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Water  -  H2O

Water Symbol
Water or H2O, is a liquid necessary for the life of most animals and plants. A Binary compound that occurs at room temperature as a clear colorless odorless tasteless liquid; freezes into ice below zero degrees centigrade and boils above 100 degrees centigrade; widely used as a solvent. The part of the earth's surface covered with water (such as a river or lake or ocean). There are 3 Atoms in a Water Molecule, 2 Hydrogen Atoms (H), and 1 Oxygen Atom (O).

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Women Drinking a Glass of Water Over 70% of our Earth's Surface is covered by water. 97.5% of all Water on earth is salt water. Only 2.5% is fresh water, and less then 1% is Drinkable. 70% of Fresh water is frozen in the icecaps. Water makes up to 60 percent of the Human Body. Dehydration

Water Facts - Fluid Mechanics - Rain - Ice

Filters for Water - Purification Techniques

Quality of Water - Testing and Monitoring - 2 Billion People worldwide lacking access to clean and safe drinking water.

Pesticides - Poisons and Water Pollution

The Average American uses 99 Gallons of Water a Day for activities like washing clothes, bathing, toilet-flushing and cooking. Then on top of that the average American uses another 250 gallons of water per day to generate daily electricity usage, = 350 gallonsWater Efficiency in Rural Areas is Getting Worse, Even as it Improves in Urban Centers.

Since there are no federal regulations either guaranteeing a citizen’s right to water or water affordability, water and sewer prices more than doubled between 2000 to 2016, outpacing price increases for other basics such as electricity.

Drought Monitor - Water Resources in the U.S. 

Sectoral contributions to surface water stress in the coterminous United States

News Deeply environmental, social and economic issues contributing to the drought crisis in California.

Climate Change - Global Change

Dry Land Farming - Irrigation

Desalination - Water from Air - Wells

Aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt) from which groundwater can be extracted using a water well. Fracking
Ogallala Aquifer is a shallow water table aquifer surrounded by sand, silt, clay and gravel located beneath the Great Plains in the United States. One of the world's largest aquifers, it underlies an area of approximately 174,000 sq mi (450,000 km2) in portions of eight states (South Dakota, Nebraska, Wyoming, Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Texas).
Groundwater Recharge is a hydrologic process where water moves downward from surface water to groundwater. Recharge is the primary method through which water enters an aquifer. This process usually occurs in the vadose zone below plant roots and is often expressed as a flux to the water table surface. Recharge occurs both naturally (through the water cycle) and through anthropogenic processes (i.e., "artificial groundwater recharge"), where rainwater and or reclaimed water is routed to the subsurface.

Water Use Tips - Conserve Methods - Run off

Clean Water Rights

Clean Water Act is the primary federal law in the United States governing water pollution. Its objective is to restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the nation's waters by preventing point and nonpoint pollution sources, providing assistance to publicly owned treatment works for the improvement of wastewater treatment, and maintaining the integrity of wetlands.

More than 2 billion people lack access to safe water, and more than 4.5 billion people lack adequate sanitation services.

Poison Papers. Documenting the Hidden History of Chemical and Pesticide Hazards in the United States.

Pesticides - Toxins

Safe Drinking Water Act is the principal federal law in the United States intended to ensure safe drinking water for the public.

Over 1 Million American Rural Residents Don't Have Clean Water

An Analysis of Water Collection Labor among Women and Children in 24 Sub-Saharan African Countries. An estimated 13.54 million women (and 3.36 million children) who are responsible for water collection trips that take 30 minutes or longer.

Community Water Center
Resource Conservation Recovery Act

Superfund Act is a program designed to fund the cleanup of sites contaminated with hazardous substances and pollutants.

Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act to encourage and support emergency planning efforts at the state and local levels and to provide the public and local governments with information concerning potential chemical hazards present in their communities.

Drugs in Public Drinking Water

Nearly 200 million Americans across all 50 states are exposed to unsafe levels of chromium-6 or hexavalent chromium, a heavy metal known to cause cancer in animals and humans.

Michigan Mayor Declares State Of Emergency Over Lead Levels
Mass murderers are at it again. We have too many criminals in our local city governments. We need justice, now!
Diets high in iron, calcium or vitamin C can limit the absorption of lead in your body and promote its excretion.
HERE'S TO FLINT 2016 (youtube 44:54)
Financial Emergency in Michigan
Receivership (wiki)
Elevated levels of Lead in Children
from Flint, Mich
S.2377 - Lead-Free Drinking Water Act of 2004
CDC Lead

Today at least 4 million households have children living in them that are being exposed to high levels of lead. Almost 3,000 areas with poisoning rates far higher than in the tainted Michigan city. Yet many of these lead hotspots are receiving little attention or funding.

Our National Lead Problem Is Bigger Than Flint

America's lead poisoning problem isn't just in Flint. It’s everywhere. More than 5,000 water systems across the country are violating rules meant to keep lead out of drinking water, NRDC
Nationally, nearly 1,400 water systems serving 3.7 million Americans violated the federal standard at least once over that time period. The information was based on data current as of September 2015.
Corrosion Inhibitor

In Connecticut 39 of 1,082 water systems serving schools, office parks, a state office, and apartment and condominium complexes have exceeded federal lead levels at least once since January 2013.

More than 6 million Americans are drinking water laced with unsafe levels of chemicals linked with cancer and other illnesses.

Prenatal immunotoxicant exposure and postnatal autoimmune disease.
Perfluorooctanesulfonic Acid

Indigenous Americans Have Been Living Flint's Nightmare for Decades
First Nations Water Crisis in Indigenous Communities

Deficits in Psychologic and Classroom Performance of Children with Elevated Dentine Lead Levels
What Do Parents Need to Know to Protect Their Children? Prevent lead exposure before it occurs.

$2.2 billion over five years to Service Men Poisoned by Water
Veterans, former reservists and former National Guard members who served for at least 30 days at the U.S. Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune in North Carolina from 1953 to 1987, up to 900,000 service members, were potentially exposed to the tainted water at the base. They developed adult leukemia, aplastic anemia, bladder cancer, kidney cancer, liver cancer, multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and Parkinson’s disease. Contaminants included the volatile organic compounds trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, benzene and vinyl chloride.

Toxic Water Polluters List
Toxic Water
Pollution of Groundwater

"No more Exemptions to the Law"

Groundwater Pollution can occur from on-site sanitation systems, landfills, effluent from wastewater treatment plants, leaking sewers, petrol stations or from over application of fertilizers in agriculture.

Toxic carcinogen found in 80 of New Jersey water systems

Legionnaires Disease comes from breathing in small water droplets or mist contaminated with the Legionella bacteria

10 Biofilms in Drinking Water Distribution Systems: Significance and Control
Biofilm (wiki)

5.2 million Americans learned that their drinking water is contaminated with man-made Unsafe Levels of PFCs. DuPont, despite knowledge that the chemical was linked to increased rates of cancer and other horrific health conditions in animals and human beings, had dumped mountains of the stuff into the local water supply for decades.

Genx in drinking water in Raleigh, N.C. A chemical company under fire for releasing GenX into the Cape Fear River. GenX is a detergent used to make Teflon and other products it is related to a family of chemicals known to cause cancer and other Adverse health effects.

GenX is a chemical process that uses 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-2-(heptafluoropropoxy)propanoic acid (FRD-903) and produces FRD-902 and E1. The process is proposed as a replacement for the use of Toxic and Carcinogenic PFOA (C8) for manufacturing fluoropolymers like teflon. Gen X was released by DuPont into the Cape Fear River which feeds the Wilmington, NC water supply for decades resulting in controversy over its adverse health effects. On November 2, 2017, a federal lawsuit was filed by the Brunswick County Government alleging that DuPont failed to disclose research regarding potential risks from the chemical.

3.4 million people die each year from water-related diseases. Water Facts

Body Burden

Water for People
Agua 4 All
The Water Project
The Water Bearers
Water Integrity Network - Earth Protectors
Water Aid

World Water Day
The UNICEF Tap Project

Clean Water
Charity Water
Blue Planet Run
World Water Day (wiki)
Water Credit
Safe Water
Drybath Keep body clean without water.
Water Standard
Water Smart Innovations

Films about Water Pollution

Water Quality

Food and Water Watch

Water Pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans, aquifers and groundwater). This form of environmental degradation occurs when pollutants are directly or indirectly discharged into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds. Water pollution affects the entire biosphere – plants and organisms living in these bodies of water. In almost all cases the effect is damaging not only to individual species and population, but also to the natural biological communities. Neutrons probe oxygen-generating enzyme for a greener approach to clean water.

Water Quality refers to the chemical, physical, biological, and radiological characteristics of water. It is a measure of the condition of water relative to the requirements of one or more biotic species and or to any human need or purpose. It is most frequently used by reference to a set of standards against which compliance can be assessed. The most common standards used to assess water quality relate to health of ecosystems, safety of human contact, and drinking water.

Drinking Water is water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation, without risk of health problems. Globally, in 2015, 91% of people had access to water suitable for drinking. Nearly 4.2 billion had access to tap water while another 2.4 billion had access to wells or public taps. 1.8 billion people still use an unsafe drinking water source which may be contaminated by feces. This can result in infectious Diarrhea such as Cholera and typhoid among others. (Potable Water).

Tap Water Quality Database Since 2010, water utilities' testing has found pollutants in Americans' tap water, according to an EWG drinking water quality analysis of 30 million state water records.

All 50 states in America have polluted waters where fish are unsafe to eat.

Urban Aquaculture
City Fish Farmer
Urban Fish Farm (youtube)
River Protection
Water is Life (manual on amazon)

Recreational Water Quality Alerts
River Preservation Groups
Ocean Protection
Environmental Quotes and Sayings
Green Products

Fresh Water is naturally occurring water on Earth's surface in ice sheets, ice caps, glaciers, icebergs, bogs, ponds, lakes, rivers and streams, and underground as groundwater in aquifers and underground streams. Fresh water is generally characterized by having low concentrations of dissolved salts and other total dissolved solids.

Water Testing

Drinking Water Test Kit (amazon)
Handheld TDS Meter (amazon)
TDS-EZ Water Quality Tester (amazon)
City Drinking Water Test Kits
Water Test Kits
Water Test America
Tox-Spot Water Toxicity Test
Special Pathogens Lab
Pesticides (Biomonitoring)
Water Canary
Low Cost inkjet Printed Nano
A pill with pesticide-detecting enzymes
Pullulan is used in various breath freshener or oral hygiene products.

Simple Paper-Strip Testing has the potential to tell us quickly what's in water, and other liquid samples from food, the environment and bodies -- Now researchers have developed a way to make these low-cost devices more versatile and reliable for analyzing both liquid and solid samples using adhesive tape. Paper Sensors

Paper-Based Device that cost one dollar and weighs a gram can be a simple way of testing water for contamination.  The device consists of a microbial fuel cell (MFC), obtained by screen printing biodegradable carbon electrodes onto a single piece of paper. When these bacteria are exposed to polluted water, a change in the electric signal occurs, which can be used as a warning message that the water is unsafe to drink. An MFC is a device that uses the natural biological processes of 'electric' bacteria - attached to the carbon electrodes - to generate an electric signal and the sensor can be linked up with an electronic device such as a mobile phone, via a wireless transmitter, for a quick and user-friendly way of identifying if a water supply is safe to use.

Soil Testing

Water Filtering - Purification

Emergency Natural Water Filter Water Purification is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended solids and gases from water. The goal is to produce water fit for a specific purpose. Most water is disinfected for human consumption (drinking water), but water purification may also be designed for a variety of other purposes, including fulfilling the requirements of medical, pharmacological, chemical and industrial applications. The methods used include physical processes such as filtration, sedimentation, and distillation; biological processes such as slow sand filters or biologically active carbon; chemical processes such as flocculation and chlorination and the use of electromagnetic radiation such as ultraviolet light. Purifying water may reduce the concentration of particulate matter including suspended particles, parasites, bacteria, algae, viruses, fungi, as well as reducing the concentration of a range of dissolved and particulate matter.

Water Filter removes impurities by lowering contamination of water using a fine physical barrier, a chemical process, or a biological process. Filters cleanse water to different extents for purposes such as providing agricultural irrigation, accessible drinking water, public and private aquaria, and the safe use of ponds and swimming pools.

Portable Filters
Water Filter Kit and Faucet (amazon)
Brita Water Filter Pitcher (amazon)
Perfect Water Purifier
ZeroWater ZD-013 8-Cup Pitcher (amazon)
Propur Water Filter Pitcher (amazon)
Waves for Water Portable Filtration Systems.
Life Saver Water Bottle Filter Systems
Wateroam Fieldtrate Lite
LifeStraw Personal Water Filter (amazon)
Katadyn Survivor 06 Desalinator (amazon)
Katadyn Pocket an output of 1 liter/minute through our silver-impregnated ceramic filter.
Berkey Water Filters

SolarSack Water Purification is a special bag that is filled with four liters of water and placed in the sun for four hours. Using UVA and UVB rays, as well as heat from the sun, the water is cleaned of pathogenic bacteria. The user can then drink the water and reuse the bag for water purification.

Solar Pure Water - Desalination

Removing Heavy Metals from Water in a matter of Seconds. Chemists have developed a new material that can remove heavy metals from water and make it drinkable in second.

