we still don't know why some symptoms occur in Parkinson's disease and other disorders that affect movement.

How your brain remembers motor sequences. Researchers have visualized how information is represented in a widespread area in the human cerebral cortex during a performance of skilled finger movement sequences. The results uncovered the first detailed map of cortical sequence representation in the human brain.

Sports - Sports Science - Golf Stroke Mechanics - Reflex

Motile are single-celled organisms capable of motion or moving or able to move by itself. Motility is the ability of an organism to move independently, using metabolic. In psychology motile relates to responses that involve muscular rather than audiovisual sensations.

Mobility is the ability to move or be moved freely and easily.

Locomotion is the power or the ability to move. Self-propelled movement. Motion Physics.

Why Four-Legged Animals are better sprinters. Scientists have studied the characteristics determining the maximum running speed in animals. The model they developed explains why humans cannot keep up with the fastest sprinters in the animal kingdom. Based on these calculations, the giant spider Shelob from 'The Lord of the Rings' would have reached a maximum speed of 60 km/h.

Bipedalism is a form of terrestrial locomotion where an organism moves by means of its two rear limbs or legs. An animal or machine that usually moves in a bipedal manner is known as a biped, meaning "two feet" (from the Latin bis for "double" and pes for "foot"). Types of bipedal movement include walking, running, or hopping.

Animal Locomotion in ethology, is any of a variety of methods that animals use to move from one place to another. Terrestrial locomotion has three basic forms, Legged – moving by using appendages. Limbless locomotion – moving without legs, primarily using the body itself as a propulsive structure. Rolling – rotating the body over the substrate.

Neuro-Locomotory Function in quadruped locomotion, the nervous system produces limb movements by alternately exciting glutamatergic interneurons on each side of the spinal cord. This back-and-forth pattern stimulates each limb's withdrawal reflexes, as well as circuits for coordinating limbs during locomotion.

A single brain cell can drive multiple movements of the body in flies. New study reveals how the brain orchestrates motions in partnership with sensory cues from the body. Motor neurons are the cells the brain uses to command muscles to act. Scientists typically thought of them as simple connections, much like the cables that link computers with their accessories. Now, in fly studies, researchers have discovered that single motor neurons can each direct an insect's body to move in far more complex ways than previously thought.

Foot-Eye Coordination: How our vision changes in rhythm with our walking. Scientists have found our visual perception dips as our feet hit the ground. Further understanding this could help develop early diagnostics for neuromuscular or psychiatric illness; understand changes in mobility as we age; or help with sports science and athletic training.

Glutamatergic Neurons produce glutamate, which is one of the most common excitatory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system (CNS). There are several well-characterized glutamatergic neuron markers, which can help you identify your neuronal population. Glutamate receptors are synaptic and non synaptic receptors located primarily on the membranes of neuronal and glial cells. Glutamate (the conjugate base of glutamic acid) is abundant in the human body, but particularly in the nervous system and especially prominent in the human brain where it is the body's most prominent neurotransmitter, the brain's main excitatory neurotransmitter, and also the precursor for GABA, the brain's main inhibitory neurotransmitter. Glutamate receptors are responsible for the glutamate-mediated postsynaptic excitation of neural cells, and are important for neural communication, memory formation, learning, and regulation.

Keeping the beat: It's all in your brain. Researchers identify neural markers related to beat synchronization. How do people coordinate their actions with the sounds they hear? This basic ability, which allows people to cross the street safely while hearing oncoming traffic, dance to new music or perform team events such as rowing, has puzzled cognitive neuroscientists for years. A new study is shining a light on how auditory perception and motor processes work together. A match between the pulsing or oscillations in the brain rhythms and the pulsing of the musical rhythm -- it's not just listening or movement. It's a linking of the brain rhythm to the auditory rhythm.

Practice Learning - Training - Skills - Aptitude - Learning Styles - Memory

Human Positions refers to the different physical configurations that the human body can take, like standing, sitting, kneeling, squatting or crouching, lying down flat, on all-fours in the crawling position. Atypical positions include: standing on one leg, handstand, head stand, spread-eagle, crab position. Humans can hang in various positions. It is a position where the support is above the center of gravity. Such positions are common to break dancing, gymnastics and yoga. Sleeping Positions - Sex Positions.

Biomechanics is the study of the structure and function of the mechanical aspects of biological systems, at any level from whole organisms to organs, cells and cell organelles, using the methods of mechanics, which is that area of science which is concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effects of the bodies on their environment.

How waves of 'clutches' in the motor cortex help our brains initiate movement. Propagating motor cortical dynamics facilitate movement initiation.

Kinesthetic is relating to a person's awareness of the position and movement of the parts of the body by means of sensory organs or proprioceptors in the muscles and joints.

Kinesthetic Learning or tactile learning is a learning style in which learning takes place by the students carrying out physical activities, rather than listening to a lecture or watching demonstrations. People with a preference for kinesthetic learning are also commonly known as "do-ers".

How Many Football Plays do NFL Players need to Memorize? A playbook for an NFL team can have over 500 plays. NFL Players for each game usually memorize around 75 passing plays and around 25 running plays that have around 12 different formations. Every play has a number, letter and a word that signifies what each player needs to do. Depending on the average time of possession, there are around 63 plays per game. That means that each offence will have around 30 offensive plays each game. Before each play, the defensive team will set up in a specific formation. This is where each player stands in a certain spot on the field and has certain responsibilities once the play begins. Formations and responsibilities will shift and change during the game depending on the play and situation, however most teams run one main "base defense" that is the basis for all their formations. A lot of the time, base defenses are named for the front two lines of the defense. That is the linemen and the linebackers. For example, a 4-3 defense has 4 linemen and 3 linebackers while a 3-4 defense has 3 linemen and 4 linebackers. The formation describes how and where the players in a team are positioned on the field. Many variations are possible on both sides of the ball, depending on the strategy being employed. On offense, the formation must include at least seven players on the line of scrimmage, including a center to start the play by snapping the ball. There are no restrictions on the arrangement of defensive players, and, as such, the number of defensive players on the line of scrimmage varies by formation.

Ready, set…GO! Scientists discover a brain circuit that triggers the execution of planned movement. Planned movement is essential to our daily lives, and it often requires delayed execution. As children, we stood crouched and ready but waited for the shout of 'GO!' before sprinting from the starting line. As adults, we wait until the traffic light turns green before making a turn. New research explores how cues in our environment can trigger planned movement. Activity patterns in the motor cortex are dramatically different between the planning and execution phases of movement. Action Selection - Reptilian Brain.

Poised is the state of balance or equilibrium and readiness for action. To prepare oneself for something unpleasant or difficult. To be in full control of your faculties. To be motionless or in suspension.

Motor Skills

Motor Skills is when babies start to learn how to control movement of part of the body. This process involves the coordination of muscles.

Fine Motor Skill is the coordination of small muscles, in movements—usually involving the synchronization of hands and fingers—with the eyes. The complex levels of manual dexterity that humans exhibit can be attributed to and demonstrated in tasks controlled by the nervous system. Fine motor skills aid in the growth of intelligence and develop continuously throughout the stages of human development. Training Finger Dexterity and Speed (youtube)

Dexterity or Dexterous is being skillful in physical movements, especially of the hands. Magic Tricks.

Ambidextrous or Ambidexterity is the ability to use both the right and left hand equally well. When referring to objects, the concept indicates that the object is equally suitable for right-handed and left-handed people. When referring to humans, it indicates that a person has no marked preference for the use of the right or left hand. Only about one percent of people are naturally ambidextrous, however, it is better to take population proportions as a stochastic process, above of all concerning to hand-laterality or handedness, which could vary with mentality and educational perspective changes, deeply most on writing tasks-handedness. In more modern times, it is common to find some people considered ambidextrous who were originally left-handed and who learned to be ambidextrous, either deliberately or as a result of training in schools or in jobs where right-handed habits are often emphasized or required. Since many everyday devices (such as can openers and scissors) are asymmetrical and designed for right-handed people, many left-handers learn to use them right-handedly due to the rarity or lack of left-handed models. Thus, left-handed people are more likely to develop motor skills in their non-dominant hand than right-handed people.

Southpaw is a person who is left-handed. Northpaw is a right-handed person.

Cross-dominance is a motor skill manifestation in which a person favors one hand for some tasks and the other hand for others, or a hand and the contralateral leg. Musician - Left and Right Side of Brain.

Switch Hitter is a player who bats both right-handed and left-handed, usually right-handed against left-handed pitchers and left-handed against right-handed pitchers.

Handedness is an individual's preferential use of one hand, known as the dominant hand, due to it being stronger, faster or more dextrous. It's a better faster or more precise performance or individual preference for use of a hand, known as the dominant hand. Handedness is not a discrete variable (right or left), but a continuous one that can be expressed at levels between strong left and strong right. There are four types of handedness: left-handedness, right-handedness, mixed-handedness, and ambidexterity. Left-handedness is somewhat more common among men than among women.

The Reasons for our Left or Right-Handedness.

Genetic regions associated with left-handedness identified and linked with brain architecture in language regions.

Touch-and-know: Brain activity during tactile stimuli reveals hand preferences in people. Scientists distinguish between the brain activities of right-handers and left-handers by noninvasively monitoring asymmetric brain responses to passive touch stimulations. Scientists show that it is possible to distinguish between left-handed and right-handed people by noninvasively monitoring just their brain activity during passive tactile stimulation. These results are key in haptic research (the study of sensory systems) and have various important implications for brain-computer interfaces, augmented reality, and even artificial intelligence.

Gaze anchoring to a pointing target is present during the entire pointing movement and is driven by a non-visual signal. A well-coordinated pattern of eye and hand movements can be observed during goal-directed arm movements. Typically, a saccadic eye movement precedes the arm movement, and its occurrence is temporally correlated with the start of the arm movement. Furthermore, the coupling of gaze and aiming movements is also observable after pointing initiation. It has recently been observed that saccades cannot be directed to new target stimuli, away from a pointing target stimulus. Saccades directed to targets presented during the final phase of a pointing movement were delayed until after pointing movement offset ("gaze anchoring"). The present study investigated whether ocular gaze is anchored to a pointing target during the entire pointing movement. In experiment 1, new targets were presented at various times during the duration of a pointing movement, triggered by the kinematics arm moment itself (movement onset, peak acceleration/velocity/deceleration, and offset). Subjects had to make a saccade to the new target as fast as possible while maintaining the pointing movement to the initial target. Saccadic latencies were increased by an amount of time that approximately equaled the remaining pointing time after saccadic target presentation, with the majority of saccades executed after pointing movement offset. The nature of the signal driving gaze stabilization during pointing was investigated in experiment 2. In previous experiments where ocular gaze was anchored to a pointing target, subjects could always see their moving arm, thus it was unknown whether a visual image of the moving arm, an afferent (proprioceptive) signal or an efferent (motor control related) signal produced gaze anchoring. In experiment 2 subjects had to point with or without vision of the moving arm to test whether a visual signal is used to anchor gaze to a pointing target. Results indicate that gaze anchoring was also observed without vision of the moving arm. The findings support the existence of a mechanism enforcing ocular gaze anchoring during the entire duration of a pointing movement. Moreover, such a mechanism uses an internally generated, or proprioceptive, nonvisual signal. Possible neural substrates underlying these processes are discussed, as well as the role of selective attention.