Solar Still distills water, using the heat of the Sun to evaporate, cool then collect the water. There are many types of solar still, including large scale concentrated solar stills, and condensation traps (better known as moisture traps amongst survivalists). In a solar still, impure water is contained outside the collector, where it is evaporated by sunlight shining through clear plastic or glass. The pure water vapor condenses on the cool inside surface and drips down, where it is collected and removed. Distillation replicates the way nature makes rain. The sun's energy heats water to the point of evaporation. As the water evaporates, water vapor rises, condensing into water again as it cools and can then be collected. This process leaves behind impurities, such as salts and heavy metals, and eliminates microbiological organisms. The end result is pure distilled water.

The Solar Still Water Purification Kit (amazon)

UMD Researchers Work to Mitigate Water Scarcity Crisis with Solar-Powered Devices Made of Wood. Water can be transported through wood, purifying it for safe use.

To accurately taste water, water should be at room temperature, not chilled.

Amazon water Sanitation Hygiene Project

Biosand Filter is a point-of-use water treatment system adapted from traditional slow sand filters. Biosand filters remove pathogens and suspended solids from water using biological and physical processes that take place in a sand column covered with a biofilm. BSFs have been shown to remove heavy metals, turbidity, bacteria, viruses and protozoa. BSFs also reduce discoloration, odor and unpleasant taste. Studies have shown a correlation between use of BSFs and a decrease in occurrence of diarrhea. Because of their effectiveness, ease of use, and lack of recurring costs, biosand filters are often considered appropriate technology in developing countries. It is estimated that over 200,000 BSFs are in use worldwide.

Moss Funaria Hygrometrica tolerates and absorbs an impressive amount of lead (Pb) from water which would be a green alternative for decontaminating polluted water and soil.

Quest Water Solutions
Dean Kamen (youtube)
Jerry Can Produces Potable Water

Reverse Osmosis is a water purification technology that uses a semipermeable membrane to remove ions, molecules, and larger particles from drinking water. In reverse osmosis, an applied pressure is used to overcome osmotic pressure, a colligative property, that is driven by chemical potential differences of the solvent, a thermodynamic parameter. Reverse osmosis can remove many types of dissolved and suspended species from water, including bacteria, and is used in both industrial processes and the production of potable water.
5 Stage Reverse Osmosis Water Filter (amazon)

Ozonated Water
Ozonator Purifier (amazon)

Water Ionizer is an home appliance which claims to raise the pH of drinking water by using electrolysis to separate the incoming water stream into acidic and alkaline components. Proponents claim that consumption of the alkaline stream results in a variety of health benefits, making it similar to the alternative health practice of alkaline diets. Such claims are not accepted in chemistry, physiology, and evidence-based medicine. Alkaviva - Ionizers

Make Alkaline Water (wiki-how)

Distilled Water is water that has had many of its impurities removed through distillation. Distillation involves boiling the water and then condensing the steam into a clean container.

Slingshot water vapor distillation system
PTG Wastewater Disinfection

Purified Water is water that has been mechanically filtered or processed to remove impurities and make it suitable for use. Distilled water has been the most common form of purified water, but, in recent years, water is more frequently purified by other processes including capacitive deionization, reverse osmosis, carbon filtering, microfiltration, ultrafiltration, ultraviolet oxidation, or electrodeionization.

Aquaporin Water Purification
Aquaporin (wiki)
MSR SE200 Community Chlorine Maker
Alter Ego Personal Water Filtration
Water Cones - Watercone® for Google Project 10^100 (youtube)
Drinkpure Water Filtration Device
The Drinkable Book - Water is Life  The Drinkable Book - Water is Life (youtube)
Janicki Omniprocessor (youtube)
Eureka Forbes AquaSure Amrit with Kitanu Magnet
Method of Binding Pollutants in Water
Arsenic Water Filter
Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash (ARUBA)
SE200™ Community Chlorine Maker
Low-Tech, Affordable Solutions to Improve Water Quality

Filter water with a porous form of cyclodextrin polymer, superior to traditional activated carbon filters could be washed at room temperature with methanol or ethanol.

Novel Nanoparticle to remove Cadmium Toxicity from a Freshwater System

Coffee-infused foam removes lead from contaminated water
City Water Purification

Survival Kits (emergencies)

Electrospun Nanofibrous Membranes of Polyacrylonitrile/halloysite with Superior Water Filtration Ability. Electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibrous membranes.

Water filtration breakthrough using metal-organic frameworks. Researchers discover efficient and sustainable way to filter salt and metal ions from water.

Metal-Organic Framework are compounds consisting of metal ions or clusters coordinated to organic ligands to form one-, two-, or three-dimensional structures. They are a subclass of coordination polymers, with the special feature that they are often porous. The organic ligands included are sometimes referred to as "struts", one example being 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (BDC). More formally, a metal–organic framework is a coordination network with organic ligands containing potential voids. A coordination network is a coordination compound extending, through repeating coordination entities, in one dimension, but with cross-links between two or more individual chains, loops, or spiro-links, or a coordination compound extending through repeating coordination entities in two or three dimensions; and finally a coordination polymer is a coordination compound with repeating coordination entities extending in one, two, or three dimensions. In some cases, the pores are stable during elimination of the guest molecules (often solvents) and could be refilled with other compounds. Because of this property, MOFs are of interest for the storage of gases such as hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Other possible applications of MOFs are in gas purification, in gas separation, in catalysis, as sensors and as supercapacitors. The synthesis and properties of MOFs constitute the primary focus of the discipline called reticular chemistry (from Latin reticulum, "small net"). Differently from MOFs covalent organic framework (COFs) are made entirely from light elements (H, B, C, N, and O) with extended structures.

Artificial Bio-Inspired Membranes for Water Filtration

Water Taste: Water near the beach often has a slight scent of sulfur because of sulfur-producing microbes in groundwater. The stuff purified from some rivers or lakes can have an earthy, organic taste to it that results from leftover bits of decomposing plant matter. If you live in cities like New York or San Francisco, you enjoy pristine, delicious reservoir water piped in from distant mountains. Water bottled from mountain springs, like that from wells, can be packed with minerals that alter its flavor. Calcium makes water taste milky and smooth, magnesium can be bitter, and sodium makes it taste salty.
Water Sommelier


Endocrine Disruption Chemicals Pesticide Action Network
Pesticide Database
Beyond Pesticides
Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
Soil Testing - Fertilizers
Neonicotinoid are a class of neuro-active insecticides chemically similar to nicotine.

Spray Safe
Organic Pesticides
Pesticide Watch

Insecticide is a substance used to kill insects.

Pesticide are chemicals that are meant to kill Animals.

Herbicide or weedkillers, are chemical substances used to control unwanted plants.

Pheromone Trap is a type of insect trap that uses pheromones to lure insects.

Rootworm larvae can destroy significant percentages of corn.
Lawns and Yards
Systemic Pesticides

Food Pesticide List
Foods that Have Pesticides (Info-Graph)
Eco Smart Safe Pesticides
Shoppers Guide for Pesticides

Atrazine is an herbicide of the triazine class. Atrazine is used to prevent pre- and postemergence broadleaf weeds in crops such as maize (corn) and sugarcane and on turf, such as golf courses and residential lawns. An effective way to eliminate atrazine and its by-products in surface water.
Bromomethane is a pesticide being phased out by most countries in the early 2000s.
Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide and crop desiccant.
Heptachlor is Linked To Parkinson's Disease.
Chlorpyrifos is a crystalline organophosphate insecticide, acaracide and miticide. Chlorpyrifos exposure has been linked to neurological effects, persistent developmental disorders and autoimmune disorders. Exposure during pregnancy retards the mental development of children, and most home use was banned in 2001 in the U.S. In agriculture, it is "one of the most widely used organophosphate insecticides" in the United States, according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and before being phased out for residential use was one of the most used residential insecticides. On March 29, 2017, EPA Administrator Scott Pruitt denied a petition to ban chlorpyrifos. Treason - War Criminal

War against Americans

Food Denial by poisoning the land, air, food and water.

Chemical Warfare involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons. This type of warfare is distinct from nuclear warfare and biological warfare, which together make up NBC, the military acronym for nuclear, biological, and chemical (warfare or weapons), all of which are considered "weapons of mass destruction" (WMDs). None of these fall under the term conventional weapons which are primarily effective due to their destructive potential.

Operation Ranch Hand herbicidal warfare program during the war called "Operation Trail Dust". Ranch Hand involved spraying an estimated 20 million U.S. gallons (76,000 m3) of defoliants and herbicides over rural areas of South Vietnam in an attempt to deprive the Viet Cong of food and vegetation cover. Areas of Laos and Cambodia were also sprayed to a lesser extent. Nearly 20,000 sorties were flown between 1961 and 1971.

Herbicidal Warfare is the use of substances primarily designed to destroy the plant-based ecosystem of an area.

Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons

Scorched Earth is a government or corporate policy used as a military strategy that targets anything that might be useful to people while advancing through or withdrawing from an area. Any assets that could be used by people may be targeted, for example food sources, transportation, communications, industrial resources, and even the people in the area.

Food Whistleblower Protecting Food. Empowering Whistleblowers.

World Governments signed agreements to end Crimes against Humanity.

Toxins in Products

Body Burden

1.1 Billion Pounds of Dangerous Pesticides are used in the U.S. Annually.

Insecticide Runoff Maps and Charts - Erosion
Slow Poisoning of India (youtube)
Our Daily Poison (2011) (hulu 1:52)

Pesticides, additives, food coloring, packaging. Scientific studies that have been ignored, and some studies they use are flawed, no reasoning.

Adverse Health Effect is defined as the causation, promotion, facilitation and/or exacerbation of a structural and/or functional abnormality, with the implication that the abnormality produced has the potential of lowering the quality of life, contributing to a disabling illness, or leading to a premature death.

Endocrine Disruptor are chemicals that, at certain doses, can interfere with endocrine (or Hormone) systems. These disruptions can cause cancerous tumors, birth defects, and other developmental disorders. Any system in the body controlled by hormones can be derailed by hormone disruptors.

Neurotoxin are toxins that are poisonous or destructive to nerve tissue (causing neurotoxicity). Brain Damage

Neurotoxicity is when exposure to natural or artificial toxic substances, which are called neurotoxins, alters the normal activity of the nervous system in such a way as to cause damage to nervous tissue. This can eventually disrupt or even kill neurons, key cells that transmit and process signals in the brain and other parts of the nervous system.

Apoptosis - Cell Death

Biocide is a diverse group of poisonous substances including preservatives, insecticides, disinfectants, and pesticides used for the control of organisms that are harmful to human or animal health or that cause damage to natural or manufactured products. A chemical substance or microorganism intended to destroy, deter, render harmless, or exert a controlling effect on any harmful organism by chemical or biological means.

Horizontal Gene Transfer is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring. HGT is an important factor in the evolution of many organisms.

Chronic Kidney Disease is progressive loss in kidney function over a period of months or years.

Coeliac Disease is a long term autoimmune disorder primarily affecting the small intestine that occurs in people who are genetically predisposed.

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma is a group of blood cancers that includes all types of lymphoma except Hodgkin's lymphomas. Symptoms include enlarged lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, weight loss, and tiredness. Other symptoms may include bone pain, chest pain, or itchiness. Some forms are slow growing while others are fast growing.

Congenital Disorder is a condition existing at or before birth regardless of cause.

What is Natural? - Healthy?

Chemical Exposure Linked to Health Care Costs

Body Burden Testing

Bio-Monitoring is the measurement of the body burden of toxic chemical compounds, elements, or their metabolites, in biological substances.

What is a Body Burden?
Cocktail Effect

Damage to the Brain and Body - Years of Potential Life Lost

Acceptable Daily Intake is a measure of the amount of a specific substance (originally applied for a food additive, later also for a residue of a veterinary drug or pesticide) in food or drinking water that can be ingested (orally) on a daily basis over a lifetime without an appreciable health risk. ADIs are expressed usually in milligrams (of the substance) per kilograms of body weight per day.

Heavy Metal Test Analysis (PDF)
Infectious Diseases Emergency Preparedness Plan
Household Chemicals Cancer Concern

National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme is designed to help protect workers, the public and the environment from the harmful effects of industrial chemicals. It does so by making risk assessment and safety information on chemicals widely available and providing recommendations for their safe use. NICNAS also informs importers and manufacturers of their legal responsibilities.

Toxins and Child Birth - Vitals

Processed Food Warnings

Economic Injury Level (EIL) The level of pest infestation below which the cost of further reducing the pest population exceeds the additional revenue or value of other benefits such reduction would achieve.

Pollution - Sanitation

Food Safety - Natural

Environmental Protection Agency 
Since 2004, the water provided to more than 49 million Americans has contained illegal concentrations of chemicals like arsenic or radioactive substances like uranium, as well as dangerous bacteria often found in sewage. But I still don't buy bottled water because that just adds to the problem. I use a water filter and a reusable water bottle. We definitely have to make the EPA more responsible for their failures if we want things to improve.

Consumer Confidence Report

97% of water on earth is undrinkable.  (Desalination)

Why are the Feds allowing industries to Pollute the Nations Underground Water Supply?

Pacific Institute

Organic Pesticides

Green Pesticides is a broad-based approach that integrates practices for economic control of pests. IPM aims to suppress pest populations below the economic injury level (EIL).

Integrated Pest Management (wiki)

Biopesticide is a contraction of 'biological pesticides', include several types of pest management intervention: through predatory, parasitic, or chemical relationships. The term has been associated historically with biological control - and by implication - the manipulation of living organisms.

Organic Pest Control

Biological Pest Control is a method of controlling pests such as insects, mites, weeds and plant diseases using other organisms. It relies on predation, parasitism, herbivory, or other natural mechanisms, but typically also involves an active human management role. It can be an important component of integrated pest management (IPM) programs.