How do our eyes stay focused on what we reach for? Findings offer new insights into how our movements are coordinated. The work centers on a form of coordinated looking and reach called "gaze anchoring" -- the temporary stoppage of eye movements in order to coordinate reaches.

Laterality refers to the preference most humans show for one side of their body over the other. Examples include left-handedness/right-handedness and left/right-footedness, it may also refer to the primary use of the left or right hemisphere in the brain. It may also apply to animals or plants. The majority of tests have been conducted on humans, specifically to determine the effects on language.

Nimble is moving quickly and lightly or being quick and light in movement or action. Nimble in the mind is being quick to comprehend or being mentally quick. Reflex.

Agile is able to move quickly and easily. Agile in the mind is being able to think and understand quickly. Agility is the ability to move quickly and easily and the ability to think and understand quickly. Agile in software development describes a method of project management that has short flexible work phases with regular adaption of plans as required to complete the work.

Dog Agility is a dog sport in which a handler directs a dog through an obstacle course in a race for both time and accuracy. Dogs run off leash with no food or toys as incentives, and the handler can touch neither dog nor obstacles. The handler's controls are limited to voice, movement, and various body signals, requiring exceptional training of the animal and coordination of the handler. An agility course consists of a set of standard obstacles laid out by a judge in a design of his or her own choosing in an area of a specified size. The surface may be of grass, dirt, rubber, or special matting. Depending on the type of competition, the obstacles may be marked with numbers indicating the order in which they must be completed. Courses are complicated enough that a dog could not complete them correctly without human direction. In competition, the handler must assess the course, decide on handling strategies, and direct the dog through the course, with precision and speed equally important. Many strategies exist to compensate for the inherent difference in human and dog speeds and the strengths and weaknesses of the various dogs and handlers.

Obstacle Course is a series of challenging physical obstacles an individual, team or animal must navigate, usually while being timed. Obstacle courses can include running, climbing, jumping, crawling, swimming, and balancing elements with the aim of testing speed, endurance and agility. Sometimes a course involves mental tests.

Obstacle Course Racing is a sport in which a competitor, traveling on foot, must overcome various physical challenges in the form of obstacles. Races vary in length from courses with obstacles close together to events of several kilometers which incorporate elements of track, road and/or cross country/trail running. Courses may include climbing over walls or up ropes, monkey bars, carrying heavy objects, traversing bodies of water or mud, crawling under barbed wire, and jumping through fire.

Adventure Park is a place which can contain a wide variety of elements, including but not limited to, rope climbing exercises, obstacle courses, bouldering, rock climbing, target oriented activities, and zip-lines. They are usually intended for recreation and embody the spirit and activities often found at outdoor camps and educational facilities, without the facilitated educational component. "Recreational-oriented" adventure parks are usually designed for a larger volume of visitors. They do not follow a specific educational concept, but see the individual, physical and mental challenge as a predominantly recreational activity. Neither climbing techniques nor special/specific physical fitness experience are necessary. Typical slogans are: Have Fun, Test your Courage, Overcome your Own Fears, Be Outside, Be in Nature, Do some Physical Activities, etc.

Coordination is the skillful and effective interaction of movements. The regulation of diverse elements into an integrated and harmonious operation.

Coordinate is to bring into common action, movement, or condition. Bring components or parts into proper or desirable coordination. Bring order and organization to something.

Uncoordinated is lacking the skillful and effective interaction of muscle movements or lacking cooperative planning and organization. Badly organized. Dizzy.

Clumsiness is unskillfulness resulting from a lack of training. Someone who is stiff and unable to relaxed from lack of confidence.

Red Nucleus is a structure in the rostral midbrain involved in motor coordination. The red nucleus is pale pink, which is believed to be due to the presence of iron in at least two different forms: hemoglobin and ferritin. The structure is located in the tegmentum of the midbrain next to the substantia nigra and comprises caudal magnocellular and rostral parvocellular components. The red nucleus and substantia nigra are subcortical centers of the extrapyramidal motor system.

Motor Coordination is the combination of body movements created with the kinematic (such as spatial direction) and kinetic (force) parameters that result in intended actions. Motor coordination is achieved when subsequent parts of the same movement, or the movements of several limbs or body parts are combined in a manner that is well timed, smooth, and efficient with respect to the intended goal. This involves the integration of proprioceptive information detailing the position and movement of the musculoskeletal system with the neural processes in the brain and spinal cord which control, plan, and relay motor commands. The cerebellum plays a critical role in this neural control of movement and damage to this part of the brain or its connecting structures and pathways results in impairment of coordination, known as ataxia, which is a neurological sign consisting of lack of voluntary coordination of muscle movements that includes gait abnormality.

Choreography - Multitasking - Learning Fine Motor Coordination Changes the Brain

Sensorimotor Learning refers to improvement through practice in the performance of sensory-guided motor behavior.

Sensory-Motor Coupling is the coupling or integration of the sensory system and motor system. Sensorimotor integration is not a static process. For a given stimulus, there is no one single motor command. "Neural responses at almost every stage of a sensorimotor pathway are modified at short and long timescales by biophysical and synaptic processes, recurrent and feedback connections, and learning, as well as many other internal and external variables". Brainwaves.

Sensorimotor involves both sensory and motor functions or pathways.

Eye Hand Coordination is the coordinated control of eye movement with hand movement, and the processing of visual input to guide reaching and grasping along with the use of proprioception of the hands to guide the eyes.

Motor System is the part of the central nervous system that is involved with movement. It consists of the pyramidal and extrapyramidal system.

The Speed Limit of Superfast Muscles 250 Times Per Second.

Jink is a sudden quick change of direction or a change direction suddenly and nimbly, as when dodging a pursuer.

Sensorimotor Maps - Predictive Motor Control

Anatomical Terms of Motion. The process of movement, is described using specific anatomical terms. Motion includes movement of organs, joints, limbs, and specific sections of the body. The terminology used describes this motion according to its direction relative to the anatomical position of the joints. Anatomists use a unified set of terms to describe most of the movements, although other, more specialized terms are necessary for describing the uniqueness of the movements such as those of the hands, feet, and eyes. In general, motion is classified according to the anatomical plane it occurs in. Flexion and extension are examples of angular motions, in which two axes of a joint are brought closer together or moved further apart. Rotational motion may occur at other joints, for example the shoulder, and are described as internal or external. Other terms, such as elevation and depression, describe movement above or below the horizontal plane. Many anatomical terms derive from Latin terms with the same meaning. Translate in physics is the subject to movement in which every part of the body moves parallel to and the same distance as every other point on the body. The act of uniform movement.

Efference-Copy is an internal copy of an outflowing (efferent), movement-producing signal generated by the motor system. It can be collated with the (reafferent) sensory input that results from the agent's movement, enabling a comparison of actual movement with desired movement, and a shielding of perception from particular self-induced effects on the sensory input to achieve perceptual stability. Together with internal models, efference copies can serve to enable the brain to predict the effects of an action.

Efferent Nerve Fiber in the peripheral nervous system, an efferent nerve fiber is the axon of a motor neuron. The nerve fiber is a long process projecting far from the neuron's body that carries nerve impulses away from the central nervous system toward the peripheral effector organs (mainly muscles and glands). A bundle of these fibers is called a motor nerve or an efferent nerve. The opposite direction of neural activity is afferent conduction, which carries impulses by way of the afferent nerve fibers of sensory neurons. In the nervous system there is a "closed loop" system of sensation, decision, and reactions. This process is carried out through the activity of sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. Phantom Limb.

Supplementary Motor is a part of the primate cerebral cortex that contributes to the control of movement. It is located on the midline surface of the hemisphere just in front of (anterior to) the primary motor cortex leg representation.

Balance is an ability to maintain the line of gravity (vertical line from centre of mass) of a body within the base of support with minimal postural sway. Sway is the horizontal movement of the centre of gravity even when a person is standing still. A certain amount of sway is essential and inevitable due to small perturbations within the body (e.g., breathing, shifting body weight from one foot to the other or from forefoot to rearfoot) or from external triggers (e.g., visual distortions, floor translations). An increase in sway is not necessarily an indicator of dysfunctional balance so much as it is an indicator of decreased sensorimotor control. Maintaining balance requires coordination of input from multiple sensory systems including the vestibular, somatosensory, and visual systems. Vestibular system: sense organs that regulate equilibrium (equilibrioception); directional information as it relates to head position (internal gravitational, linear, and angular acceleration). Somatosensory system: senses of proprioception and kinesthesia of joints; information from skin and joints (pressure and vibratory senses); spatial position and movement relative to the support surface; movement and position of different body parts relative to each other Visual system: Reference to verticality of body and head motion; spatial location relative to objects. The senses must detect changes of spatial orientation with respect to the base of support, regardless of whether the body moves or the base is altered. There are environmental factors that can affect balance such as light conditions, floor surface changes, alcohol, drugs, and ear infection.

Head Spins - Dizzy - Spin (action physics) - Motion

Equilibrioception, or sense of balance, is the sense that allows you to keep your balance and sense body movement in terms of acceleration and directional changes. This sense also allows for perceiving gravity. The sensory system for this is found in your inner ears and is called the vestibular labyrinthine system. Anyone who’s ever had this sense go out on them on occasion knows how important this is. When it’s not working or malfunctioning, you literally can’t tell up from down and moving from one location to another without aid is nearly impossible.

Balance Disorder is a disturbance that causes an individual to feel unsteady, for example when standing or walking. It may be accompanied by feelings of giddiness, or wooziness, or having a sensation of movement, spinning, or floating. Balance is the result of several body systems working together: the visual system (eyes), vestibular system (ears) and proprioception (the body's sense of where it is in space). Degeneration or loss of function in any of these systems can lead to balance deficits.

Illusions of self-motion or vection occurs when one perceives bodily motion despite no movement taking place. One can experience illusory movements of the whole body or of individual body parts, such as arms or legs.

Proprioception is the sense of self-movement and body position. It is sometimes described as the "sixth sense".

Dancing (art performance)

Body Memory is a hypothesis that the body itself is capable of storing memories, as opposed to only the brain. The idea could be pseudoscientific as there are no known means by which tissues other than the brain are capable of storing memories. Body memory is used to explain having memories for events where the brain was not in a position to store memories and is sometimes a catalyst for repressed memory recovery. These memories are often characterized with phantom pain in a part or parts of the body – the body appearing to remember the past trauma.

Muscle Memory exists at a DNA Level. Periods of skeletal muscle growth are ‘remembered’ by the genes in the muscle, helping them to grow larger later in life.

Magic - Fine Motor Skills

Sleight of Hand refers to fine motor skills when used by performing artists in different art forms to entertain or to fool someone. It is closely associated with close-up magic, card cheating, card flourishing and stealing.