A Guide to Organic Pest-Free Gardening - Info-Graph (image)

Organically Grown Food Pesticides
Learn to Grow Organic Food

Non-Pesticide Management describes various pest-control techniques which do not rely on pesticides. It is used in organic production of foodstuff, as well as in other situations in which the introduction of toxins is undesirable. Instead of the use of synthetic toxins, pest control is achieved by biological means.

Plant Diseases

Organic Weed Spray:
1 gallon of water, 2 cups of Epson salt, 1/4 cup of dish soap (original blue dawn)

Weed killer:
This is as easy as filling a spray bottle with white vinegar and adding a teaspoon of dish soap. Be careful when spraying this solution because it can kill your plants too.

Insect repellent:
In a large pot, mix two heads of crushed garlic, 3 cups of crushed mint leaves, 2 teaspoons of cayenne pepper and 12 cups of water, and bring to a boil. Let the mixture sit overnight and then strain it into a couple of spray bottles, adding a few squirts of dish soap to each. This should yield 12 cups of liquid..

Biodynamics Non-Chemical Agricultural

Biodynamic Agriculture is a form of alternative agriculture very similar to organic farming, but it includes various esoteric concepts.

Electronic Pest Control is the use of any of the several types of electrically powered devices designed to repel or eliminate pests, usually rodents or insects.

Sound waves as a Pesticide

Flowers Instead of Pesticides (PDF)

Hedge is a line of closely spaced shrubs and tree species, planted and trained to form a barrier or to mark the boundary of an area, such as between neighbouring properties.

Crops that kill pests by shutting off their genes. Plants are among many eukaryotes that can 'turn off' one or more of their genes by using a process called RNA interference to block protein translation. Researchers are now weaponizing this by engineering crops to produce specific RNA fragments that, upon ingestion by insects, initiate RNA interference to shut down a target gene essential for life or reproduction, killing or sterilizing the insects.


Film Symbol

Films about Water

Blue Gold: World Water Wars  Website
Poisoned Water Frontline (2009 PBS)
Flow: For Love of Water
TROM - 2.11 Food and Water (youtube)
Tapped the Film
Tap water costs 10,000 times less then bottled water.
Bolivia Water Wars
Cochabamba Protests
Water Privatization (wiki)
The Great Culling: Our Water (youtube)
FIRE WATER: Australia's Industrial Fluoridation Disgrace (youtube)
Water Fluoridation Videos
Fluoride Alert
Fluoride Facts
Fluoride in Water
Fluoride Poisoning
TEDxPotomac - Alexandra Cousteau - Connected by Water (youtube)
More Documentaries
Water Wars 12/01/2014 | 55 min
The nation of Bangladesh is prey to every threat from water known to man.

Position Based Fluids Demonstration

City Water

Public Water System refers to certain utilities and organizations providing drinking water.Find Water Menu
Tap Water Executive Summary

Water Supply is the provision of water by public utilities commercial organisations, community endeavors or by individuals, usually via a system of pumps and pipes. Irrigation is covered separately. Filtration

History of Municipal Drinking Water

Pipeline Transport is the transportation of goods or material through a pipe. The latest data from 2014 gives a total of slightly less than 2,175,000 miles (3,500,000 km) of pipeline in 120 countries of the world. The United States had 65%, Russia had 8%, and Canada had 3%, thus 75% of all pipeline were in these three countries.

Infrastructure - Fluid Mechanics

Aqueduct is a watercourse constructed to convey water. In modern engineering, the term aqueduct is used for any system of pipes, ditches, canals, tunnels, and other structures used for this purpose. The term aqueduct also often refers specifically to a bridge on an artificial watercourse.

Aqueduct (bridge) is for conveying water, called aqueducts or water bridges are constructed to convey watercourses across gaps such as valleys or ravines.

Viaduct is a bridge composed of several small spans for crossing a valley, gorge, marshland or forming a flyover.

Reservoir is an enlarged natural or artificial lake, storage pond or impoundment created using a dam or lock to store water. Reservoirs can be created by controlling a stream that drains an existing body of water. They can also be constructed in river valleys using a dam. Alternately, a reservoir can be built by excavating flat ground and/or constructing retaining walls and levees.

Safety Concerns
Drinking Water Quality Alerts

Water Treatment is any process that makes water more acceptable for a specific end-use. The end use may be drinking, industrial water supply, irrigation, river flow maintenance, water recreation or many other uses, including being safely returned to the environment. Water treatment removes contaminants and undesirable components, or reduces their concentration so that the water becomes fit for its desired end-use.

City Water Treatment Process
Water  EPA
Drinking Water Treatment Plant (youtube)

Water Purification is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended solids and gases from contaminated water. The goal is to produce water fit for a specific purpose. Most water is disinfected for human consumption (drinking water), but water purification may also be designed for a variety of other purposes, including fulfilling the requirements of medical, pharmacological, chemical and industrial applications. The methods used include physical processes such as filtration, sedimentation, and distillation; biological processes such as slow sand filters or biologically active carbon; chemical processes such as flocculation and chlorination and the use of electromagnetic radiation such as ultraviolet light. Purifying water may reduce the concentration of particulate matter including suspended particles, parasites, bacteria, algae, viruses, fungi, as well as reducing the amount of a range of dissolved and particulate material derived from the surfaces that come from runoff due to rain.

American Water Works Association
Nebraska Water Center | University of Nebraska, Lincoln

Ebb and Flow are two phases of the tide or any similar movement of water. The ebb is the outgoing phase, when the tide drains away from the shore; and the flow is the incoming phase when water rises again. The terms are also common in figurative use.


Water Well is an excavation or structure created in the ground by digging, driving, boring, or drilling to access groundwater in underground aquifers. The well water is drawn by a pump, or using containers, such as buckets, that are raised mechanically or by hand. Wells were first constructed at least eight thousand years ago and historically vary in construction from a simple scoop in the sediment of a dry watercourse to the stepwells of India, the qanats of Iran, and the shadoofs and sakiehs of India. Placing a lining in the well shaft helps create stability and linings of wood or wickerwork date back at least as far as the Iron Age.

Well is a hole that is dug into the Earth to get water. A qanat is an ancient complex water well system used in the Middle East. Wells can be as simple as a hole that a bucket on a rope can be lowered into, or very complex with pipes and high-powered pumps to get the water out. Most cities that are not close to fresh water lakes or rivers get their water from wells. It is important to be careful what rubbish is put into the ground near a well. If something toxic is put in the ground, it could end up in the water from the well and make people sick. Water is a problem for many African countries. Many charities are helping to build wells in local villages to help stop lengthy travel to distant water supply. A well only works if underneath there is an aquifer which feeds it.

Fresh Water Well
Thirst Project
Private Water Wells
Human Powered Well Pumps
Well Water Contamination
Private Wells Diseases

Saltwater Intrusion is the movement of saline water into freshwater aquifers, which can lead to contamination of drinking water sources and other consequences. Saltwater intrusion occurs naturally to some degree in most coastal aquifers, owing to the hydraulic connection between groundwater and seawater. Because saline water has a higher mineral content than freshwater, it is denser and has a higher water pressure. As a result, saltwater can push inland beneath the freshwater. Certain human activities, especially groundwater pumping from coastal freshwater wells, have increased saltwater intrusion in many coastal areas. Water extraction drops the level of fresh groundwater, reducing its water pressure and allowing saltwater to flow further inland. Other contributors to saltwater intrusion include navigation channels or agricultural and drainage channels, which provide conduits for saltwater to move inland, and it can also make sea level rise. Saltwater intrusion can also be worsened by extreme events like hurricane storm surges.

Solar Pump for Water Wells
Heat Tape
Well Pumps
Pressurized Well Tank
Pressure Tank and Well Pump System Basics (youtube)
Water Storage Tanks

Road Salt Pollutes Drinking Water Wells in suburban New York State

Water From Air

Fresh Water from the Air
Water Generator

Atmospheric Water Generator is a device that extracts water from humid ambient air. Water vapor in the air is condensed by cooling the air below its dew point, exposing the air to desiccants, or pressurizing the air. Unlike a dehumidifier, an AWG is designed to render the water potable. AWGs are useful where pure drinking water is difficult or impossible to obtain, because there is almost always a small amount of water in the air that can be extracted. The two primary techniques in use are cooling and desiccants.

Water Gen Atmospheric Water Generation .

WaterSeer extracting Water from the Air
Ecolo Blue
High Volume Water Making Machines
Planets Water 300 Gallons a Day
DIY Water Generator (PDF)
UTEC - Potable Water Generator (youtube)

Zero Mass is a Hydropaneltm that makes drinking water from sunlight and air. Water flows into a 30 liter reservoir where it is mineralized for optimal taste, storing up to 120 standard bottles per 2-panel array. Produces 4 – 10 liters, per 2-panel array of water a day depending on the humidity and sunlight. $2,000.00.

Hydrophile is a molecule or other molecular entity that is attracted to water molecules and tends to be dissolved by water. In contrast, hydrophobes are not attracted to water and may seem to be repelled by it.

NDB Nano - Edward Linnacre's AirDrop Irrigation (youtube)

Fontus can produce 0.5 quarts (0.5 liters) of water in 1 hour between 86 degrees and 104 degrees Fahrenheit (30 to 40 degrees Celsius) and between 80 percent and 90 percent humidity. A condensator (which functions like a cooler) that is connected to a series of hydrophobic surfaces that repel water. As the bike-mounted gadget takes in air, and these surfaces get cold, you're left with condensation does not include a way to filter out potentially harmful contaminants.

Fog Collection refers to the collection of water from fog using large pieces of vertical canvas to make the fog condense into droplets of water and flow down towards a trough below the canvas, known as a fog fence.

Water from Fog (youtube) - Fog Harvesting

Fog consists of visible cloud water droplets or ice crystals suspended in the air at or near the Earth's surface. Fog can be considered a type of low-lying cloud and is heavily influenced by nearby bodies of water, topography, and wind conditions. In turn, fog has affected many human activities, such as shipping, travel, and warfare.

Warka Water Tower - Ethiopia

Device pulls Water from Dry Air, Powered only by the Sun. Imagine a future in which every home has an appliance that pulls all the water the household needs out of the air, even in dry or desert climates, using only the power of the sun. The prototype, under conditions of 20-30 percent humidity, was able to pull 2.8 liters (3 quarts) of water from the air over a 12-hour period, using one kilogram (2.2 pounds) of MOF. Rooftop tests at MIT confirmed that the device works in real-world conditions.

Device Harvests Water from Desert Air. High-surface-area materials called metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), can extract potable water from even the driest of desert air with relative humidity as low as 10 percent.

Metal-Organic Framework are compounds consisting of metal ions or clusters coordinated to organic ligands to form one-, two-, or three-dimensional structures. They are a subclass of coordination polymers, with the special feature that they are often porous. The organic ligands included are sometimes referred to as "struts", one example being 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (BDC). More formally, a metal–organic framework is a coordination network with organic ligands containing potential voids. A coordination network is a coordination compound extending, through repeating coordination entities, in one dimension, but with cross-links between two or more individual chains, loops, or spiro-links, or a coordination compound extending through repeating coordination entities in two or three dimensions; and finally a coordination polymer is a coordination compound with repeating coordination entities extending in one, two, or three dimensions. In some cases, the pores are stable during elimination of the guest molecules (often solvents) and could be used for the storage of gases such as hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Other possible applications of MOFs are in gas purification, in gas separation, in catalysis, as sensors and as supercapacitors. Reticular Chemistry is concerned largely (but in principle, not exclusively) with the synthesis and properties of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), particularly those in which the components are linked by strong bonds such as occur in metal carboxylates.

Covalent Organic Framework are two-dimensional and three-dimensional organic solids with extended structures in which building blocks are linked by strong covalent bonds. COFs are porous and crystalline and are made entirely from light elements (H, B, C, N, and O) that are known to form strong covalent bonds in well-established and useful materials such as diamond, graphite, and boron nitride. Preparation of COF materials from molecular building blocks would provide covalent frameworks that could be functionalized into lightweight materials for diverse applications.

Condensation is the change of the physical state of matter from gas phase into liquid phase, and is the reverse of evaporation. The word most often refers to the water cycle. It can also be defined as the change in the state of water vapour to liquid water when in contact with a liquid or solid surface or cloud condensation nuclei within the atmosphere. When the transition happens from the gaseous phase into the solid phase directly, the change is called deposition, or desublimation, Sublimation (phase transition), which is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase without passing through the intermediate liquid phase.

Dew Point

Water from the Sea

Desalination is the removal of salts and minerals from sea water to produce water suitable for human consumption or irrigation. Water Filters

Seawater is water from a sea or ocean has a salinity of about 3.5%, roughly one litre by volume of seawater has approximately 35 grams (1.2 oz) of dissolved salts.

Saline Water or salt water, is water that contains a significant concentration of dissolved salts (mainly NaCl).


Solar Still distills water, using the heat of the Sun to evaporate, cool then collect the water. There are many types of solar still, including large scale concentrated solar stills, and condensation traps (better known as moisture traps amongst survivalists). In a solar still, impure water is contained outside the collector, where it is evaporated by sunlight shining through clear plastic or glass. The pure water vapor condenses on the cool inside surface and drips down, where it is collected and removed. Distillation replicates the way nature makes rain. The sun's energy heats water to the point of evaporation. As the water evaporates, water vapor rises, condensing into water again as it cools and can then be collected. This process leaves behind impurities, such as salts and heavy metals, and eliminates microbiological organisms. The end result is pure distilled water.

Dewvaporation desalination technology energy efficient tool for freshwater procurement and saline waste stream management.