Misdirection in magic is a form of deception in which the attention of an audience is focused on one thing in order to distract its attention from another. False-Flag Attack.

List of Magic Tricks (wiki)

Apollo Robbins: The art of Misdirection (youtube)

Sleight of Hand Magic Tricks : How to Make a Coin Disappear (youtube) - The Simplest Coin Trick You Will Ever Learn (youtube)

Hand Tricks (youtube)

Stroop Effect - Illusions

Interactions with the Physical Environment (youtube)

Acclimatization is the process in which an individual organism adjusts to a gradual change in its environment (such as a change in altitude, temperature, humidity, photoperiod, or pH), allowing it to maintain performance across a range of environmental conditions. Acclimatization occurs in a short period of time (days to weeks), and within the organism's lifetime (compare to adaptation).

Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test NNAT

Good with Both Hands - Can you Rub your Tummy and Pat your Head at the Same Time?

Did you know that you can’t hum while holding your nose?

Most people have only one dominate side of the brain that they use. Such as right or left handed. If you are an experienced guitar player, piano player or you are good at Juggling, you have taught yourself to be both right and left handed. Ambidextrous.

Motor Control System (PDF) - Sensory and Motor Tracks (PDF)

Right Brain - Left Brain

Surprisingly exact timing of voluntary movements, movements can be controlled at will.

Twitching - Involuntary Movements

Movement Disorder can be defined as neurologic syndromes in which either an excess or movement or a paucity of voluntary and automatic movements, unrelated to weakness or spasticity.

Spasm is a sudden involuntary contraction of a muscle. - Reflexes.

Dystonia is a movement disorder in which your muscles contract involuntarily, causing repetitive or twisting movements. The condition can affect one part of your body (focal dystonia), two or more adjacent parts (segmental dystonia) or all parts of your body (general dystonia). Dystonia may affect one or more parts of the body, and sometimes the entire body. The condition can be mild or severe. Dystonia is a neurological movement disorder syndrome in which sustained or repetitive muscle contractions result in twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal fixed postures. The movements may resemble a tremor. Dystonia is often intensified or exacerbated by physical activity, and symptoms may progress into adjacent muscles. Cervical dystonia or spasmodic torticollis, is a painful condition in which your neck muscles contract involuntarily, causing your head to twist or turn to one side. Cervical dystonia can also cause your head to uncontrollably tilt forward or backward. Mutations in the GNAL gene have recently been shown to cause primary torsion dystonia. Mutations in the GNAL gene have recently been shown to cause primary torsion dystonia. The GNAL-encoded protein (Gαolf) is important for dopamine D1 receptor function and odorant signal transduction. We sequenced all 12 exons of GNAL in 461 patients from Germany, Serbia, and Japan, including 318 patients with dystonia (190 with cervical dystonia), 51 with hyposmia and Parkinson disease, and 92 with tardive dyskinesia or acute dystonic reactions.

Fasciculation is a small, local, involuntary muscle contraction and relaxation which may be visible under the skin. Deeper areas can be detected by electromyography (EMG) testing, though they can happen in any skeletal muscle in the body. Fasciculations arise as a result of spontaneous depolarization of a lower motor neuron leading to the synchronous contraction of all the skeletal muscle fibers within a single motor unit. An example of normal spontaneous depolarization is the constant contractions of cardiac muscle, causing the heart to beat. Usually, intentional movement of the involved muscle causes fasciculations to cease immediately, but they may return once the muscle is at rest again. Fasciculations have a variety of causes, the majority of which are benign, but can also be due to disease of the motor neurons. They are encountered by virtually all healthy people, though for most, it is quite infrequent. In some cases, the presence of fasciculations can be annoying and interfere with quality of life. If a neurological examination is otherwise normal and EMG testing does not indicate any additional pathology, a diagnosis of benign fasciculation syndrome is usually made.

Tic is a sudden, repetitive, nonrhythmic motor movement or vocalization involving discrete muscle groups. Tics can be invisible to the observer, such as abdominal tensing or toe crunching. Common motor and phonic tics are, respectively, eye blinking and throat clearing.

Tremor is an involuntary or unintentional and somewhat rhythmic muscle movement involving to-and-fro movements of one or more parts of the body, or a muscle contraction and relaxation involving oscillations or twitching movements of one or more body parts. It is the most common of all involuntary movements and can affect the hands, arms, eyes, face, head, vocal folds, trunk, and legs. Most tremors occur in the hands. In some people, a tremor is a symptom of another neurological disorder. A very common tremor is the teeth chattering, usually induced by cold temperatures or by fear. Tremor can be a symptom associated with disorders in those parts of the brain that control muscles throughout the body or in particular areas, such as the hands. Tremor can have causes that aren't due to underlying disease. Examples include extreme muscle fatigue from exercise or medication side effects. Internal vibrations are thought to stem from the same causes as tremors. The shaking may simply be too subtle to see. Nervous system conditions such as parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and essential tremor can all cause these tremors. Sometimes, anxiety can cause or worsen the tremors. Neurological disorders or conditions that can produce tremor include multiple sclerosis, stroke, traumatic brain injury, chronic kidney disease and a number of neurodegenerative diseases that damage or destroy parts of the brainstem or the cerebellum, Parkinson's disease being the one most often associated with tremor. Other causes include the use of drugs (such as amphetamines, cocaine, caffeine, corticosteroids, SSRIs) or alcohol, mercury poisoning, or the withdrawal of drugs such as alcohol or benzodiazepine. Tremors can also be seen in infants with phenylketonuria (PKU), overactive thyroid or liver failure. Tremors can be an indication of hypoglycemia, along with palpitations, sweating and anxiety. Tremor can also be caused by lack of sleep, lack of vitamins, or increased stress. Deficiencies of magnesium and thiamine have also been known to cause tremor or shaking, which resolves when the deficiency is corrected. See magnesium in biology. Some forms of tremor are inherited and run in families, while others have no known cause. Tremors can also be caused by some spider bites, e.g. the redback spider of Australia. Characteristics may include a rhythmic shaking in the hands, arms, head, legs, or trunk; shaky voice; and problems holding things such as a fork or pen. Some tremors may be triggered by or become exacerbated during times of stress or strong emotion, when the individual is physically exhausted, or during certain postures or movements. Tremor may occur at any age but is most common in middle-age and older persons. It may be occasional, temporary, or occur intermittently. Tremor affects men and women equally. Injection of virus-delivered gene silencer blocks ALS degeneration, saves motor function.

Researchers find brain cell that triggers tremor and how to control it. Researchers discovered that a particular brain cell type, known as the Purkinje cell, triggers tremor when its pattern of signaling to other neurons changes from a regular pattern to signaling in bursts. The altered signaling pattern returned to normal and the tremor stopped when the animals were treated with deep-brain stimulation directed at a group of cerebellar neurons that communicate with Purkinje cells.

Shivering is a bodily function in response to cold in warm-blooded animals. When the core body temperature drops, the shivering reflex is triggered to maintain homeostasis. Skeletal muscles begin to shake in small movements, creating warmth by expending energy. Shivering can also be a response to a fever, as a person may feel cold. During fever the hypothalamic set point for temperature is raised. The increased set point causes the body temperature to rise (pyrexia), but also makes the patient feel cold until the new set point is reached. Severe chills with violent shivering are called rigors. Rigors occur because the patient's body is shivering in a physiological attempt to increase body temperature to the new set point. Located in the posterior hypothalamus near the wall of the third ventricle is an area called the primary motor center for shivering. This area is normally inhibited by signals from the heat center in the anterior hypothalamic-preoptic area but is excited by cold signals from the skin and spinal cord. Therefore, this center becomes activated when the body temperature falls even a fraction of a degree below a critical temperature level. Increased muscular activity results in the generation of heat as a byproduct. Most often, when the purpose of the muscle activity is to produce motion, the heat is wasted energy. In shivering, the heat is the main intended product and is utilized for warmth. Newborn babies, infants, and young children experience a greater (net) heat loss than adults because they cannot shiver to maintain body heat[citation needed]. They rely on non-shivering thermogenesis. Children have an increased amount of brown adipose tissue (increased vascular supply, and high mitochondrial density), and, when cold-stressed, will have greater oxygen consumption and will release norepinephrine. Norepinephrine will react with lipases in brown fat to break down fat into triglycerides. Triglycerides are then metabolized to glycerol and non-esterified fatty acids. These are then further degraded in the needed heat-generating process to form CO2 and water. Chemically, in mitochondria the proton gradient producing the proton electromotive force that is ordinarily used to synthesize ATP is instead bypassed to produce heat directly. Shivering can also appear after surgery. This is known as postanesthetic shivering. In humans, shivering can also be caused by mere cognition. This is known as psychogenic shivering.

Purkinje cells are neurons in vertebrate animals located in the cerebellar cortex of the brain. Purkinje cell bodies are shaped like a flask and have many threadlike extensions called dendrites, which receive impulses from other neurons called granule cells.

Epilepsy a neurological disorder marked by sudden recurrent episodes of sensory disturbance, loss of consciousness, or convulsions, associated with abnormal electrical activity in the brain. Epileptic Seizure is a period of symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain. Outward effects vary from uncontrolled shaking movements involving much of the body with loss of consciousness (tonic-clonic seizure), to shaking movements involving only part of the body with variable levels of consciousness (focal seizure), to a subtle momentary loss of awareness (absence seizure). Most of the time these episodes last less than 2 minutes and it takes some time to return to normal. Loss of bladder control may occur.

Tourette Syndrome is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that begins in childhood or adolescence. It is characterized by multiple movement (motor) tics and at least one vocal (phonic) tic. Common tics are blinking, coughing, throat clearing, sniffing, and facial movements. These are typically preceded by an unwanted urge or sensation in the affected muscles, can sometimes be suppressed temporarily, and characteristically change in location, strength, and frequency. Tourette's is at the more severe end of a spectrum of tic disorders. The tics often go unnoticed by casual observers.

Benign Fasciculation Syndrome is a neurological disorder characterized by fasciculation (twitching) of various voluntary muscles in the body. The twitching can occur in any voluntary muscle group but is most common in the eyelids, arms, legs, and feet. Even the tongue may be affected. The twitching may be occasional or may go on nearly continuously. Usually intentional movement of the involved muscle causes the fasciculations to cease immediately, but they may return once the muscle is at rest again.

Ataxia is a neurological sign consisting of lack of voluntary coordination of muscle movements that can include gait abnormality, speech changes, and abnormalities in eye movements. Ataxia is a clinical manifestation indicating dysfunction of the parts of the nervous system that coordinate movement, such as the cerebellum. Ataxia can be limited to one side of the body, which is referred to as hemiataxia. Several possible causes exist for these patterns of neurological dysfunction. Dystaxia is a mild degree of ataxia. Many symptoms of Ataxia can mimic those of being drunk – slurred speech, stumbling, falling, impaired balance or coordination, can be due to damage to brain, nerves, or muscles.