Desalination Water Treatment Systems (amazon)
Sea Clearwater Makers
Pure Aqua
Desalination Technologies
Solar Powered Personal Desolenator 

Researchers make headway in Desalination Technology. Desalination of brackish waters economically desirable and energy efficient. Sodium-ion batteries theory states that by using electrodes that contain sodium and chloride ions, salt is drawn out and held in a chamber separate from the purified water.

Efficient High-Pressure Desalination. Most desalination plants today use a process called reverse osmosis (RO), which forces water through huge rolls of membranes, leaving the salt behind. One of the most expensive operational challenges for such plants is the fouling of these membranes by microorganisms.

CETO Wave-Energy and Desalinates Water.

SAROS is a wave-powered desalination system which uses the energy in waves to access the nearly limitless supply of water found in our oceans.

Sahara Forest Project aims to provide fresh water, food and renewable energy in hot, arid regions as well as re-vegetating areas of uninhabited desert. This proposal combines saltwater-cooled greenhouses with solar power technologies, either directly using Photovoltaic (PV) or indirectly using concentrated solar power (CSP) and technologies for desert revegetation. It is claimed that these technologies together will create a sustainable and profitable source of energy, food, vegetation and water. Sahara Forest Project.

Aquaporins Desalination Filter
Aquaporin (wiki)
Masdar Institute’s Innovative Wastewater Treatment Technologies to Help Meet Growing Freshwater Demand

Graphene sieve turns seawater into drinking water. Graphene-oxide membranes developed at the National Graphene Institute have already demonstrated the potential of filtering out small nanoparticles, organic molecules, and even large salts. Until now, however, they couldn’t be used for sieving common salts used in desalination technologies, which require even smaller sieves. Previous research at The University of Manchester found that if immersed in water, graphene-oxide membranes become slightly swollen and smaller salts flow through the membrane along with water, but larger ions or molecules are blocked. The Manchester-based group have now further developed these graphene membranes and found a strategy to avoid the swelling of the membrane when exposed to water. The pore size in the membrane can be precisely controlled which can sieve common salts out of salty water and make it safe to drink.

A New Method for Water Desalination Using Microbial Desalination Cells (PDF)

Ionic 'Solar Cell' could provide On-Demand Water Desalination. Ionic analog to the electronic pn-junction solar cell device that would directly desalinate saltwater upon exposure to sunlight. Bipolar-membrane design for ionic electricity generation. The transport of oppositely charged protons and hydroxides obtained by dissociating water molecules.

Sundrop Farms now produces 15 per cent of the Australian tomato market – all of it grown using seawater.
Seawater Greenhouse
Somaliland Seawater Greenhouse

Water from Trees: Maple Water

Water Research

Dry Land Farming

Agricultural Water ManagementDry Land Farm
International Water Management Institute
Water Management
Irrigation - Droughts

Water User Association is a group of water users, such as irrigators, who pool their financial, technical, material, and human resources for the operation and maintenance of a water system.

Riparian Water Rights is a system for allocating water among those who possess land along its path.

Applied Sciences
EPA Water Conservation Info
Soil Knowledge
North American Water and Power Alliance

Dryland Farming are agricultural techniques for non-irrigated cultivation of crops. Dryland farming is associated with drylands - dry areas characterized by a cool wet season followed by a warm dry season.

Sustainable Farming - Sustainable Landscaping - Rainwater Management

Desert Farming generally relies on irrigation, as it is the easiest way to make a desert bloom. In California, the Imperial Valley is a good example of what can be done. Australia and the Horn of Africa are also places with interesting desert agriculture.

Desertification is a type of land degradation in which a relatively dry area of land becomes increasingly arid, typically losing its bodies of water as well as vegetation and wildlife. Planting Trees

Tropical Agriculture common terms would include the humid-tropics (rainforests); the arid-tropics (deserts and dry areas); or monsoon zones (those areas that have well defined wet/dry seasons and experience monsoons). Such labeling is very useful when discussing agriculture, because what works in one area of the world will normally work in a similar area somewhere else, even if that area is on the opposite side of the globe.

Crop Trust
Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas
Food Plants for Dry Regions (PDF)

Heat and Drought-Resistant Tepary Beans are native to the southwestern United States and Mexico and has been grown there by the native peoples since pre-Columbian times. It is more drought-resistant than the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and is grown in desert and semi-desert conditions from Arizona through Mexico to Costa Rica. The water requirements are low and the crop will grow in areas where annual rainfall is less than 400 mm (16 in). 35 Grams Have: Dietary Fiber 15g, Sugars 1g, Protein 8g, Calcium 4%, Iron 8%.

Newly discovered hormone helps keep plants from dehydrating. Peptide CLE25 moves from the roots to the leaves when water is scarce and helps prevent water loss by closing pores in the leaf surface.

Scientists engineer crops to conserve water, resist drought. Agriculture already monopolizes 90 percent of global freshwater—yet production still needs to dramatically increase to feed and fuel this century’s growing population. For the first time, scientists have improved how a crop uses water by 25 percent without compromising yield by altering the expression of one gene that is found in all plants, as reported in Nature Communications.

Desert “Soilization”: An Eco-Mechanical Solution to Desertification

New technology in China turns desert into land rich with crops (youtube) Paste made from plant cell walls that retains water transforming deserts into forests.

Dry Gardening - Landscaping
Garden Thorn: water saving technology
Farming without Water
Crop Water Needs
Farming Knowledge Base

Transpiration is the process of water movement through a plant and its evaporation from aerial parts, such as leaves, stems and flowers. Water is necessary for plants but only a small amount of water taken up by the roots is used for growth and metabolism. The remaining 97–99.5% is lost by transpiration and guttation. Leaf surfaces are dotted with pores called stomata, and in most plants they are more numerous on the undersides of the foliage. The stomata are bordered by guard cells and their stomatal accessory cells (together known as stomatal complex) that open and close the pore. Transpiration occurs through the stomatal apertures, and can be thought of as a necessary "cost" associated with the opening of the stomata to allow the diffusion of carbon dioxide gas from the air for photosynthesis. Transpiration also cools plants, changes osmotic pressure of cells, and enables mass flow of mineral nutrients and water from roots to shoots. Two major factors influence the rate of water flow from the soil to the roots: the hydraulic conductivity of the soil and the magnitude of the pressure gradient through the soil. Both of these factors influence the rate of bulk flow of water moving from the roots to the stomatal pores in the leaves via the xylem. Irrigation - Dehydration

Evaporation is a type of vaporization of a liquid that occurs from the surface of a liquid into a gaseous phase that is not saturated with the evaporating substance. The other type of vaporization is boiling, which is characterized by bubbles of saturated vapor forming in the liquid phase. Steam produced in a boiler is another example of evaporation occurring in a saturated vapor phase. Evaporation that occurs directly from the solid phase below the melting point, as commonly observed with ice at or below freezing or moth crystals (napthalene or paradichlorobenzene), is called sublimation, which is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase without passing through the intermediate liquid phase.

Evapotranspiration is the sum of evaporation and plant transpiration from the Earth's land and ocean surface to the atmosphere. Evaporation accounts for the movement of water to the air from sources such as the soil, canopy interception, and waterbodies. Transpiration accounts for the movement of water within a plant and the subsequent loss of water as vapor through stomata in its leaves. Evapotranspiration is an important part of the water cycle. An element (such as a tree) that contributes to evapotranspiration can be called an evapotranspirator.

Desert Agriculture and Agroforestry
Semiarid Agriculture

Semi-arid Climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not extremely. There are different kinds of semi-arid climates, depending on such variables as temperature, and they give rise to different classes of ecology.

Köppen Climate Zone Classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
Climate Zones
Climate Change
Food Chemistry Dangers
Dry Climate Agriculture


Desert is a barren area of land where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life. The lack of vegetation exposes the unprotected surface of the ground to the processes of denudation. About one third of the land surface of the world is arid or semi-arid. This includes much of the polar regions where little precipitation occurs and which are sometimes called polar deserts or "cold deserts". Deserts can be classified by the amount of precipitation that falls, by the temperature that prevails, by the causes of desertification or by their geographical location.

Arid is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life. Environments subject to arid climates tend to lack vegetation and are called xeric or desertic. Most "arid" climates surround the equator; these places include most of Africa and parts of South America, Central America and Australia.

Trees - Permaculture

Arable Land is land capable of being ploughed and used to grow crops. In Britain, it was traditionally contrasted with pasturable lands such as heaths which could be used for sheep-rearing but not farmland.

Erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow, Rain or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, then transport it away to another location. The particulate breakdown of rock or soil into clastic sediment is referred to as physical or mechanical erosion; this contrasts with chemical erosion, where soil or rock material is removed from an area by its dissolving into a solvent (typically water), followed by the flow away of that solution. Eroded sediment or solutes may be transported just a few millimetres, or for thousands of kilometres. Glaciers - Wind

Soil Erosion Threats. 6.9 billon tons of soil are eroded each year in America. Soil Expansion - Sinkholes

Solvent is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution. A solvent is usually a liquid but can also be a solid, a gas, or a supercritical fluid. The quantity of solute that can dissolve in a specific volume of solvent varies with temperature. Water is a solvent for polar molecules and the most common solvent used by living things; all the ions and proteins in a cell are dissolved in water within a cell. Solvents have various applications in chemical syntheses and purification processes. Showering

Storm Water Management - Landscaping

How we can make Crops Survive without Water (video and text)

Resurrection Plant is any poikilohydric plant that can survive extreme dehydration, even over months or years. Longevity.

Back From the Brink. Biologists explore the molecular underpinnings of cells that recover from the verge of programmed death.

Potential Involvement of Snail Members in Neuronal Survival and Astrocytic Migration during the Gecko Spinal Cord Regeneration.

Poikilohydry is the lack of ability (structural or functional mechanism) to maintain and/or regulate water content to achieve homeostasis of cells and tissue connected with quick equilibration of cell/tissue water content to that of the environment. Frequently, it is coupled with the capacity to tolerate dehydration to low cell or tissue water content and to recover from it without physiological damage. This condition occurs in such organisms as the lichens and bryophytes that lack mechanisms, such as a waterproofing cuticle and stomata that can help to prevent desiccation. Poikilohydry is also noted in many forms of algae, which may be able to survive desiccation between successive high tides, or during occasional stranding due to the drying of a lake or pond. Similarly, poikilohydry occurs in land plants which survive environmental conditions when water supplies are seasonal or intermittent, as in the liverwort genus Targionia, which lives in Mediterranean habitats with hot dry summers.

Desiccation is the state of extreme dryness, or the process of extreme drying. A desiccant is a hygroscopic (attracts and holds water) substance that induces or sustains such a state in its local vicinity in a moderately sealed container.

Desiccator are sealable enclosures containing desiccants used for preserving moisture-sensitive items such as cobalt chloride paper for another use. A common use for desiccators is to protect chemicals which are hygroscopic or which react with water from humidity.

Activation of the NaCl- and drought-induced RD29A and RD29B promoters by constitutively active Arabidopsis MAPKK or MAPK proteins.
Eragrostis Nindensis

Transcriptome is the set of all messenger RNA molecules in one cell or a population of cells. It differs from the exome in that it includes only those RNA molecules found in a specified cell population, and usually includes the amount or concentration of each RNA molecule in addition to the molecular identities.

Proteome is the entire set of proteins expressed by a genome, cell, tissue, or organism at a certain time. More specifically, it is the set of expressed proteins in a given type of cell or organism, at a given time, under defined conditions. The term is a blend of proteins and genome. Proteomics is the study of the proteome.

Lipidome refers to the totality of lipids in cells. Lipids are one of the four major molecular components of biological organisms, along with proteins, sugars and nucleic acids.

Promoter (genetics) is a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene. Promoters are located near the transcription start sites of genes, on the same strand and upstream on the DNA (towards the 5' region of the sense strand). Promoters can be about 100–1000 base pairs long.

Abscisic acid lays an important part in plant responses to environmental stress in response to decreased soil water potential.

Water Potential is the potential energy of water per unit volume relative to pure water in reference conditions. Water potential quantifies the tendency of water to move from one area to another due to osmosis, gravity, mechanical pressure, or matrix effects such as capillary action (which is caused by surface tension).

On-Farm Flood Capture could Reduce Groundwater Overdraft in Kings River Basin

Hydrogeologist – Groundwater Hydrologist specializes in atmospheric and surface/subsurface interactions. Hydrogeologists typically train in departments of geology whereas groundwater hydrologists usually study within engineering departments, although interdisciplinary programs are becoming more common. Hydrogeologists and groundwater hydrologists and engineers evaluate the quantity, quality, reliability, and sustainability of all aspects of groundwater assessment, management, and development.

Hydrology is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the water cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability. A practitioner of hydrology is a hydrologist, working within the fields of earth or environmental science, physical geography, geology or civil and environmental engineering. Hydrology subdivides into surface water hydrology, groundwater hydrology (hydrogeology), and marine hydrology. Domains of hydrology include hydrometeorology, surface hydrology, hydrogeology, drainage-basin management and water quality, where water plays the central role. Oceanography and meteorology are not included because water is only one of many important aspects within those fields. Hydrological research can inform environmental engineering, policy and planning. Water Cycle

Infiltration (hydrology) - Hydraulic Conductivity

Growing Food in Space - Water From Air

Desertification is a type of land degradation in which relatively dry area of land becomes increasingly arid, typically losing its bodies of water as well as vegetation and wildlife.

Orography is the study of the topographic relief of mountains, and can more broadly include hills, and any part of a region's elevated terrain. Orography (also known as oreography, orology or oreology) falls within the broader discipline of geomorphology.

Allan Savory: Make Deserts Green (video)
Green Gold: Reversing Deserts (video)

A forgotten Ancient Grain that could help Africa Prosper (video and interactive text)

Fonio is the term for two cultivated grains in the Digitaria genus which are notable crops in parts of West Africa. The grains are very small. The crops have C4 metabolisms and are medium in height. The number of chromosomes for the species can be diploid (2n), tetraploid (4n), or hexaploid (6n). also called "hungry rice," is the most important of a diverse group of wild and domesticated Digitaria species that are harvested in the savannas of West Africa. Fonio has the smallest seeds of all species of millet. It has potential to improve nutrition, boost food security, foster rural development, and support sustainable use of the land.Fonio has continued to be important locally because it is both nutritious and one of the world's fastest-growing cereals, reaching maturity in as little as six to eight weeks. It is a crop that can be relied on in semi-arid areas with poor soils, where rains are brief and unreliable. The grains are used in porridge and couscous, for bread, and for beer. The small grains make it difficult and time-consuming to remove the husk. Traditional methods include pounding it in a mortar with sand (then separating the grains and sand) or "popping" it over a flame and then pounding it (which yields a toasted-color grain; this technique is used among the Akposso). The invention of a simple fonio husking machine offers an easier mechanical way to dehusk.

A Cereal Survives Heat and Drought. Pearl millet genome sequence provides a resource to improve agronomic traits in extreme environments. Pearl millet is the most widely grown type of millet. It has been grown in Africa and the Indian subcontinent since prehistoric times. Millet are a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses, widely grown around the world as cereal crops or grains for fodder and human food. Millets are important crops in the semiarid tropics of Asia and Africa (especially in India, Mali, Nigeria, and Niger), with 97% of millet production in developing countries. The crop is favored due to its productivity and short growing season under dry, high-temperature conditions.

Savory Institute
What if we Change
Africa Centre For Holistic Management
Holistic Management

Holistic Management is a systems thinking approach to managing resources that was originally developed by Allan Savory for reversing desertification.

Rangeland are grasslands, shrublands, woodlands, wetlands, and deserts that are grazed by domestic livestock or wild animals. Types of rangelands include tallgrass and shortgrass prairies, desert grasslands and shrublands, woodlands, savannas, chaparrals, steppes, and tundras. Rangelands do not include forests lacking grazable understory vegetation, barren desert, farmland, or land covered by solid rock, concrete and/or glaciers.

Grazing is a method of feeding in which a herbivore feeds on plants such as grasses, or other multicellular organisms such as algae. In agriculture, grazing is one method used whereby domestic livestock are used to convert grass and other forage into meat, milk and other products.


Environmental Awareness

Natural Sequence Farming is a method of landscape regeneration that involves implementing major earthworks on a given area of land that has been devastated by deforestation and general agricultural activities, to emulate the role of natural watercourses in an effort to reverse salinity, slow erosion and increase soil and water quality to enable native vegetation to regenerate and restore the riparian zone. The method does not require the use of artificial fertilisers or herbicides.

Natural Sequence Farming
Natural Sequence Farming

Drip Irrigation is a form of irrigation that saves water and fertilizer by allowing water to drip slowly to the roots of many different plants, either onto the soil surface or directly onto the root zone, through a network of valves, pipes, tubing, and emitters. It is done through narrow tubes that deliver water directly to the base of the plant. It is chosen instead of surface irrigation for various reasons, often including concern about minimizing evaporation.

Drip Irrigation Tools - Irrigation water use - Water for Farming Use

Irrigation is the method in which a controlled amount of water is supplied to plants at regular intervals for agriculture. It is used to assist in the growing of agricultural crops, maintenance of landscapes, and revegetation of disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of inadequate rainfall. Additionally, irrigation also has a few other uses in crop production, which include protecting plants against frost, suppressing weed growth in grain fields and preventing soil consolidation. In contrast, agriculture that relies only on direct rainfall is referred to as rain-fed or dry land farming. Irrigation systems are also used for dust suppression, disposal of sewage, and in mining. Irrigation is often studied together with drainage, which is the natural or artificial removal of surface and sub-surface water from a given area.

Irrigation - Soil - Erosion - Dry Land Farmimg

Center Pivot Irrigation is a method of crop irrigation in which equipment rotates around a pivot and crops are watered with sprinklers. A circular area centered on the pivot is irrigated, often creating a circular pattern in crops when viewed from above (sometimes referred to as crop circles). Most center pivots were initially water-powered, and today most are propelled by electric motors.

Infiltration (hydrology) is the process by which water on the ground surface enters the soil. Infiltration rate in soil science is a measure of the rate at which soil is able to absorb rainfall or irrigation. It is measured in inches per hour or millimeters per hour. The rate decreases as the soil becomes saturated. If the precipitation rate exceeds the infiltration rate, runoff will usually occur unless there is some physical barrier. It is related to the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the near-surface soil. The rate of infiltration can be measured using an infiltrometer, which is a device used to measure the rate of water infiltration into soil or other porous media. Commonly used infiltrometers are single ring or double ring infiltrometer, and also disc permeameter, which is a field instrument used for measuring water infiltration in the soil, which is characterized by in situ saturated and unsaturated soil hydraulic properties. It is mainly used to provide estimates of the hydraulic conductivity of the soil near saturation.

Hydraulic Conductivity is a property of vascular plants, soils and rocks, that describes the ease with which a fluid (usually water) can move through pore spaces or fractures. It depends on the intrinsic permeability of the material, the degree of saturation, and on the density and viscosity of the fluid. Saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ksat, describes water movement through saturated media. By definition, hydraulic conductivity is the ratio of velocity to hydraulic gradient indicating permeability of porous media.

Farm Water  is water committed for use in the production of food and fiber. On average, 80 percent of the fresh water withdrawn from rivers and groundwater is used to produce food and other agricultural products. Farm water may include water used in the irrigation of crops or the watering of livestock. Water Use Stats

Swale Landform is a low tract of land, especially one that is moist or marshy. The term can refer to a natural landscape feature or a human-created one. Artificial swales are often designed to manage water runoff, filter pollutants, and increase rainwater infiltration.

Micro-Sprinklers low-pressure bayonet.

Zai is a farming technique to dig pits (20-30 cm long and deep and 90 cm apart) in the soil during the preseason to catch water and concentrate compost. The technique is traditionally used in western Sahel (Burkina Faso, Niger, Mali) to restore degraded drylands and increase soil fertility. Zaï holes were reintroduced since the 1980s by Yacouba Sawadogo, a farmer from Burkina Faso, who introduced the innovation of filling them with manure and compost to provide plant nutrients. The manure attracts termites, whose tunnels help further break up the soil. He also slightly increased the size of the holes over the traditional models. Zaï holes help by improving the yields of trees, sorghum, and millet by up to 500 percent. As an alternative to the zaï-technique some agricultural engineers suggest a diking technique, especially in the case of very light soils.(tassa irrigation method).

Gravity Feed is the use of earth's gravity to move something (usually a liquid) from one place to another. It is a simple means of moving a liquid without the use of a pump. A common application is the supply of fuel to an internal combustion engine by placing the fuel tank above the engine, e.g. in motorcycles, lawn mowers, etc. A non-liquid application is the carton flow shelving system,

Sustainable Landscaping (lawns)

Rain Garden
Irritrol PC Control
Irrigation Management Systems
Water Professionals

Agricultural Dewatering

Rob Harmon: How to keep streams flowing (youtube)

Water Blueprint

North of the 49th parallel of latitude. Productive farming, therefore, depends on crops that ripen early, if they are spring sown, or are winter hardy, if they are winter annuals, biennials or perennials. Crops can be classified in several ways. By growth habit they are annual, biennial or perennial, depending on whether they complete their life cycle in one or two years, or persist for over two years. The special term "winter annuals" is used for crops that are planted and germinate in fall, spend winter in a dormant state, renew growth in spring and are harvested in July or August.

Climate Categories in Viticulture are categorised based on the overall characteristics of the area's climate during the growing season.

Subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropics at latitude 23.5° (the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and temperate zones (normally referring to latitudes 35–66.5°) north and south of the Equator.

Tropical Agriculture common terms would include the humid-tropics (rainforests); the arid-tropics (deserts and dry areas); or monsoon zones (those areas that have well defined wet/dry seasons and experience monsoons). Such labeling is very useful when discussing agriculture, because what works in one area of the world will normally work in a similar area somewhere else, even if that area is on the opposite side of the globe. Most temperate zone agricultural techniques are inappropriate for tropical areas.

Climate-Related Threats to Global Food Production include risks to grain, vegetable, and fruit crops, livestock, and fisheries.

Climate change and Food Security - Food Security

Drought is a period of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages in its water supply, whether atmospheric, surface water or ground water. A drought can last for months or years, or may be declared after as few as 15 days. It can have a substantial impact on the ecosystem and agriculture of the affected region and harm to the local economy. Annual dry seasons in the tropics significantly increase the chances of a drought developing and subsequent bush fires. Periods of heat can significantly worsen drought conditions by hastening evaporation of water vapour.

Drought Monitor - The National Drought Mitigation Center

Water Risk Areas

Global Precipitation Measurements

United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) says that crops such as wheat and maize are generating more potential toxins as a reaction to protect themselves from extreme weather. These chemical compounds are harmful to people and animals if consumed for a prolonged period of time. Under normal conditions, for instance, plants convert nitrates they absorb into nutritious amino acids and proteins. But prolonged drought slows or prevents this conversion, leading to more potentially problematic nitrate accumulating in the plant. If people eat too much nitrate in their diets, it can interfere with the ability of red blood cells to transport oxygen in the body, Crops susceptible to accumulating too much nitrate in times of stress include maize, wheat, barley, soybeans, millet and sorghum. Some drought-stressed crops, when then exposed to sudden large amounts of rain that lead to rapid growth, in turn accumulate hydrogen cyanide, more commonly known as prussic acid. Prussic acid - one of the ingredients used in some types of chemical warfare - interferes with oxygen flow in humans. Plants such as cassava, flax, maize and sorghum are most vulnerable to dangerous prussic acid accumulation. Cases of nitrate or hydrogen cyanide poisoning in humans were reported in Kenya in 2013 and in the Philippines in 2005. Aflatoxins, molds that can affect plant crops and raise the risk of liver damage, cancer and blindness, as well as stunting foetuses and infants. About 4.5 billion people in developing countries are exposed to aflatoxins each year Toxic crops can lead to neurological diseases among humans but the greatest challenge is the incidence of cancer. Research centers with the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research are developing seeds that are suitable in various regions that have been hit by climate change.


Rain is liquid water in the form of droplets that have condensed from atmospheric water vapor and then precipitated—that is, become heavy enough to fall under gravity. Rain is a major component of the water cycle and is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the Earth. It provides suitable conditions for many types of ecosystems, as well as water for hydroelectric power plants and crop irrigation. Weather.

Surface Runoff is the flow of water that occurs when excess storm water, meltwater, or other sources flows over the Earth's surface. This might occur because soil is saturated to full capacity, because rain arrives more quickly than Soil can absorb it, or because impervious areas (roofs and pavement) send their runoff to surrounding soil that cannot absorb all of it. Surface runoff is a major component of the water cycle. It is the primary agent in soil Erosion by water.

Storm Water Management is the quantity and quality of stormwater manage using Best Management Practice (BMP) or stormwater control measure (SCM). Often used to refer to both structural or engineered control devices and systems (e.g. retention ponds) to treat or store polluted stormwater, as well as operational or procedural practices (e.g. street sweeping). Stormwater management includes both technical and institutional aspects, including: Control of flooding and erosion; Control of hazardous materials to prevent release of pollutants into the environment (source control); Planning and construction of stormwater systems so contaminants are removed before they pollute surface waters or groundwater resources; Acquisition and protection of natural waterways or rehabilitation; Building "soft" structures such as ponds, swales, wetlands or green infrastructure solutions to work with existing or "hard" drainage structures, such as pipes and concrete channels; Development of funding approaches to stormwater programs potentially including stormwater user fees and the creation of a stormwater utility; Development of long-term asset management programs to repair and replace aging infrastructure; Revision of current stormwater regulations to address comprehensive stormwater needs; Enhancement and enforcement of existing ordinances to make sure property owners consider the effects of stormwater before, during and after development of their land; Education of a community about how its actions affect water quality, and about what it can do to improve water quality; and planning carefully to create solutions before problems become too great. EPA Facility Stormwater Management.

Low-Impact Development describes a land planning, and engineering design approach to manage stormwater runoff as part of green infrastructure. LID emphasizes conservation and use of on-site natural features to protect water quality. This approach implements engineered small-scale hydrologic controls to replicate the pre-development hydrologic regime of watersheds through infiltrating, filtering, storing, evaporating, and detaining runoff close to its source. ’Green infrastructure’ investments are one approach that often yields multiple benefits and builds city resilience.

Floodplain is an area of land adjacent to a stream or river which stretches from the banks of its channel to the base of the enclosing valley walls and which experiences flooding during periods of high discharge. The soils usually consist of levees, silts, and sands deposited during floods. Levees are the heaviest materials (usually pebble-size) and they are deposited first; silts and sands are finer materials.

Retention Basin is used to manage stormwater runoff to prevent flooding and downstream erosion, and improve water quality in an adjacent river, stream, lake or bay. Sometimes called a wet pond or wet detention basin or stormwater management pond, it is an artificial lake with vegetation around the perimeter, and includes a permanent pool of water in its design.