Illusions of Self-Motion (twitching)

Indirect Pathway is a neuronal circuit through the basal ganglia and several associated nuclei within the central nervous system (CNS) which helps to prevent unwanted muscle contractions from competing with voluntary movements. It operates in conjunction with the direct pathway. is a neural pathway within the central nervous system (CNS) through the basal ganglia which facilitates the initiation and execution of voluntary movement. It works in conjunction with the indirect pathway. Both of these pathways are part of the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop.

Illusions of Self-Motion refers to a phenomenon that occurs when someone feels like their body is moving when no movement is taking place. One can experience illusory movements of the whole body or of individual body parts, such as arms or legs. Imaginary - Tics.

How the Brain tells our Limbs apart. Legs and arms perform very different functions. Our legs are responsible primarily for repetitive locomotion, like walking and running. Our arms and hands, by contrast, must be able to execute many highly specialized jobs -- picking up a pen and writing, holding a fork, or playing the violin, just to name three.

Phantom Limb is the sensation that an amputated or missing limb is still attached. Approximately 60 to 80% of individuals with an amputation experience phantom sensations in their amputated limb, and the majority of the sensations are painful. Phantom sensations may also occur after the removal of body parts other than the limbs, e.g. after amputation of the breast, extraction of a tooth (phantom tooth pain) or removal of an eye, phantom eye syndrome, which is visual hallucinations after the removal of an eye. Dreams.

Rerouting nerves during amputation reduces phantom limb pain before it starts. Targeted muscle reinnervation, or TMR, can reduce or prevent phantom or residual limb pain from ever occurring in amputee patients who receive the procedure at the time of amputation.

Targeted Reinnervation enables amputees to control motorized prosthetic devices and to regain sensory feedback. The method was developed by Dr. Todd Kuiken at Northwestern University and Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago and Dr. Gregory Dumanian at Northwestern University Division of Plastic Surgery.

A new theory for Phantom Limb Pain points the way to more effective treatment . After an amputation, neural circuitry related to the missing limb loses its role and becomes susceptible to entanglement with other neural networks -- in this case, the network responsible for pain perception. you lose your hand. That leaves a big chunk of 'real estate' in your brain, and in your nervous system as a whole, without a job. It stops processing any sensory input, it stops producing any motor output to move the hand. It goes idle -- but not silent. Neurons are never completely silent. When not processing a particular job, they might fire at random. This may result in coincidental firing of neurons in that part of the sensorimotor network, at the same time as from the network of pain perception. When they fire together, that will create the experience of pain in that part of the body. 'Hebb's Law' -- 'neurons that fire together, wire together' -- neurons in the sensorimotor and pain perception networks become entangled, resulting in phantom limb pain. (stochastic entanglement). The new theory also explains why not all amputees suffer from the condition- the randomness, or stochasticity, means that simultaneous firing may not occur, and become linked, in all patients. Phantom Motor Execution is the novel treatment method where electrodes attached to the patient's residual limb pick up electrical signals intended for the missing limb, which are then translated through AI algorithms, into movements of a virtual limb in real time. The patients see themselves on a screen, with a digitally rendered limb in place of their missing one, and can then control it just as if it were their own biological limb . This allows the patient to stimulate and reactivate those dormant areas of the brain. The patients can start reusing those areas of brain that had gone idle. Making use of that circuitry helps to weaken and disconnect the entanglement to the pain network. It's a kind of 'inverse Hebb's law', the more those neurons fire apart, the weaker their connection. Or, it can be used preventatively, to protect against the formation of those links in the first place.

Virtual Reality Reduces Phantom Pain in Paraplegics - VR

When we feel things that are not there. The discovery of the phantom touch illusion provides insights into human perception and opens up new perspectives for interaction with virtual reality technology. They used virtual reality scenarios in which subjects touched their own bodies with a virtual object. To the researchers' surprise, this led to a tingling sensation at the spot where the avatarized body was touched. This effect occurred even though there was no real physical contact between the virtual object and the body.

Body Integrity Dysphoria is a disorder characterized by an intense desire for amputation of a limb, usually a leg, or to become blind or deaf or a desire to be disabled or discomfort with being able-bodied beginning in early adolescence and resulting in harmful consequences. BID appears to be related to somatoparaphrenia. People with this condition may refer to themselves as "transabled". (also referred to as amputee identity disorder and xenomelia, formerly called apotemnophilia).

Spinal Interneuron is found in the spinal cord that relays signals between (afferent) sensory neurons, and (efferent) motor neurons. Different classes of spinal interneurons are involved in the process of sensory-motor integration. Most interneurons are found in the grey column, a region of grey matter in the spinal cord. Tics - Reflex

Formication is the medical term for a sensation that exactly resembles that of small insects crawling on (or under) the skin. It is one specific form of a set of sensations known as paresthesias, which also include the more common prickling, tingling sensation known as "pins and needles". Formication is a well documented symptom, which has numerous possible causes. The word is derived from formica, the Latin word for ant.

Delusional Parasitosis is a delusional disorder in which individuals incorrectly believe they are infested with parasites, insects, or bugs, whereas in reality no such infestation is present. Reflex.

Myoclonus is a brief, involuntary twitching of a muscle or a group of muscles. It describes a medical sign and, generally, is not a diagnosis of a disease. These myoclonic twitches, jerks, or seizures are usually caused by sudden muscle contractions (positive myoclonus) or brief lapses of contraction (negative myoclonus). The most common circumstance under which they occur is while falling asleep (hypnic jerk). Myoclonic jerks occur in healthy persons and are experienced occasionally by everyone. However, when they appear with more persistence and become more widespread they can be a sign of various neurological disorders. Hiccups are a kind of myoclonic jerk specifically affecting the diaphragm. When a spasm is caused by another person it is known as a provoked spasm. Shuddering attacks in babies fall in this category. Myoclonic jerks may occur alone or in sequence, in a pattern or without pattern. They may occur infrequently or many times each minute. Most often, myoclonus is one of several signs in a wide variety of nervous system disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Dystonia, Alzheimer's disease, Gaucher's disease, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD), serotonin toxicity, some cases of Huntington's disease, some forms of epilepsy, and occasionally in intracranial hypotension. Some researchers indicate that jerks persistently may even cause early tremors. In almost all instances in which myoclonus is caused by central nervous system disease it is preceded by other symptoms; for instance, in CJD it is generally a late-stage clinical feature that appears after the patient has already started to exhibit gross neurological deficits. Anatomically, myoclonus may originate from lesions of the cortex, subcortex or spinal cord. The presence of myoclonus above the foramen magnum effectively excludes spinal myoclonus; further localisation relies on further investigation with electromyography (EMG) and electroencephalography.

Congenital Insensitivity to Pain also known as congenital analgesia, is one or more rare conditions in which a person cannot feel (and has never felt) physical pain. The conditions described here are separate from the HSAN group of disorders, which have more specific signs and etiology. It is an extremely dangerous condition.

Nerve Pinching

Ulnar Nerve Entrapment ulnar nerve entrapment is a condition where the ulnar nerve becomes trapped or pinched due to some physiological abnormalities. "pinched nerve". Neurons.

Radiculopathy also commonly referred to as pinched nerve, refers to a set of conditions in which one or more nerves are affected and do not work properly (a neuropathy). This can result in pain (radicular Pain), weakness, numbness, or difficulty controlling specific muscles. Radiculopathy is a disease of the root of a nerve, such as from a pinched nerve or a tumor. Cervical radiculopathy is a pinched or irritated nerve in the neck causing pain, numbness, or weakness radiating into the chest or arm. Thoracic radiculopathy is a rare disease of the root of a nerve in the middle (thoracic) section of the spine. Physical Therapy.

Nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons or nerve fibers that are the long and slender projections of Neurons, in the peripheral nervous system. A nerve provides a common pathway for the electrochemical nerve impulses called action potentials that are transmitted along each of the axons to peripheral organs or, in the case of sensory nerves, from the periphery back to the central nervous system. Each axon within the nerve is an extension of an individual neuron, along with other supportive cells such as Schwann cells that coat the axons in myelin. Pain.

Too Much Sitting - Bad Sleeping Position - Technology Addiction

Paresthesia is an abnormal sensation such as tingling, tickling, pricking, numbness or burning of a person's skin with no apparent physical cause. The manifestation of a paresthesia may be transient or chronic. The most familiar kind of paresthesia is the sensation known as "pins and needles" or of a limb "falling asleep". A less well-known and uncommon but important paresthesia is formication, the sensation of bugs crawling underneath the skin.

Pectoralis Minor Muscle is a thin, triangular muscle, situated at the upper part of the chest, beneath the pectoralis major in the human body.

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome is a medical condition due to compression of the median nerve as it travels through the wrist at the carpal tunnel. The main symptoms are Pain, numbness, and tingling, in the thumb, index finger, middle finger, and the thumb side of the ring fingers. Symptoms typically start gradually and during the night. Pain may extend up the arm. Weak grip strength may occur and after a long period of time the muscles at the base of the thumb may waste away. In more than half of cases both sides are affected.

Multisensory Integration is the study of how information from the different sensory modalities, such as sight, sound, touch, smell, self-motion and taste, may be integrated by the nervous system. A coherent representation of objects combining modalities enables us to have meaningful perceptual experiences.

Haptic Technology - (Haptic Feedback)

Spatial Intelligence - Body Image

Body Temperature - Physical Health

Ergonomics is the practice of designing products, systems, or processes to take proper account of the interaction between them and the people who use them. Posture

Action in physics - Awareness - Brain - Robotics

Body Browser - (Sample on youtube)

Biomechanics is the study of the structure and function of biological systems such as humans, animals, plants, organs, fungi, and cells by means of the methods of mechanics.

Entrainment in the biomusicological sense refers to the synchronization of organisms (only humans as a whole, with some particular instances of a particular animal) to an external perceived rhythm, such as human music and dance such as foot tapping.

Kinematics is the branch of classical mechanics which describes the motion of points (alternatively "particles"), bodies (objects), and systems of bodies without consideration of the masses of those objects nor the forces that may have caused the motion. Kinematics as a field of study is often referred to as the "geometry of motion" and as such may be seen as a branch of mathematics.

Psychophysics quantitatively investigates the relationship between physical stimuli and the sensations and perceptions they produce.

Mental Chronometry is the use of response time in perceptual-motor tasks to infer the content, duration, and temporal sequencing of cognitive operations. Mental chronometry is one of the core paradigms of experimental and cognitive psychology, and has found application in various disciplines including cognitive psychophysiology, cognitive neuroscience, and behavioral neuroscience to elucidate mechanisms underlying cognitive processing. Brian Mac.

Reflex's - Responsiveness

Made you Flinch Reflex is an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus.

Responsiveness - Fight-or-Flight - Hypnic Jerk - Analysis Paralysis

Knee Jerk is a sudden involuntary reflex kick caused by a blow on the tendon just below the knee. Patellar Reflex is a stretch reflex which tests the L2, L3, and L4 segments of the spinal cord.