Detention Basin is an excavated area installed on, or adjacent to, tributaries of rivers, streams, lakes or bays to protect against flooding and, in some cases, downstream erosion by storing water for a limited period of time. A detention basin, sometimes called a "dry pond", which temporarily stores water after a storm, but eventually empties out at a controlled rate to a downstream water body. It also differs from an infiltration basin which is designed to direct stormwater to groundwater through permeable soils.

Rain Catchers (saving some of the rain to use at a later time)
Rain Harvesting Barrels (amazon)
Rain Barrel

Rainwater Harvesting

Saving Rain Tools

Snowpack forms from layers of snow that accumulate in geographic regions and high altitudes where the climate includes cold weather for extended periods during the year. Snowpacks are an important water resource that feed streams and rivers as they melt. Therefore, snowpacks are both the drinking water source for many communities and a potential source of flooding (in case of sudden melting). Snowpacks also contribute mass to glaciers in their accumulation zone.

Snowmelt is surface runoff produced from melting snow. It can also be used to describe the period or season during which such runoff is produced. Water produced by snowmelt is an important part of the annual water cycle in many parts of the world, in some cases contributing high fractions of the annual runoff in a watershed. Predicting snowmelt runoff from a drainage basin may be a part of designing water control projects. Rapid snowmelt can cause flooding. If the snowmelt is then frozen, very dangerous conditions and accidents can occur, introducing the need for salt to melt the Ice.

Meltwater is water released by the melting of snow or ice, including glacial ice, tabular icebergs and ice shelves over oceans. Meltwater is often found in the ablation zone of glaciers, where the rate of snow cover is reducing. Meltwater can be produced during volcanic eruptions, in a similar way in which the more dangerous lahars form.

Blood Rain is a phenomenon in which blood is perceived to fall from the sky in the form of rain.  

Haematococcus Pluvialis is a freshwater species of Chlorophyta from the family Haematococcaceae. This species is well known for its high content of the strong antioxidant astaxanthin, which is important in aquaculture, and cosmetics. Often responsible for the blood-red colour seen in the bottom of dried out rock pools and bird baths.


How Much Water Do I Use?

'You can’t manage what you don’t measure.'

Water Sense
Water Use Today
Water Home Use
Water Use by State Info-Graph
Average Water Use
Water Consumption Calculator

Water Use it Wisely

Water Conservation includes all the policies, strategies and activities made to sustainably manage the natural resource fresh water, to protect the water environment, and to meet current and future human demand. Population, household size, and growth and affluence all affect how much water is used. Factors such as climate change have increased pressures on natural water resources especially in manufacturing and agricultural irrigation. Many US cities have already implemented policies aimed at water conservation, with much success. The goals of water conservation efforts include: Ensuring availability of water for future generations where the withdrawal of freshwater from an ecosystem does not exceed its natural replacement rate. Energy conservation as water pumping, delivery and wastewater treatment facilities consume a significant amount of energy. In some regions of the world over 15% of total electricity consumption is devoted to water management. Habitat conservation where minimizing human water use helps to preserve freshwater habitats for local wildlife and migrating waterfowl, but also water quality. The key activities that benefit water conservation are as follows: Any beneficial reduction in water loss, use and waste of resources. Avoiding any damage to water quality. Improving water management practices that reduce the use or enhance the beneficial use of water.

Water Conserve - Tips - Soft Water Path

Water Management is the activity of planning, developing, distributing and managing the optimum use of water resources. It is a sub-set of water cycle management. Ideally, water resource management planning has regard to all the competing demands for water and seeks to allocate water on an equitable basis to satisfy all uses and demands. As with other resource management, this is rarely possible in practice.

Watershed Management is the study of the relevant characteristics of a watershed aimed at the sustainable distribution of its resources and the process of creating and implementing plans, programs, and projects to sustain and enhance watershed functions that affect the plant, animal, and human communities within a watershed boundary. Features of a watershed that agencies seek to manage include water supply, water quality, drainage, stormwater runoff, water rights, and the overall planning and utilization of watersheds. Landowners, land use agencies, storm water management experts, environmental specialists, water use surveyors and communities all play an integral part in watershed management.

Watershed is a ridge of land that separates two adjacent river systems. The entire geographical area drained by a river and its tributaries; an area characterized by all runoff being conveyed to the same outlet. Rain

Virtual Water refers to the hidden flow of water if food or other commodities are traded from one place to another. For instance, it takes 1,340 cubic meters of water (based on the world average) to produce one metric tonne of wheat. The precise volume can be more or less depending on climatic conditions and agricultural practice. Hoekstra and Chapagain have defined the virtual-water content of a product (a commodity, good or service) as "the volume of freshwater used to produce the product, measured at the place where the product was actually produced". It refers to the sum of the water use in the various steps of the production chain.

Water Footprint shows the extent of water use in relation to consumption of people. The water footprint of an individual, community or business is defined as the total volume of fresh water used to produce the goods and services consumed by the individual or community or produced by the business. Water use is measured in water volume consumed (evaporated) and/or polluted per unit of time. A water footprint can be calculated for any well-defined group of consumers (e.g., an individual, family,
village, city, province, state or nation) or producers (e.g., a public organization, private enterprise or economic sector), for a single process (such as growing rice) or for any product or service. Traditionally, water use has been approached from the
production side, by quantifying the following three columns of water use: water withdrawals in the domestic, agricultural and industrial sector. While this does provide valuable data, it is a limited way of looking at water use in a globalised world, in which products are not always consumed in their country of origin. International trade of agricultural and industrial products in effect creates a global flow of virtual water, or embodied water (akin to the concept of embodied energy). In 2002, the water footprint concept was introduced in order to have a consumption-based indicator of water use, that could provide useful information in
addition to the traditional production-sector-based indicators of water use. It is analogous to the ecological footprint concept introduced in the 1990s. The water footprint is a geographically explicit indicator, not only showing volumes of water use and pollution, but also the locations. Thus, it gives a grasp on how economic choices and processes influence the availability of adequate water resources and other ecological realities across the globe (and vice versa).

80 percent of the Fresh Water withdrawn from rivers and groundwater is used to produce food and other agricultural products.
Water for Farming Use - Irrigation - Vertical Farming uses 90% less water.

Did you know that it takes almost 2,000 gallons of water to produce 1 pound of meat?
It takes around 1 gallon of water to produce one almond.
It takes almost 25 gallons of water to produce 1 pound of wheat.
It takes around 16 gallons water to make a single cup of beer.
Did you know that a Mediterranean Diet causes less pollution?
How much water is needed to make your Food (calculator)?
8-minute shower runs through about 20 gallons of water on average.
Nebia Shower Head uses 70% Less Water

Teaching people about cause and effect is extremely important.

Nearly one person in six lives without regular access to safe drinking water, and more than twice that many lack access to Adequate Sanitation. Water-related diseases kill a child every eight seconds, and are responsible for 80 percent of all easily preventable illnesses and deaths in the developing world. 

Droppler: Know your Habits. Save Water

"Things that are widely used by many life forms can have an impact to the health of our earth and it's inhabitants. Please don't hurt the water, it has given us life for millions of years."

Drought Shame App
Drought Information

Power Plants draw more Fresh Water than any other consumer in the United States, accounting for more than 50 percent of the nation's freshwater use at about 500 billion gallons daily. To help save this water, researchers have developed a new silica filter for power plant cooling waters that decreases the amount of freshwater power plants consume by increasing the number of times cooling tower water can be reused and recycled.

Recycling Water - Water Saving Tools

Living Machines form of ecological sewage treatment designed to mimic the cleansing functions of wetlands.

Living Machines
Living Machine
Todd Ecological

Grey Water People
Grey Water Action
Grey Water Sustainable Sources

Biopore Holes not only helps to absorb rainwater, but also functions as a waste management system for organic waste.

Water Tanks

Water Barrels
Rain Water Collection (Tank Town)
Rain Scaping
Rain Catchers
Rain Harvesting Barrels (amazon)
Rain Barrel

Water Storage Tanks
Water Storage Tanks

Water Tank is a container for storing water. The need for a water tank is as old as civilization, to provide storage of water for use in many applications, drinking water, irrigation agriculture, fire suppression, agricultural farming, both for plants and livestock, chemical manufacturing, food preparation as well as many other uses. Water tank parameters include the general design of the tank, and choice of construction materials, linings. Various materials are used for making a water tank: plastics (polyethylene, polypropylene), fiberglass, concrete, stone, steel (welded or bolted, carbon, or stainless). Earthen pots also function as water storages. Water tanks are an efficient way to help developing countries to store clean water.


Groasis Aquapro Water Box

Rain Reserve
Enviro Sink

Rain (knowledge)

Water Saving Toilets - Toilets (types)

Recycling Shower 
Eva Smart Shower 
1.6 GPM Showerhead (amazon)
Nebia Shower System
Cirrus Shower uses 75 percent less water.
Altered Nozzle changes your existing faucet saving 98% water.

Water 2 Save water management service.
Water Saving Tools for home and yard.
Water Saver Technologies
Niagara Conservation
Conserv Co
Dry Planet
Slow Growing Grass needs less water

Energy Saving Tools

Transporting Water
Water Transportation is the intentional movement by water over large distances. Methods of transportation fall into three categories: Aqueducts, which include pipelines, canals, and tunnels, container shipment, which includes transport by tank truck, tank car, and tank ship, and towing, where a tugboat is used to pull an iceberg or a large water bag along behind it.
Hippo Roller
15 Methods for Transporting Water

Swimming Pools

Ionized Swimming Pool - Chlorine Free Swimming Pools.

Chemical Free Swimming Pools - Very Low Energy Consumption & Healthy.

Aqua-Scapes Pool - Biological and Natural Swimming Pools using no chemicals.

Hidden Dual Purpose Pools

Swim in Place Pool

Swimming Machine is a resistance swimming apparatus, often self-contained, enabling the swimmer to swim in place. This may be accomplished either by accelerating the water past the swimmer or by supporting the swimmer, either in water or on dry land.


Swimming Knowledge

Nemo 33 in Uccle, Belgium is the deepest indoor swimming pool in the world.

World's Largest Outdoor Pool At Chile's San Alfonso del Mar Resort.

Flowavett Wave Pool

Delta Flume wave generator that is capable of producing waves as tall as five meters the world's largest artificial waves.

In one of every eight pools inspected, the violations were so serious the pools were forced to close immediately. Improperly maintained pools have been linked to a variety of accidents and illnesses, from drowning to intestinal parasites, the CDC said. About 4,000 people drown in pools and elsewhere each year in the United States, and there were nearly 350 disease outbreaks linked to pools from 2003 to 2012.

Automatic Watering Systems

CONTINENTAL AWS-10 Automatic Watering System for containers (amazon)
Single-Dial Water Timer (amazon)

Drip Irrigation Spikes (amazon)
Watering Spikes (amazon)
Tree I.V.® Portable Watering System 6-pack (amazon)

How to install an automated drip irrigation system video with Thompson & Morgan (youtube)
Automatic Drip Irrigation Kit

Potted Plants Watering System Kit Automatic drip irrigation system for large size ( 10-inch pots or bigger) potted plants. Waters directly into plant roots avoiding evaporation Equipped with 4 color-coded drippers with daily water release: 3.4 ounce-20 days, 5.1 ounce-13 days, 6.8 ounce-10 days, 10.1 ounce-6 days.

Water Purification Process (City)

The first step of water purification is called Coagulation. Like blood forming a scab, the alum helps to chunk up the organic material in the water, so it can fall to the bottom of the tank. It works because alum—also known as Aluminum Sulfate—has a positive charge, whereas the organic gunk floating in the water tends to be negatively charged. They stick together and form a solid, which falls out of the water in a process called Sedimentation. Then the now clear water goes through the filtration
step, where it wends its way through several layers of sand, gravel, and charcoal. This removes much of the smaller particles. In the last step, it’s treated with Chloramines to kill bacteria and other microorganisms, giving the water its faintly stinky swimming pool smell. The techniques to treat its drinking water are used around the world, and those methods have proven successful so far.

EPA Water Treatment Guidelines

Pharmaceutical Drugs in Public Drinking Water 

Sanitary Sewer Overflow is a condition in which untreated sewage is discharged from a sanitary sewer into the environment prior to reaching sewage treatment facilities. When caused by rainfall it is also known as wet weather overflow. It is primarily meaningful in developed countries, which have extensive treatment facilities. Frequent causes of SSO spills include: Blockage of sewer lines. Infiltration/Inflow of excessive stormwater into sewer lines during heavy rainfall. Malfunction of pumping station lifts or electrical power failure. Broken sewer lines. EPA

Storm Water Management - Landscaping - Erosion

Combined Sewer is a sewage collection system of pipes and tunnels designed to also collect surface runoff. Combined sewers can cause serious water pollution problems during combined sewer overflow (CSO) events when wet weather flows exceed the sewage treatment plant capacity. This type of sewer design is no longer used in building new communities (because current design separates sanitary sewers from runoff), but many older cities continue to operate combined sewers.

Toilets (types)

Combined Sewage Overflows (CSO's)

City Water Infrastructure

They are supposed to test for a wide gamut of potentially harmful contaminants. Some of these include naturally occurring microorganisms, such as Cryptosporidium and Coliform Bacteria; metals such as Barium, Copper, Lead; and Herbicides such as atrazine. Drinking water treatment plants in the U.S. are supposed to publish a water quality report every year, noting contaminates that were present above the detection level. In total, the EPA requires drinking water treatment plants to test for almost 90 different contaminants. But noticeably absent from this list are any type of drug or pharmaceutical.