Stretch Reflex is a muscle contraction in response to stretching within the muscle. A spinal reflex is a fast response that involves an afferent signal into the spinal cord and an efferent signal out to the muscle.

Reflex Arc is a neural pathway that controls a reflex. In vertebrates, most sensory neurons do not pass directly into the brain, but synapse in the spinal cord. This allows for faster reflex actions to occur by activating spinal motor neurons without the delay of routing signals through the brain. However, the brain will receive the sensory input while the reflex is being carried out and the analysis of the signal takes place after the reflex action. There are two types: autonomic reflex arc (affecting inner organs) and somatic reflex arc (affecting muscles). However, autonomic reflexes sometimes involve the spinal cord and some somatic reflexes are mediated more by the brain than the spinal cord. During a somatic reflex, nerve signals travel along the following pathway: Somatic receptors in the skin, muscles and tendons. Afferent nerve fibers carry signals from the somatic receptors to the posterior horn of the spinal cord or to the brainstem. An integrating center, the point at which the neurons that compose the gray matter of the spinal cord or brainstem synapse. Efferent nerve fibers carry motor nerve signals from the anterior horn to the muscles. Effector muscle innervated by the efferent nerve fiber carries out the response. A reflex arc, then, is the pathway followed by nerves which (a.) carry sensory information from the receptor to the spinal cord, and then (b) carry the response generated by the spinal cord to effector organ(s) during a reflex action The pathway taken by the nerve impulse to accomplish reflex action is called reflex arc.

Reflexive is acting without conscious choice or conscious control. Reactions.

Flinch is to make a quick, nervous movement of the face or body as an Instinctive Reaction to surprise, fear or pain. "ah ha made you flinch". Trigger.

Head Fake is a type of feint in which someone moves the head to fake an intended change in direction and thereby deceive opponents. The term originated in sports, but it has become applied metaphorically in other senses.

Feint is a maneuver designed to distract or mislead someone. A feint is achieved by giving the impression that a certain maneuver will take place, while in fact another maneuver will take place or even none at all.

Psyc is to cause someone to be disturbed mentally or excited emotionally, or to intimidate, make nervous, or mislead someone. To behave in a very confident or forceful way in order to make a competitor, especially in a sports event, feel less confident.

Psych Someone Up or to psych yourself up is to prepare yourself mentally for something difficult or unpleasant.

Psych Yourself Out is to get yourself all excited about a new venture and, before you've even had a chance to get started, you begin to worry about the things that could go wrong, the mistakes you could make, the money you could lose.

How our Brain Responds to Unexpected Situations. Scientists have demonstrated that the motor cortex is necessary for the execution of corrective movements in response to unexpected changes of sensory input, but not when the same movements are executed spontaneously. Signatures of differential neuronal usage in the cortex accompany these two phenomena. Sneezing - Involuntary Movements - Fight or Fight.

Premovement Neuronal Activity refers to neuronal modulations that alter the rate at which neurons fire before a subject produces movement.

Bereitschaftspotential is a measure of activity in the motor cortex and supplementary motor area of the brain leading up to voluntary muscle movement.

Scratch Reflex is a response to activation of sensory neurons whose peripheral terminals are located on the surface of the body. Some sensory neurons can be activated by stimulation with an external object such as a parasite on the body surface. Alternatively, some sensory neurons can respond to a chemical stimulus that produces an itch sensation. During a scratch reflex, a nearby limb reaches toward and rubs against the site on the body surface that has been stimulated. The scratch reflex has been extensively studied to understand the functioning of neural networks in vertebrates. Despite decades of research, key aspects of the scratch reflex are still unknown, such as the neural mechanisms by which the reflex is terminated. Control.

Itch is a sensation that causes the desire or reflex to scratch. Itch has resisted many attempts to classify it as any one type of sensory experience. Itch has many similarities to pain, and while both are unpleasant sensory experiences, their behavioral response patterns are different. Pain creates a withdrawal reflex, whereas itch leads to a scratch reflex. Unmyelinated nerve fibers for itch and pain both originate in the skin; however, information for them is conveyed centrally in two distinct systems that both use the same nerve bundle and spinothalamic tract, which is a sensory pathway from the skin to the thalamus. From the ventral posterolateral nucleus in the thalamus, sensory information is relayed upward to the somatosensory cortex of the postcentral gyrus. Researchers have revealed the brain mechanism driving this uncontrollable itch-scratching feedback loop. Researchers showed that the activity of a small subset of neurons, located in a deep brain region called the periaqueductal gray, tracks itch-evoked scratching behavior in mice. Sensory Neurons Co-opt Classical Immune Signaling Pathways to Mediate Chronic Itch.

Hand Slap Game Red Hands is also known as hot hands, slapsies, slap jack, red tomato (Northern Britain), slaps, or simply the hand slap game, is a children's game which can be played by two players. A extends his or her hands forward, roughly at arm's length, with the palms down. B's hand, also roughly at arm's length, are placed, palms up, under A's hands. The object of the game is for B to slap the back of A's hands before A can pull them away. Once [B] misses, [his or] her hands go on the bottom and [A] attempts to slap [his or] her hands. One player (the "slapper" [B]) places their hands palm down, hovering above the other player's (the "slapper" [A]) hands. The slapper hovers their hands below the slappee's, palms up. The two players' hands should be barely touching each other, and all the hands should be around mid-torso height. The slapper is on offense and attempts to bring his hands over to slap the backsides of his opponent's hands. This must be done with sufficient speed, because the slappee's goal is to pull their hands away, and out of the area where the hands overlap, to avoid the slap. If the slapper misses the hands of the slappee during the slap, then the roles switch. The slapper can only slap the hand it is underneath. The slappee is on defense and attempts to avoid having his hands slapped, by pulling his hands away as the slapper brings his hands over to attempt a slap. However, the slappee cannot flinch too much in attempting to avoid a slap. (In one variation of the game, if the slappee pulls his hands away when the slapper has not brought his hands around, then the slappee must submit to a "free slap" by the slapper.) Another variation is where the slappee has their hands held palms together, held out at mid-torso height; the slapper then does the same with the tips of the fingers of both players hands around a centimetre apart, and then (with just one of their hands) the slapper tries to slap the backs of the slappee's hands. You can slap the slappee's hands with just one of your hands as a strategical move. In international competitions, hosted yearly in Farmville, Maine, USA, a strict honor code requires the slapee to forego handwashing for no fewer than 67 hours. Elijah Blanton has won six of the nine most recent dislapalons.

How the world's Fastest Muscle created four unique bird species. The Tiny Bearded Manakin, which measures a little more than four inches long and weighs about half an ounce, has one of the fastest limb muscles of any vertebrate. During an elaborate courtship dance, it uses this muscle -- the scapulohumeralis caudalis -- to make a unique "roll-snap" movement at speeds so fast it's undetectable to the human eye. The roll-snap creates a mechanical popping sound when the wings connect above the back, all to catch the female's attention.

A bad bite in teeth is associated with worse postural and balance control

Development of gait motor control: what happens after a sudden increase in height during adolescence?
The Neurological Control System for Normal Gait

Phantom Vibration Syndrome is the perception that one's mobile phone is vibrating or ringing, when in fact the telephone is not doing so.

Stickybones: Rapid Posing & Animation Made Easy

Human Musculoskeletal System is an organ system that gives humans the ability to move using their muscular and skeletal systems. The musculoskeletal system provides form, support, stability, and movement to the body. It is made up of the bones of the skeleton, muscles, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, joints, and other connective tissue that supports and binds tissues and organs together. The musculoskeletal system's primary functions include supporting the body, allowing motion, and protecting vital organs. The skeletal portion of the system serves as the main storage system for calcium and phosphorus and contains critical components of the hematopoietic system. This system describes how bones are connected to other bones and muscle fibers via connective tissue such as tendons and ligaments. The bones provide stability to the body. Muscles keep bones in place and also play a role in the movement of bones. To allow motion, different bones are connected by joints. Cartilage prevents the bone ends from rubbing directly onto each other. Muscles contract to move the bone attached at the joint.

Chiropractic is a form of alternative medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of unverified mechanical disorders of the musculoskeletal system, especially the spine.

Human Senses - Receptors

Sight and Seeing is the sense that has the ability to interpret visible light information reaching the eyes. Sight is the resulting visual perception that we experience. The components that are necessary for vision are known as the visual system. Eyes have two distinct types of receptors, one for color called cones, and one for brightness called rods. Eyes - Visual Cortex - Spatial Intelligence - Seeing Problems - Observations - Sensory Gating - Sensory Disorders

Hearing is the ability of detecting vibrations or sounds along some medium, such as air or water, that is in contact with your ear drums and then processed by the auditory cortex.

Auditory Scene Analysis is a proposed model for the basis of auditory perception. This is understood as the process by which the human auditory system organizes sound into perceptually meaningful elements. Listening.

is the sensory ability to detect different odors or aromas using the nose. The sense of smell combines with taste to produce flavors. The sense of smell is acquired through a chemical reaction. Smelling Problems - Artificial Sensors.

Taste is a sense that can tell the difference how things taste by using several types of taste receptors for flavors that are sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami. Umami receptors detect the amino acid glutamate, which is a taste generally found in meat and some artificial flavoring. The taste sense is based off of a chemical reaction.

Touch is a sense that has the ability to perceive an object or other stimulus that comes into contact with the surface of the skin. The sense of touch has been found to be distinct from pressure, temperature, pain, and itch sensors.

Mechanoreceptor is a sensory receptor that responds to mechanical pressure or distortion. Normally there are four main types in glabrous mammalian skin: Pacinian corpuscles, Meissner's corpuscles, Merkel's discs, and Ruffini endings. There are also mechanoreceptors in hairy skin, and the hair cells in thoreceptors of primates like rhesus monkeys and other mammals are similar to those of humans and also studied even in early 20th century anatomically and neurophysiologicall.

Dysesthesia is defined as an unpleasant, abnormal sense of touch. It often presents as pain, but may also present as an inappropriate, but not discomforting, sensation. It is caused by lesions of the nervous system, peripheral or central, and it involves sensations, whether spontaneous or evoked, such as burning, wetness, itching, electric shock, and pins and needles. Dysesthesia can include sensations in any bodily tissue, including most often the mouth, scalp, skin, or legs. (meaning "not-normal" and "aesthesis", which means "sensation" or abnormal sensation. How the Brain responds to Texture.
Mechanosensitive Channels senses of touch, hearing and balance.

Somatosensory System is a complex system of nerve cells that responds to changes to the surface or internal state of the body. The network of neural structures in the brain and body that produce the perception of touch, as well as temperature, body position or proprioception, and pain. Nerve cells called sensory receptors, which include thermoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors, and nociceptors, send signals along a chain of nerve cells to the spinal cord where they may be processed by other nerve cells and then relayed to the brain for further processing. It is a subset of the sensory nervous system, which also represents visual, auditory, olfactory, and gustatory stimuli. Sensory receptors are found in many parts of the body including the skin, epithelial tissues, skeletal muscles, bones and joints, internal organs, and the cardiovascular system.