Drinking Water Treatment Plant (youtube)
3D data visualization and mapping of the water infrastructure of San Francisco

2.5 billion people around the world currently lack access to improved sanitation, and 27 percent of urban dwellers in developing nations do not have access to piped water in their homes. Every day, around 2 million tons of human waste are disposed of in water channels.

The World Health Organization reports that 3.4 million people—mainly children—die each year from water-related diseases like cholera, dysentery, or typhoid.

The EPA estimates anywhere from 23,000 to 75,000 overflows of sanitary-sewer systems each year in the U.S.

The right infrastructure becomes critical in preserving water quality and preventing a shortage of clean drinking water. Unfortunately, most of the technology employed by cities today lags behind the latest innovations.  Toilets

Water Filters

Water Basics

H2O - There are 3 Atoms in a Water Molecule, 2 Hydrogen Atoms (H), and 1 Oxygen Atom (O). - Fluid Liquid

Hydrosphere is the combined mass of water found on, under, and above the surface of a planet, minor planet or natural satellite. It has been estimated that there are 1386 million cubic kilometers of water on Earth. This includes water in liquid and frozen forms in groundwater, oceans, lakes and streams. Saltwater accounts for 97.5% of this amount. Fresh water accounts for only 2.5%. Of this fresh water, 68.9% is in the form of ice and permanent snow cover in the Arctic, the Antarctic, and mountain glaciers. 30.8% is in the form of fresh groundwater. Only 0.3% of the fresh water on Earth is in easily accessible lakes, reservoirs and river systems. The total mass of the Earth's hydrosphere is about 1.4 × 1018 tonnes, which is about 0.023% of Earth's total mass. About 20 × 1012 tonnes of this is in Earth's atmosphere (for practical purposes, 1 cubic metre of water weighs one tonne). Approximately 75% of Earth's surface, an area of some 361 million square kilometers (139.5 million square miles), is covered by ocean. The average salinity of Earth's oceans is about 35 grams of salt per kilogram of sea water (3.5%).

Water Cycle describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth. The mass of water on Earth remains fairly constant over time but the partitioning of the water into the major reservoirs of ice, fresh water, saline water and atmospheric water is variable depending on a wide range of climatic variables. The water moves from one reservoir to another, such as from river to ocean, or from the ocean to the atmosphere, by the physical processes of evaporation, condensation, precipitation, infiltration, surface runoff, and subsurface flow. In doing so, the water goes through different forms: liquid, solid (ice) and vapor. The water cycle involves the exchange of energy, which leads to temperature changes. When water evaporates, it takes up energy from its surroundings and cools the environment. When it condenses, it releases energy and warms the environment. These heat exchanges influence climate. The evaporative phase of the cycle purifies water which then replenishes the land with freshwater. The flow of liquid water and ice transports minerals across the globe. It is also involved in reshaping the geological features of the Earth, through processes including erosion and sedimentation. The water cycle is also essential for the maintenance of most life and ecosystems on the planet. Water Cycle.

Condensation is the change of the physical state of matter from gas phase into liquid phase, and is the reverse of evaporation. The word most often refers to the water cycle. It can also be defined as the change in the state of water vapour to liquid water when in contact with a liquid or solid surface or cloud condensation nuclei within the atmosphere. When the transition happens from the gaseous phase into the solid phase directly, the change is called deposition.

Dew Point is the temperature at which a given concentration of water vapor in air will form dew. More specifically it is a measure of atmospheric moisture. It is the temperature to which air must be cooled at constant pressure and water content to reach saturation. A higher dew point indicates more moisture in the air; a dew point greater than 20 °C (68 °F) is considered uncomfortable and greater than 22 °C (72 °F) is considered to be extremely humid. Frost point is the dew point when temperatures are below freezing. Weather

Humidity - Liquids - Viscosity - Heat - Boil - Ice

Interesting Facts about Water

Water Vapor is the gaseous phase of water. It is one state of water within the hydrosphere. Water vapor can be produced from the evaporation or boiling of liquid water or from the sublimation of Ice. Unlike other forms of water, water vapor is invisible. Under typical atmospheric conditions, water vapor is continuously generated by evaporation and removed by condensation. It is lighter than air and triggers convection currents that can lead to clouds.

Evaporation is a type of vaporization of a liquid that occurs from the surface of a liquid into a gaseous phase that is not saturated with the evaporating substance. The other type of vaporization is boiling, which is characterized by bubbles of saturated vapor forming in the liquid phase. Steam produced in a boiler is another example of evaporation occurring in a saturated vapor phase. Evaporation that occurs directly from the solid phase below the melting point, as commonly observed with ice at or below freezing or moth crystals (napthalene or paradichlorobenzene), is called sublimation, which is the phase transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase without passing through the intermediate liquid phase. Sublimation is an endothermic process that occurs at temperatures and pressures below a substance's triple point in its phase diagram. The reverse process of sublimation is deposition or desublimation, in which a substance passes directly from a gas to a solid phase. Sublimation has also been used as a generic term to describe a solid-to-gas transition (sublimation) followed by a gas-to-solid transition (deposition). Melting

Water Gas is produced from synthesis gas, which is composed of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Syngas is a useful product but requires careful handling due to its flammability and the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning. The Water gas shift reaction can be used to reduce the carbon monoxide while producing additional hydrogen, resulting in Water Gas

Dehydration - Electrolytes

Dehydration is a deficit of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes. Dehydration can also cause hypernatremia, which is a high sodium ion level in the blood. Dehydration is distinct from hypovolemia (loss of blood volume, particularly plasma). Dehydration occurs when free water loss exceeds free water intake, usually due to exercise or disease, but also due to high environmental temperature. Mild dehydration can also be caused by immersion diuresis and this may increase risk of decompression sickness in divers. Most people can tolerate a three to four percent decrease in total body water without difficulty or adverse health effects. A five to eight percent decrease can cause fatigue and dizziness. Loss of over ten percent of total body water can cause physical and mental deterioration, accompanied by severe thirst. Death occurs at a loss of between fifteen and twenty-five percent of the body water. Mild dehydration is characterized by thirst and general discomfort and is usually resolved with oral rehydration.


Mouth is dry. The darker the Urine, the more dehydrated you are. Test the elasticity of your skin by pinching the back of your hand and hold it for a few seconds. Let go and if the little "tent" stays pinched and takes more than 5 seconds to go back to normal, it's usually a sign of moderate dehydration. Sugary drinks cause you to lose more body fluid. Sugary drinks create an acidic environment that can impair enzyme function and decrease your body’s water storage capacity, which is necessary to metabolize all the extra sugar. High-Protein intake causes the body has to use more water to metabolize the naturally occurring nitrogen in protein, and cells can become water-depleted. Salty Foods increase fluid loss in your body because water is needed to eliminate all the extra sodium naturally present in salt. On average, you lose about one liter (approx 34 ounces) of fluid per hour of exercise.

Xerostomia also known as dry mouth and dry mouth syndrome, is dryness in the mouth, which may be associated with a change in the composition of saliva, or reduced salivary flow, or have no identifiable cause. This symptom is very common and is often seen as a side effect of many types of medication. It is more common in older people (mostly because this group tend to take several medications) and in persons who breathe through their mouths (mouthbreathing). Dehydration, radiotherapy involving the salivary glands, chemotherapy and several diseases can cause hyposalivation or a change in saliva consistency and hence a complaint of xerostomia. Sometimes there is no identifiable cause, and there may be a psychogenic reason for the complaint.

Diuretic is any substance that promotes diuresis, that is, the increased production of urine. This includes forced diuresis. There are several categories of diuretics. All diuretics increase the excretion of water from bodies, although each class does so in a distinct way. Alternatively, an antidiuretic such as vasopressin, or antidiuretic hormone, is an agent or drug which reduces the excretion of water in urine.

Mapping the Neural Circuit Governing Thirst. Hierarchical Excitatory Neural Circuits That Drive Drinking. There are three regions in the mouse brain that are known to process thirst: the subfornical organ (SFO), the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT), and the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO). Together, these regions form a sheet-like structure in the forebrain (near the front of the brain) called the lamina terminalis (LT). Most regions of the brain are protected by the nearly impenetrable blood-brain barrier, a layer of tightly packed cells that separates the bloodstream from the brain. But this is not the case for the SFO and OVLT -- they interface directly with a mouse's bloodstream, allowing the two regions to measure the sodium content, or saltiness, of the blood, which indicates the level of hydration. Therefore, the LT serves as the primary structure involved in thirst regulation. When you are dehydrated, you may gulp down water for several seconds and you feel satisfied. However, at that point your blood is not rehydrated yet: it usually takes about 10 to 15 minutes. Therefore, the SFO and the OVLT would not be able to detect blood rehydration soon after drinking. Nevertheless, the brain somehow knows when to stop drinking even before the body is fully rehydrated. Because of this temporal discrepancy between body rehydration and satiation signals in the brain, the researchers reasoned that some kind of rapid signal must be suppressing drinking behavior.

Sweating (exercise)

Transepidermal Water Loss is defined as the measurement of the quantity of water that passes from inside a body (animal or plant) through the epidermal layer (skin) to the surrounding atmosphere via diffusion and evaporation processes.

Shenu: Hydrolemic System (video)

SIPPO: Smart Cup Hydration made Easy

Water Intoxication also known as water poisoning or hyperhydration, is a potentially fatal disturbance in brain functions that results when the normal balance of electrolytes in the body is pushed outside safe limits by overhydration.

Hyponatremia is a low sodium level in the blood Symptoms can vary from none to severe. Mild symptoms include a decreased ability to think, headaches, nausea, and poor balance. Severe symptoms include confusion, seizures, and coma. Normal serum sodium levels are 135–145 mmol/L (135–145 mEq/L). Hyponatremia is generally defined as a serum sodium level of less than 135 mmol/L and is considered severe when the level is below 120 mmol/L.

Electrolyte Imbalance. Electrolytes play a vital role in maintaining homeostasis within the body. They help to regulate heart and neurological function, fluid balance, oxygen delivery, acid–base balance and much more. Electrolyte imbalances can develop by the following mechanisms: excessive ingestion; diminished elimination of an electrolyte; diminished ingestion or excessive elimination of an electrolyte. The most serious electrolyte disturbances involve abnormalities in the levels of sodium, potassium or calcium. Other electrolyte imbalances are less common, and often occur in conjunction with major electrolyte changes. Chronic laxative abuse or severe diarrhea or vomiting (gastroenteritis) can lead to electrolyte disturbances along with dehydration. People suffering from bulimia or anorexia nervosa are at especially high risk for an electrolyte imbalance.

Nuun Performance Hydration (amazon) Sodium: 380 mg - Potassium: 200-210 mg - Magnesium: 20 mg - Calcium: 15 mg. Chloride: 80 mg - 15 grams of carbohydrates. Ingredients: Dextrose, Cane Sugar (vegan), Dried Fruit Powder, Sodium Citrate, Citric Acid, Potassium Citrate, Potassium Chloride, Magnesium Citrate, Calcium Citrate.

Electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water. The dissolved electrolyte separates into cations and anions, which disperse uniformly through the solvent. Electrically, such a solution is neutral. If an electric potential is applied to such a solution, the cations of the solution are drawn to the electrode that has an abundance of electrons, while the anions are drawn to the electrode that has a deficit of electrons. The movement of anions and cations in opposite directions within the solution amounts to a current. This includes most soluble salts, acids, and bases. Some gases, such as hydrogen chloride, under conditions of high temperature or low pressure can also function as electrolytes. Electrolyte solutions can also result from the dissolution of some biological (e.g., DNA, polypeptides) and synthetic polymers (e.g., polystyrene sulfonate), termed "polyelectrolytes", which contain charged functional groups. A substance that dissociates into ions in solution acquires the capacity to conduct electricity. Sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium, and phosphate are examples of electrolytes, informally known as "lytes." In medicine, electrolyte replacement is needed when a patient has prolonged vomiting or diarrhea, and as a response to strenuous athletic activity. Commercial electrolyte solutions are available, particularly for sick children (oral rehydration solutions) and athletes (sports drinks). Electrolyte monitoring is important in the treatment of anorexia and bulimia.

Fluid Balance is an aspect of the homeostasis of living organisms in which the amount of water in the organism needs to be controlled, via osmoregulation and behavior, such that the concentrations of electrolytes (salts in solution) in the various body fluids are kept within healthy ranges. The core principle of fluid balance is that the amount of water lost from the body must equal the amount of water taken in; for example, in human homeostasis, the output (via respiration, perspiration, urination, defecation, and expectoration) must equal the input (via eating, drinking, and parenteral intake). Euvolemia is the state of normal body fluid volume, including blood volume, interstitial fluid volume, and intracellular fluid volume; hypovolemia and hypervolemia are imbalances. Water is necessary for all life on Earth. Humans can survive for 4 to 6 weeks without food but only for a few days without water. Profuse Sweating can increase the need for electrolyte replacement. Water-electrolyte imbalance produces headache and fatigue if mild; illness if moderate, and sometimes even death if severe. For example, water intoxication (which results in hyponatremia), the process of consuming too much water too quickly, can be fatal. Deficits to body water result in volume contraction and dehydration. Diarrhea is a threat to both body water volume and electrolyte levels, which is why diseases that cause diarrhea are great threats to fluid balance.