Pressure - Pain - Weather - Stress - Scratching - PIEZO2 - Sensory System - Haptic Technology

Haptic Perception is achieved through the active exploration of surfaces and objects by a moving subject, as opposed to passive contact by a static subject during tactile perception. The sensibility of the individual to the world adjacent to their body by use of his body. To grasp something. How to simulate softness.

Haptic Communication refers to the ways in which people and other animals communicate and interact via the sense of touch.

Tangible is something perceptible by the senses especially the sense of touch. Capable of being treated as fact. Having physical substance and intrinsic monetary value.

Interoception is how one perceives pain and hunger or perceives other feelings. Interoception is contemporarily defined as the sense of the internal state of the body. This can be both conscious and non-conscious. It encompasses the brain's process of integrating signals relayed from the body into specific subregions—like the brainstem, thalamus, insula, somatosensory, and anterior cingulate cortex—allowing for a nuanced representation of the physiological state of the body. This is important for maintaining homeostatic conditions in the body and, potentially, facilitating self-awareness. Interoception is sensing internal signals from your body, like when you are hungry, when your heart is beating fast, or when you need the toilet.

Emotional Intelligence - Dizzy

Nociception is a unique sensory system with the ability to feel pain. There are three distinct types of pain receptors: cutaneous (skin), somatic (bones and joints), and visceral (body organs). Nociceptor is a sensory neuron that responds to damaging or potentially damaging stimuli by sending possible threat signals.

is the ability to sense heat and cold. This also is thought of as more than one sense. This is not just because of the two hot/cold receptors, but also because there is a completely different type of thermoceptor, in terms of the mechanism for detection, in the brain. These thermoceptors in the brain are used for monitoring internal body temperature.

Blind people sense their heartbeats better than sighted. A study indicates that blindness leads to a heightened ability in feeling signals from the inner body.

Thirst allows your body to monitor its hydration level and lets your body know when you need to drink water.

Hunger is a system that allows your body to detect when you need to eat food. Over Eating - Saliva.

Tension Sensor is the ability that allows the brain to monitor muscle tension.

Stretch Receptor is the bodies ability to feel when things are being pulled or extended. A stretch receptor can also sense the dilation of blood vessels that are often involved in headaches. Stretch receptors are found in such places as the lungs, bladder, stomach, and the gastrointestinal tract. Yoga.

Proprioceptor is a sensory receptor which receives stimuli from within the body, especially one that responds to position and movement.

Proprioception is the sense of self-movement, force, and body position. It is sometimes described as the "sixth sense". Proprioception is mediated by proprioceptors, mechanosensory neurons located within muscles, tendons, and joints. Most animals possess multiple subtypes of proprioceptors, which detect distinct kinematic parameters, such as joint position, movement, and load. Although all mobile animals possess proprioceptors, the structure of the sensory organs can vary across species. Proprioception is the sense of the relative position of neighboring parts of the body and strength of effort being employed in movement. This sense gives you the ability to tell where your body parts are, relative to other body parts. This sense is one of the things police officers test when they pull over someone who they think is driving drunk. The “close your eyes and touch your nose” test is testing this sense. This sense is used all the time in little ways, such as when you scratch an itch on your foot, but never once look at your foot to see where your hand is relative to your foot. How the brain senses body position and movement.

Motion Perception is the process of inferring the speed and direction of elements in a scene based on visual, vestibular and proprioceptive inputs. Although this process appears straightforward to most observers, it has proven to be a difficult problem from a computational perspective, and difficult to explain in terms of neural processing.

Equilibrioception is the sense that allows you to keep your balance and sense body movement in terms of acceleration and directional changes. This sense also allows for perceiving gravity. The sensory system for this is found in your inner ears and is called the vestibular labyrinthine system. Anyone who’s ever had this sense go out on them on occasion knows how important this is. When it’s not working or malfunctioning, you literally can’t tell up from down and moving from one location to another without aid is nearly impossible. Sense of Balance helps prevent falling over when standing or moving. Equilibrioception (wiki)

Orientation is a function of the mind involving awareness of three dimensions as well as the awareness of time, place and person.

Head Direction Cells - Brain's Internal Compass - Spatial Intelligence

is the ability to detect magnetic fields, which is principally useful in providing a sense of direction when detecting the Earth’s magnetic field. Unlike most birds, humans do not have a strong magentoception, however, experiments have demonstrated that we do tend to have some sense of magnetic fields. The mechanism for this is not completely understood; it is theorized that this has something to do with deposits of ferric iron in our noses. This would make sense if that is correct as humans who are given magnetic implants have been shown to have a much stronger magnetoception than humans without.

Attractor Network is a type of recurrent dynamical network, that evolves toward a stable pattern over time. The attractor network is a network of nodes or neurons in a biological network, often recurrently connected, whose time dynamics settle to a stable pattern. That pattern may be stationary, time-varying (e.g. cyclic), or even stochastic-looking (e.g., chaotic). An attractor in the mathematical field of dynamical systems, is a set of states toward which a system tends to evolve, for a wide variety of starting conditions of the system. System values that get close enough to the attractor values remain close even if slightly disturbed. An attractor when applied to neural circuits, refers to dynamical states of neural populations that are self-sustained and stable against perturbations. It is part of the vocabulary for describing neurons or neural networks as dynamical systems.

Premotor Cortex is a region found beside the primary motor cortex. It guides eye and head movements and a person's sense of orientation. Amygdala.

Exteroception is how one perceives the outside world.

Chemoreceptor is a specialized sensory receptor which transduces a chemical substance (endogenous or induced) to generate a biological signal. This signal may be in the form of an action potential, if the chemoreceptor is a neuron, or in the form of a neurotransmitter that can activate a nerve fiber if the chemoreceptor is a specialized cell, such as taste receptors, or an internal peripheral chemoreceptor, such as the carotid bodies. In physiology, a chemoreceptor detects changes in the normal environment, such as an increase in blood levels of carbon dioxide (hypercapnia) or a decrease in blood levels of oxygen (hypoxia), and transmits that information to the central nervous system which engages body responses to restore homeostasis. In bacteria, chemoreceptors are essential in the mediation of chemotaxis. Chemoreceptors trigger an area of the medulla in the brain that is involved in detecting blood born hormones and drugs. It also is involved in the vomiting reflex. Peripheral Chemoreceptors are so named because they are sensory extensions of the peripheral nervous system into blood vessels where they detect changes in chemical concentrations. As transducers of patterns of variability in the surrounding environment, carotid and aortic bodies count as ‘sensors’ in a similar way as taste buds and photoreceptors. However, because carotid and aortic bodies detect variation within the body’s internal organs, they are considered interoceptors. Taste buds, olfactory bulbs, photoreceptors, and other receptors associated with the five traditional sensory modalities, by contrast, are exteroceptors in that they respond to stimuli outside the body. The body also contains proprioceptors, which respond to the amount of stretch within the organ, usually muscle, that they occupy.

Sensory Neuron are neurons in the nervous system, that convert a specific type of stimulus, via their receptors, into action potentials or graded potentials. This process is called sensory transduction. The cell bodies of the sensory neurons are located in the dorsal ganglia of the spinal cord. The sensory information travels on the afferent nerve fibers in a sensory nerve, to the brain via the spinal cord. The stimulus can come from exteroreceptors outside the body, for example those that detect light and sound, or from interoreceptors inside the body, for example those that are responsive to blood pressure or the sense of body position.

Time Perception - Time Management - Mindfulness - Rhythm - Cycles - Waves - Artificial Sensors.

Time or the sense of time is the ability to perceive time and to estimate what time it is, or the ability to know how much time has passed, without using an external time measuring device such as a clock. The mechanisms for perceiving time seems to be a distributed system involving the cerebral cortex, the cerebellum, and the basal ganglia. Long term time keeping seems to be monitored by the suprachiasmatic nuclei, which is a pair of small nuclei in the hypothalamus of the brain, above the optic chiasma, thought to be concerned with the regulation of physiological circadian rhythms. Short term time keeping is handled by other cell systems. Chronoception refers to how the passage of time is perceived and experienced.

Time Blindness refers to the inability to recognize when time has passed or to estimate how long something will take. Examples of how time blindness can manifest include: Over- or under-estimating how much time has passed. Not knowing how long a task will take.

Dyschronometria is a condition of cerebellar dysfunction in which an individual cannot accurately estimate the amount of time that has passed (i.e., distorted time perception). It is associated with cerebellar ataxia, when the cerebellum has been damaged and does not function to its fullest ability. Lesions to the cerebellum can cause dyssynergia, dysmetria, dysdiadochokinesia, dysarthria, and ataxia of stance and gait. Dyschronometria can result from autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia (ADCA). Common signs of dyschronometria are often generic to cerebellar ataxia, including a lack of spatial awareness, poor short term memory, and inability to keep track of time.

Feeling - Sensations

Feeling is a physical sensation that you experience. An emotional sensation or being in a particular state of mind. To be conscious of a physical, mental, or emotional state. An intuitive understanding of something. A feeling is also the sensation produced by pressure receptors in the skin. Senses can sometimes cause emotional reactions, so our senses are not just information inputs, they are sometimes misinterpreted or interrupted by human processes connected to our emotions, which means that filtering or separating these inputs from our emotions is sometimes difficult. Mindful - The Body affects the Mind.

Sensation is a physical feeling or perception resulting from something that happens to or comes into contact with the body. Sense of Humor.

Sensitive is being quick to detect or respond to slight changes, signals, or influences internally and externally. Being responsive to physical stimuli and able to Feel or Perceive. Being sensitive can also mean that you are susceptible to other peoples attitudes, feelings, or circumstances and have or display a quick and delicate appreciation of other peoples feelings.

Sentience is the ability to feel. In modern Western philosophy, sentience is the ability to experience sensations, known in philosophy of mind as qualia. In Eastern philosophy, sentience is a metaphysical quality of all things that require respect and care. Sentience is the capacity to feel, perceive, or experience subjectively that allows them to experience pain, recognize individual humans and have memory.

Beyond Senses - Empathy - Kindred Spirits - Good Soul - Good Neurons

Sensate is perceiving something by the senses and having a physical sensation.

Homo Sensoriums
are a species of humans that are telepathically connected to each other.

Sensory System

Human Senses is a physiological capacity of organisms that provides data for perception.

Sense is a perceived physical sensation coming from the bodies senses. A general conscious awareness or the faculty through which the external world is apprehended or comprehended. To detect some circumstance or entity automatically. To become aware of something instinctively.

Artificial Intelligent Sensors

Sensation is the elementary awareness of stimulation. A general feeling of excitement and heightened interest.

Sensory Organs are very highly developed and specialized organs that are an extension of the central nervous system, with a sole function to take in information and relate it to the brain. The sensory neurons are highly adapted to detect changes of both external and internal changes in the environment and report these changes to the brain. Whether through touch, sound, taste, sight, or smell, the senses are constantly reporting variances, nuances, and dramatic changes within the environment to the brain. This is done through nerve actions, or action potentials. A stimulus, through any nerve pattern, is sensed and must be interpreted by the brain in an uninterrupted flow in order for the sense to become real for the body. The sensory system supplies the body with pleasurable sensation as well as warning the body to dangers, such as the sensation of heat, the sounds which warn, and the smell of toxic chemicals, smoke, or other alerting odors. This combination of stimuli makes the sensory system on of the most complex in the human body.

Sensory is a signal derived from the senses, or a nerve fiber or impulse originating outside and passing toward the central nervous system. Relating to or concerned in sensation.

Somatosensory System (touch)

Sensory Science is a multidisciplinary field comprising measurement, interpretation and understanding of human responses to product properties as perceived by the senses such as sight, smell, taste, touch and hearing.

Sensory Cue is a statistic or signal that can be extracted from the sensory input by a perceiver, that indicates the state of some property of the world that the perceiver is interested in perceiving. A cue is some organization of the data present in the signal which allows for meaningful extrapolation. For example, sensory cues include visual cues, auditory cues, haptic cues, olfactory cues and environmental cues. Sensory cues are a fundamental part of theories of perception, especially theories of appearance (how things look). Environmental Cues are cues around a person that inform them what is happening and how to respond.

Absolute Threshold was originally defined as the lowest level of a stimulus – light, sound, touch, etc. – that an organism could detect. Under the influence of signal detection theory, absolute threshold has been redefined as the level at which a stimulus will be detected a specified percentage (often 50%) of the time. The absolute threshold can be influenced by several different factors, such as the subject's motivations and expectations, cognitive processes, and whether the subject is adapted to the stimulus. The absolute threshold can be compared to the difference threshold, which is the measure of how different two stimuli must be for the subject to notice that they are not the same. Nerves.

Sensory Threshold is the weakest stimulus that an organism can detect. Unless otherwise indicated, it is usually defined as the weakest stimulus that can be detected half the time, for example, as indicated by a point on a probability curve. Methods have been developed to measure thresholds in any of the senses.

Sensory Processing is the neurological process that organizes sensation from one’s own body and the environment, thus making it possible to use the body effectively within the environment. Specifically, it deals with how the brain processes multiple sensory modality inputs, such as proprioception, vision, auditory system, tactile, olfactory, vestibular system, interoception, and taste into usable functional outputs. Sensory Processing.

Sensory Neuron are neurons that convert a specific type of stimulus, via their receptors, into action potentials or graded potentials. This process is called sensory transduction. The cell bodies of the sensory neurons are located in the dorsal ganglia of the spinal cord. This sensory information travels along afferent nerve fibers in an afferent or sensory nerve, to the brain via the spinal cord. The stimulus can come from extoreceptors outside the body, for example light and sound, or from interoreceptors inside the body, for example blood pressure or the sense of body position. Different types of sensory neurons have different sensory receptors that respond to different kinds of stimuli. (afferent neurons). Sensory Neurons located in your fingertips perform mathematical calculations that provide us with geometric information about objects we touchSomatosensory System is a complex system of nerve cells that responds to changes to the surface or internal state of the body. Nerve cells called "sensory receptors" (including thermoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors and nociceptors) send signals along a chain of nerve cells to the spinal cord where they may be processed by other nerve cells and then relayed to the brain for further processing. Sensory receptors are found in many parts of the body including the skin, epithelial tissues, skeletal muscles, bones and joints, internal organs, and the cardiovascular system.

Sensory System is a part of the nervous system responsible for processing sensory information. A sensory system consists of sensory receptors, neural pathways, and parts of the brain involved in sensory perception. Commonly recognized sensory systems are those for vision, auditory (hearing), somatic sensation (touch), gustatory (taste), olfaction (smell) and vestibular (balance/movement). In short, senses are transducers from the physical world to the realm of the mind where we interpret the information, creating our perception of the world around us. Sensory Nervous System (wiki).

Sensory Receptor is a sensory nerve ending that responds to a stimulus in the internal or external environment of an organism. In response to stimuli, the sensory receptor initiates sensory transduction by creating graded potentials or action potentials in the same cell or in an adjacent one. Radio Receiver.

Receptor is an organ having nerve endings in the skin, viscera, eye, ear, nose or mouth that responds to stimulation.

Receptor in biochemistry is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell. When such chemical signals bind to a receptor, they cause some form of cellular/tissue response, e.g. a change in the electrical activity of a cell. There are three main ways the action of the receptor can be classified: relay of signal, amplification, or integration. Relaying sends the signal onward, amplification increases the effect of a single ligand, and integration allows the signal to be incorporated into another biochemical pathway. In this sense, a receptor is a protein-molecule that recognizes and responds to endogenous chemical signals, e.g. an acetylcholine receptor recognizes and responds to its endogenous ligand, acetylcholine. However, sometimes in pharmacology, the term is also used to include other proteins that are drug targets, such as enzymes, transporters, and ion channels. Receptor proteins can be classified by their location. Transmembrane receptors include ion channel-linked (ionotropic) receptors, G protein-linked (metabotropic) hormone receptors, and enzyme-linked hormone receptors. Intracellular receptors are those found inside the cell, and include cytoplasmic receptors and nuclear receptors. A molecule that binds to a receptor is called a ligand, and can be a protein or peptide (short protein), or another small molecule such as a neurotransmitter, hormone, pharmaceutical drug, toxin, or parts of the outside of a virus or microbe. The endogenously designated -molecule for a particular receptor is referred to as its endogenous ligand. E.g. the endogenous ligand for the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is acetylcholine but the receptor can also be activated by nicotine and blocked by curare. Each receptor is linked to a specific cellular biochemical pathway. While numerous receptors are found in most cells, each receptor will only bind with ligands of a particular structure, much like how locks will only accept specifically shaped keys. When a ligand binds to its corresponding receptor, it activates or inhibits the receptor's associated biochemical pathway.

Cell Signaling (cell communication)

Sensory Cortex or somatosensory cortex or the primary and secondary cortices of the different senses (two cortices each, on left and right hemisphere).

Postcentral Gyrus - Primary Somatosensory Cortex

Stimulus in Physiology (reward - no reward) - Sensory Deprivation

Reptiles spontaneous association between vision and hearing. The study showed that reptiles demonstrate spontaneous associations between two different sensory modalities: vision and hearing. Tortoises associated low sounds with large shapes and high pitch sounds with small shapes, even if they had not been trained to do so. These results show how brains are prepared to predict visuo-acoustic correspondences that are likely to occur in the natural world. Pattern Recognition.

Study IDs what brings our senses and thoughts together. Neuroscientists discover process behind brain's high-level work. Our ability to think, decide, remember recent events and more, comes from our brain's neocortex. Now neuroscientists have discovered key aspects of the mechanisms behind these functions. Their findings could ultimately help improve treatments for certain neuropsychiatric disorders and brain injuries.

Sensory Disorders

Sensory Processing Disorder exists when multisensory integration is not adequately processed in order to provide appropriate responses to the demands of the environment.

Agnosia is the inability to process sensory information. Often there is a loss of ability to recognize objects, persons, sounds, shapes, or smells while the specific sense is not defective nor is there any significant memory loss. It is usually associated with brain injury or neurological illness, particularly after damage to the occipitotemporal border, which is part of the ventral stream. Agnosia only affects a single modality, such as vision or hearing. More recently, a top-down interruption is considered to cause the disturbance of handling perceptual information. Agnosia refers to a loss of knowledge. An inability to interpret sensations and hence to recognize things, typically as a result of brain damage.

Music Disorders - Language Disorders

Hypersensitivity is a set of undesirable reactions produced by the normal immune system, including Allergies and autoimmunity. They are usually referred to as an over- reaction of the immune system and these reactions may be damaging, uncomfortable, or occasionally fatal. Hypersensitivity reactions require a pre-sensitized (immune) state of the host. (also called hypersensitivity reaction or intolerance).

Food Allergy - Desensitization - Stimulus

Sensory Processing Sensitivity has been described as having hypersensitivity to external stimuli, a greater depth of cognitive processing, and high emotional reactivity.

Sensory Memory

Echoic Memory is the sensory memory that register specific to auditory information or sounds. Once an auditory stimulus is heard, it is stored in memory so that it can be processed and understood. Unlike visual memory, in which our eyes can scan the stimuli over and over, the auditory stimuli cannot be scanned over and over. Since echoic memories are heard once, they are stored for slightly longer periods of time than iconic memories (visual memories). Auditory stimuli are received by the ear one at a time before they can be processed and understood. For instance, hearing the radio is very different from reading a magazine. A person can only hear the radio once at a given time, while the magazine can be read over and over again. It can be said that the echoic memory is like a "holding tank" concept, because a sound is unprocessed (or held back) until the following sound is heard, and only then can it be made meaningful. This particular sensory store is capable of storing large amounts of auditory information that is only retained for a short period of time (3–4 seconds). This echoic sound resonates in the mind and is replayed for this brief amount of time shortly after being heard. Echoic memory encodes only moderately primitive aspects of the stimuli, for example pitch, which specifies localization to the non-association brain regions. Motor Memory.

Sensory Memory is being taken in by sensory receptors and processed by the nervous system. During every moment of an organism's life, sensory information is being taken in by sensory receptors and processed by the nervous system. Sensory information is stored in sensory memory just long enough to be transferred to short-term memory. Humans have five traditional senses: sight, hearing, taste, smell, touch. Sensory memory (SM) allows individuals to retain impressions of sensory information after the original stimulus has ceased. A common demonstration of SM is a child's ability to write letters and make circles by twirling a sparkler at night. When the sparkler is spun fast enough, it appears to leave a trail which forms a continuous image. This "light trail" is the image that is represented in the visual sensory store known as iconic memory. The other two types of SM that have been most extensively studied are echoic memory, and haptic memory; however, it is reasonable to assume that each physiological sense has a corresponding memory store. Children for example have been shown to remember specific "sweet" tastes during incidental learning trials but the nature of this gustatory store is still unclear.

Iconic Memory is the visual sensory memory register pertaining to the visual domain and a fast-decaying store of visual information. It is a component of the visual memory system which also includes visual short-term memory (VSTM) and long-term memory (LTM). Iconic memory is described as a very brief (<1 second), pre-categorical, high capacity memory store. It contributes to VSTM by providing a coherent representation of our entire visual perception for a very brief period of time. Iconic memory assists in accounting for phenomena such as change blindness and continuity of experience during saccades.

Substituting Signals

Sensory Substitution is a non-invasive technique for circumventing the loss of one sense by feeding its information through another channel to change of the characteristics of one sensory modality into stimuli of another sensory modality. A sensory substitution system consists of three parts: a sensor, a coupling system, and a stimulator. The sensor records stimuli and gives them to a coupling system which interprets these signals and transmits them to a stimulator. In case the sensor obtains signals of a kind not originally available to the bearer it is a case of sensory augmentation. Sensory substitution concerns human perception and the plasticity of the human brain; and therefore, allows us to study these aspects of neuroscience more through neuroimaging. Sensory substitution systems can help people by restoring their ability to perceive certain defective sensory modality by using sensory information from a functioning sensory modality. Ai.

Synesthesia is a neurological phenomenon in which stimulation of one sensory or cognitive pathway leads to automatic, involuntary experiences in a second sensory or cognitive pathway. Memory.

Hypnosis - Brain Plasticity - Changing Habits - Simultaneous - Colors - Sounds - Noise Cancelation - Conversions

Crossmodal is perception that involves interactions between two or more different sensory modalities. Examples include synesthesia, sensory substitution and the McGurk effect, in which vision and hearing interact in speech perception. Noise.

Multimodal Perception is the ability of the mammalian nervous system to combine all of the different inputs of the sensory nervous system to result in an enhanced detection or identification of a particular stimulus. Combinations of all sensory modalities are done in cases where a single sensory modality results in ambiguous and incomplete result.

Multisensory Integration is the study of how information from the different sensory modalities, such as sight, sound, touch, smell, self-motion and taste, may be integrated by the nervous system. A coherent representation of objects combining modalities enables us to have meaningful perceptual experiences. Indeed, multisensory integration is central to adaptive behavior because it allows us to perceive a world of coherent perceptual entities. Multisensory integration also deals with how different sensory modalities interact with one another and alter each other's processing. Multisensory Learning.

Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response is an experience characterized by a static-like or tingling sensation on the skin that typically begins on the scalp and moves down the back of the neck and upper spine. It has been compared with auditory-tactile synesthesia and may overlap with frisson. ASMR signifies the subjective experience of "low-grade euphoria" characterized by "a combination of positive feelings and a distinct static-like tingling sensation on the skin". It is most commonly triggered by specific auditory or visual stimuli, and less commonly by intentional attention control. Autonomous – spontaneous, self-governing, with or without control. Sensory – pertaining to the senses or sensation. Meridian – signifying a peak, climax, or point of highest development. Response – referring to an experience triggered by something external or internal. Stimuli that can trigger ASMR, as reported by those who experience it, include the following: Listening to a softly spoken or whispering voice. Listening to quiet, repetitive sounds resulting from someone engaging in a mundane task such as turning the pages of a book. Watching somebody attentively execute a mundane task such as preparing food. Loudly chewing, crunching, slurping or biting foods, drinks, or gum. Receiving personal attention. Initiating the stimulus through conscious manipulation without the need for external video or audio triggers. Listening to tapping, typically nails onto surfaces such as plastic, wood, metal, etc.. Hand movements, especially onto one's face.

Chemoreceptor is a specialized sensory receptor cell which transduces or converts a chemical substance, either endogenous or induced,  and generates a biological signal. This signal may be in the form of an action potential if the chemoreceptor is a neuron or nerve cell, or in the form of a neurotransmitter that can activate a nearby nerve fiber if the chemosensor is a specialized sensory receptor cell, such as the taste receptor in a taste bud or in an internal peripheral chemoreceptor such as the carotid body (ex, in chemotherapy). In more general terms, a chemosensor detects toxic or hazardous chemicals in the internal or external environment of the human body (e.x. chemotherapy) and transmits that information to the central nervous system, (and rarely the peripheral nervous system), in order to expel the biologically active toxins from the blood, and prevent further consumption of alcohol and/or other acutely toxic recreational intoxicants.

Converting Signals

Transduction is the process whereby a transducer accepts energy in one form and gives back related energy in a different form. Transduction in genetics is the process of transferring genetic material from one cell to another by a plasmid or bacteriophage.

Transformation - Translation - Energy - Actuator - Alchemy - Entropy

Transduction in physiology is the conversion of a sensory stimulus from one form to another. Transduction in the nervous system typically refers to stimulus alerting events wherein a physical stimulus is converted into an action potential, which is transmitted along axons towards the central nervous system where it is integrated. A receptor cell converts the energy in a stimulus into a change in the electrical potential across its membrane. It causes the depolarization of the membrane to allow the action potential to be transduced to the brain for integration. Signal Transduction.

Convert is to exchange or replace with another. The act of changing one thing for another thing.

Conversion is an event that results in a transformation. The act of changing from one use, function or purpose to another. A change in the units or form of an expression. A spiritual enlightenment causing a person to lead a new life. A change of religion.

Inverter - Transformers - Converter - Measurement Conversions - Processed Food

Transducer is a device that converts energy from one form to another. Usually a transducer converts a signal in one form of energy to a signal in another. Accepts energy in one form and gives back related energy in a different form. Microphone.

Classical Conditioning - Learning Methods - Trade - Symbol - Codes

A functional MRI study of 17 people blind since birth found that areas of visual cortex became active when the participants were asked to solve algebra problems, a team from Johns Hopkins reports in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. In 19 sighted people doing the same problems, visual areas of the brain showed no increase in activity.

Tangibility is the attribute of being easily detectable with the senses.

Agnosia is the inability to process sensory information. Often there is a loss of ability to recognize objects, persons, sounds, shapes, or smells while the specific sense is not defective nor is there any significant memory loss. Response.

Data Conversion is the conversion of computer data from one format to another. Filtering Data.

Data Transformation is the process of converting data from one format or structure into another format or structure.

Energy Transformation is the process of changing energy from one form to another. Conversions to thermal energy from other forms of energy may occur with 100% efficiency. Spiritual Transformation.

Mechanotransduction is any of various mechanisms by which cells convert mechanical stimulus into electrochemical activity. This form of sensory transduction is responsible for a number of senses and physiological processes in the body, including proprioception, touch, balance, and hearing. The basic mechanism of mechanotransduction involves converting mechanical signals into electrical or chemical signals. In this process, a mechanically gated ion channel makes it possible for sound, pressure, or movement to cause a change in the excitability of specialized sensory cells and sensory neurons. The stimulation of a mechanoreceptor causes mechanically sensitive ion channels to open and produce a transduction current that changes the membrane potential of the cell. Typically the mechanical stimulus gets filtered in the conveying medium before reaching the site of mechanotransduction. Cellular responses to mechanotransduction are variable and give rise to a variety of changes and sensations. Broader issues involved include molecular biomechanics.

Servo or servomechanism is a control system that converts a small mechanical motion into one requiring much greater power; may include a negative feedback system.

Information Integration is the merging of information from heterogeneous sources with differing conceptual, contextual and typographical representations.

Data Fusion is the process of integrating multiple data sources to produce more consistent, accurate, and useful information than that provided by any individual data source. Humans are a prime example of Data Fusion. As humans, we rely heavily on our senses such as our Vision, Smell, Taste, Voice and Physical Movement. A combination of all these senses combine on a daily basis to help us in performing most if not all tasks in our day to day lives. That in itself is a prime example of data fusion. We rely on a fusion of smelling, tasting and touching food to ensure it is edible or not. Similarly, we rely on our sight and our ability to hear and control movement of our body to walk or drive and perform most tasks in our lives. In all these cases, the Brain performs the fusion processing and controls what we need to do next. Our brain relies on a fusion of data gathered from the aforementioned senses.

Beyond our Senses

Our senses are not perfect and could easily mislead us. Like when you're with someone and the other person is looking one way and you are looking another way, you will not see the same things. But what if you are looking at the same thing, you still might see two different things because one person's knowledge and experience is different, which gives them the ability to see more or see it differently. Same with hearing, Did you hear that? No, because I was not listening. Or the person does not recognize the sound the same way that you do because of your knowledge and experience is different. And it's not just how you perceive things through your senses, it's also how trained you are with using your senses. Like when reading peoples faces, or knowing when people are lying.

PIEZO2 Gene or Piezos are large transmembrane proteins conserved among various species, all having between 24 and 36 predicted transmembrane domains. 'Piezo' comes from the Greek 'piesi,' meaning 'pressure.' The PIEZO2 protein has a role in rapidly adapting mechanically activated (MA) currents in somatosensory neurons.

Osteocrin is a gene found in the skeletal muscles of all mammals and well-known for its role in bone growth and muscle function. Osteocrin is also found in cells of the neocortex -- the most evolved part of the primate brain, which regulates sensory perception, spatial reasoning and higher-level thinking and language in humans.

Mental Practice can complement Physical Practice. Motor imagery promotes motor learning. Imagination is a form of self-deceit—a good portion of your brain reacts to your motor activity in the same way, whether the muscles are moving or not. People who simply imagined putting a golf ball into the hole before they take the shot had 30.4 percent more successful putts than those who did not.

Gestalt Principles is also known as the "Law of Simplicity" or the "Law of Pragnanz" (the entire figure or configuration), which states that every stimulus is perceived in its most simple form. Gestalt theorists followed the basic principle that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Gestalt psychology tries to understand the laws of our ability to acquire and maintain meaningful perceptions in an apparently chaotic world. The central principle of gestalt psychology is that the mind forms a global whole with self-organizing tendencies.

Meaning-Making is the process of how persons construe, understand, or make sense of life events, relationships, and the self especially during bereavement in which persons attribute some sort of meaning to an experienced death or loss. Through meaning-making, persons are "retaining, reaffirming, revising, or replacing elements of their orienting system to develop more nuanced, complex and useful systems"

Expanding our Senses using Artificial Intelligent Tools: Mechanical Sensors (Ai) - Smartphone Accessories - Medical Sensors.

Synesthesia shows that the brain does not always work the way it is designed to do. But these small malfunctions can teach us a lot.

Neuroscience research shows the brain is strobing, not constant. Perception and attention are intrinsically rhythmic in nature. We concentrate limited cognitive resources on specific items of interest, rather than diluting resources over the entire space. Oscillating attention would produce an analogous result over time, with resources concentrated into small temporal epochs instead of being sustained in a uniform but thin allocation. Oscillations, or 'strobes', are a general feature of human perception. Sensitivity for detecting weak sounds is not constant, but fluctuates rhythmically over time. Senses are not constant, they go through cycles, prioritizing processes. Brain oscillations can occur at up to 100 times per second. Auditory cycles happen at the rate of about six per second. This strobing approach to attention would bind together relevant information at regular time points and allow new groupings of information to reassemble at other moments.

Is there a Universal Hierarchy of Human Senses? The accepted hierarchy of human senses -- sight, hearing, touch, taste and smell -- is not universally true across all cultures, new research shows.

The ear is mute, the lips deaf. But the eye senses and speaks. In it the world is reflected from without, and man from within. ~ Johann Wolfgang con Goethe. (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832)

We don't have senses for everything in the universe, but we do sense a lot of different things. And sometimes we don't even notice the things that we are sensing. When you learn about the human senses and learn how they work, you understand the human senses a lot better. So knowledge and information is very important to using your senses. The more you know, the more you can sense, the less you know, the less you can sense or make sense. There are many things in the universe that we believe we can not sense, but how do we truly know, we have not yet fully studied or researched how to sense things beyond our physical senses. The human body seems to have everything that it needs, except for the knowledge that would help us to utilize our innate abilities. Knowledge seems to be a very important sense. How could you sense something that you have no knowledge of.

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