Thirst is the craving for fluids, resulting in the basic instinct of animals to drink. It is an essential mechanism involved in fluid balance. It arises from a lack of fluids or an increase in the concentration of certain osmolites, such as salt. If the water volume of the body falls below a certain threshold or the osmolite concentration becomes too high, the brain signals thirst. Continuous dehydration can cause many problems, but is most often associated with renal problems and neurological problems such as seizures. Excessive thirst, known as polydipsia, along with excessive urination, known as polyuria, may be an indication of diabetes mellitus or diabetes insipidus. There are receptors and other systems in the body that detect a decreased volume or an increased osmolite concentration. They signal to the central nervous system, where central processing succeeds. Some sources, therefore, distinguish "extracellular thirst" from "intracellular thirst", where extracellular thirst is thirst generated by decreased volume and intracellular thirst is thirst generated by increased osmolite concentration. Nevertheless, the craving itself is something generated from central processing in the brain, no matter how it is detected.

A full bladder is about the size of a soft ball: When your bladder is full, holding up to 800 cubic centimeters of fluid, or 27.0512 Fluid Ounces.

Urine - Water Therapy

Body Water is the water content of an animal body that is contained in the tissues, the blood, the bones and elsewhere. This water makes up a significant fraction of the human body, both by weight and by volume. Ensuring the right amount of body water is part of fluid balance, an aspect of homeostasis. The average human adult male is approximately 69% water, by weight.

The average human being consists of about 7 x 1027 atoms (7,000 trillion trillion atoms) — 65 percent oxygen, 18 percent carbon, 10 percent hydrogen, 3 percent nitrogen, 1.4 percent calcium, 1.1 percent phosphorous, and traces of 54 other chemical elements. 

Composition of the Human Body (wiki)

Hydrocephalus is an abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the brain.

Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spine. It is produced in the choroid plexuses of the ventricles of the brain. It acts as a cushion or buffer for the brain's cortex, providing basic mechanical and immunological protection to the brain inside the skull. The CSF also serves a vital function in cerebral autoregulation of cerebral blood flow.

Body Fluid bodily fluids or biofluids are liquids originating from inside the bodies of living people. They include fluids that are excreted or secreted from the body as well as body water that normally is not. (Drool) The dominating content of body fluids is body water. Approximately 60-65% of body water is contained within the cells (in intracellular fluid) with the other 35-40% of body water contained outside the cells (in extracellular fluid). This fluid component outside the cells includes the fluid between the cells (interstitial fluid), lymph and blood. There are approximately 6 to 10 liters of lymph in the body, compared to 3.5 to 5 liters of blood.
Interesting Facts about Water

There are about 5 Sextillion Atoms in a single drop of water. (1 with 21 zeros).
One drop of water has the volume of about 0.05 mL.
There are more atoms in a glass of water than glasses of water in all the oceans on Earth.

50 Quintillion Atoms in a Grain of Sand. (50 with 18 zeros).
1 Nanometer is about the width of 2 Silicon Atoms?
Nanometer is 1 Millionth of a Millimeter.
2 Trillion Hydrogen Atoms lined side by side to cross the head of a pin that is 1 mm in diameter?
(1 Million * 1 Million = 1 Trillion) - (mm is 0.0393701 inches or 25.4 mm in 1 inch).

Because the density of water is 1, the mass is 0.05 g.
The molar mass of water (H2O) is 18.0 grams/mol (1.008 + 1.008 + 16.0).
How many molecules in a drop of water?
This means there is one mole of water in 18.0 grams.
One mole is 6.02 × 1023 molecules. (10²³)  Avogadro Constant
Then you can convert grams to number of atoms:
0.05 grams ÷ 18.0 grams × (6.02 × 1023 molecules) = 1.67 × 1021 molecule.

How Water conducts electricity, A watershed moment in understanding.

Physics - Action Physics - Chemistry

Liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure. As such, it is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, gas, and plasma), and is the only state with a definite volume but no fixed shape. A liquid is made up of tiny vibrating particles of matter, such as atoms, held together by intermolecular bonds. Water is, by far, the most common liquid on Earth. Like a gas, a liquid is able to flow and take the shape of a container. Most liquids resist compression, although others can be compressed. Unlike a gas, a liquid does not disperse to fill every space of a container, and maintains a fairly constant density. A distinctive property of the liquid state is surface tension, leading to wetting phenomena. The density of a liquid is usually close to that of a solid, and much higher than in a gas. Therefore, liquid and solid are both termed condensed matter. On the other hand, as liquids and gases share the ability to flow, they are both called fluids. Although liquid water is abundant on Earth, this state of matter is actually the least common in the known universe, because liquids require a relatively narrow temperature/pressure range to exist. Most known matter in the universe is in gaseous form (with traces of detectable solid matter) as interstellar clouds or in plasma form within stars.

Magnetic Ionic Liquid can be obtained from 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and ferric chloride. It has quite low water solubility an thus can be considered as hydrophobic ionic liquid.

Ionic Liquid is a salt in the liquid state. In some contexts, the term has been restricted to salts whose melting point is below some arbitrary temperature, such as 100 °C (212 °F). While ordinary liquids such as water and gasoline are predominantly made of electrically neutral molecules, ionic liquids are largely made of ions and short-lived ion pairs. These substances are variously called liquid electrolytes, ionic melts, ionic fluids, fused salts, liquid salts, or ionic glasses. They are known as "solvents of the future" as well as "designer solvents".

Surface Tension is the elastic tendency of a fluid surface which makes it acquire the least surface area possible. Surface tension allows insects (e.g. water striders), usually denser than water, to float and stride on a water surface. At liquid–air interfaces, surface tension results from the greater attraction of liquid molecules to each other (due to cohesion) than to the molecules in the air (due to adhesion). The net effect is an inward force at its surface that causes the liquid to behave as if its surface were covered with a stretched elastic membrane. Thus, the surface becomes under tension from the imbalanced forces, which is probably where the term "surface tension" came from. Because of the relatively high attraction of water molecules for each other through a web of hydrogen bonds, water has a higher surface tension (72.8 millinewtons per meter at 20 °C) compared to that of most other liquids. Surface tension is an important factor in the phenomenon of capillarity. Surface tension has the dimension of force per unit length, or of energy per unit area. The two are equivalent, but when referring to energy per unit of area, it is common to use the term surface energy, which is a more general term in the sense that it applies also to solids. In materials science, surface tension is used for either surface stress or surface free energy.

Friction (drag)

Volumetric image of a helical vortex Fluid Dynamics is a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that deals with fluid flow.

Volumetric image of a helical vortex leapfrogging through a vortex ring in water, with dye-blob tracks overlaid in warm colors.

Eddy is  a circular movement of water, counter to a main current, causing a small whirlpool. Eddy (fluid dynamics) is the swirling of a fluid and the reverse current created when the fluid is in a turbulent flow regime. The moving fluid creates a space devoid of downstream-flowing fluid on the downstream side of the object. Fluid behind the obstacle flows into the void creating a swirl of fluid on each edge of the obstacle, followed by a short reverse flow of fluid behind the obstacle flowing upstream, toward the back of the obstacle. This phenomenon is naturally observed behind large emergent rocks in swift-flowing rivers. Vortex.

Fluid Mechanics is the branch of physics that studies the mechanics of fluids (liquids, gases, and plasmas) and the forces on them. Fluid mechanics has a wide range of applications, including for mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, geophysics, astrophysics, and biology. Fluid mechanics can be divided into fluid statics, the study of fluids at rest; and fluid dynamics, the study of the effect of forces on fluid motion. Hydraulics (engineering)

Hydrostatics is the branch of fluid mechanics that studies incompressible fluids at rest. It encompasses the study of the conditions under which fluids are at rest in stable equilibrium as opposed to fluid dynamics, the study of fluids in motion. Hydrostatics are categorized as a part of the fluid statics, which is the study of all fluids, incompressible or not, at rest.

Water Hammer is a pressure surge or wave caused when a fluid (usually a liquid but sometimes also a gas) in motion is forced to stop or change direction suddenly (momentum change). A water hammer commonly occurs when a valve closes suddenly at an end of a pipeline system, and a pressure wave propagates in the pipe. It is also called hydraulic shock. This pressure wave can cause major problems, from noise and vibration to pipe collapse. It is possible to reduce the effects of the water hammer pulses with accumulators, expansion tanks, surge tanks, blowoff valves, and other features. Rough calculations can be made either using the Zhukovsky (Joukowsky) equation, or more accurate ones using the method of characteristics. What is Water Hammer? (youtube).

Capillary Action sometimes capillarity, capillary motion, or wicking, is the ability of a liquid to flow in narrow spaces without the assistance of, or even in opposition to, external forces like gravity. The effect can be seen in the drawing up of liquids between the hairs of a paint-brush, in a thin tube, in porous materials such as paper and plaster, in some non-porous materials such as sand and liquefied carbon fiber, or in a cell. It occurs because of intermolecular forces between the liquid and surrounding solid surfaces. If the diameter of the tube is sufficiently small, then the combination of surface tension (which is caused by cohesion within the liquid) and adhesive forces between the liquid and container wall act to lift the liquid. Ceramic Water Spikes.

Porous is something that is full of pores or vessels or holes that is able to absorb fluids and allow passage in and out.

Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration with high chemical potential to a region of low concentration with low chemical potential. This is also referred to as the movement of a substance down a concentration gradient. A gradient is the change in the value of a quantity e.g. concentration, pressure, or temperature with the change in another variable, usually distance. A change in concentration over a distance is called a concentration gradient, a change in pressure over a distance is called a pressure gradient, and a change in temperature over a distance is a called a temperature gradient.

Superfluidity is a state of matter in which the matter behaves like a fluid with zero viscosity; where it appears to exhibit the ability to self-propel and travel in a way that defies the forces of gravity and surface tension. Superfluidity is found in astrophysics, high-energy physics, and theories of quantum gravity. The phenomenon is related to Bose–Einstein condensation, but neither is a specific type of the other: not all Bose-Einstein condensates can be regarded as superfluids, and not all superfluids are Bose–Einstein condensates.

Viscosity fluid is a measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress. For liquids, it corresponds to the informal concept of "thickness"; for example, honey has a much higher viscosity than water. Heat.

New study visualizes motion of water molecules, promises new wave of electronic devices. Studying the viscosity of water has revealed new insights about the behavior of water molecules and may open pathways for liquid-based electronics.

Cavitation is the formation of vapour cavities in a liquid, small liquid-free zones ("bubbles" or "voids"), that are the consequence of forces acting upon the liquid. It usually occurs when a liquid is subjected to rapid changes of pressure that cause the formation of cavities in the liquid where the pressure is relatively low. When subjected to higher pressure, the voids implode and can generate an intense shock wave. Cavitation is a significant cause of wear in some engineering contexts. Collapsing voids that implode near to a metal surface cause cyclic stress through repeated implosion. This results in surface fatigue of the metal causing a type of wear also called "cavitation". The most common examples of this kind of wear are to pump impellers, and bends where a sudden change in the direction of liquid occurs. Cavitation is usually divided into two classes of behavior: inertial (or transient) cavitation and non-inertial cavitation. Inertial cavitation is the process where a void or bubble in a liquid rapidly collapses, producing a shock wave. Inertial cavitation occurs in nature in the strikes of mantis shrimps and pistol shrimps, as well as in the vascular tissues of plants. In man-made objects, it can occur in control valves, pumps, propellers and impellers. Non-inertial cavitation is the process in which a bubble in a fluid is forced to oscillate in size or shape due to some form of energy input, such as an acoustic field. Such cavitation is often employed in ultrasonic cleaning baths and can also be observed in pumps, propellers, etc. Since the shock waves formed by collapse of the voids are strong enough to cause significant damage to moving parts, cavitation is usually an undesirable phenomenon. It is very often specifically avoided in the design of machines such as turbines or propellers, and eliminating cavitation is a major field in the study of fluid dynamics. However, it is sometimes useful and does not cause damage when the bubbles collapse away from machinery, such as in supercavitation, which is the use of cavitation effects to create a bubble of steam inside a liquid large enough to encompass an object travelling through the liquid, greatly reducing the skin friction drag on the object and enabling achievement of very high speeds. Cavitation produces a bubble that rapidly collapses and becomes hotter than the sun's surface. Cavitation is when low pressure in a liquid produces a bubble that rapidly collapses, and heats up to 20,000 Kelvin — hotter than the sun's surface. This usually releases a flash of light called sonoluminescence, which physicists still don't understand. Some physicists even theorize that cavitation bubbles could get hot enough to power nuclear fusion. Cavitation is the formation of an empty space within a solid object or body. The formation of bubbles in a liquid, typically by the movement of a propeller through it. Hydrodynamic cavitation describes the process of vaporisation, bubble generation and bubble implosion which occurs in a flowing liquid as a result of a decrease and subsequent increase in local pressure. ultrasound cavitation, a method of generating cavitation with soundwaves most well known for its use in breaking up kidney stones.

Electromagnetic water cloak eliminates drag and wake. Researchers have developed a water cloaking concept based on electromagnetic forces that could eliminate an object's wake, greatly reducing its drag while simultaneously helping it avoid detection.

Rain has that certain smell, so why does rain have an odor? Petrichor

How Much Does One Ml Of Water Weigh At 4 Degrees Celsius?
Pure water has the highest density at the temperature of 3.98 degrees Celsius. The density is then 999.975 kg/m3 or 0.9999750 g/cm3 or 0.9999750 g/mL.
At 4°C pure water has a density (weight or mass) of about 1 g/cu.cm, 1 g/ml, 1 kg/litre, 1000 kg/cu.m, 1 tonne/cu.m. Water was used as the basis for establishing the metric unit of mass, however, so it is easier to remember that a cubic centimeter of it has a mass of 1 gm. Knowing that there are 1000 cubic centi-meters in a liter, you can also use 1
kilogram (1000 grams) per liter for water's mass density.

Properties of Water is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, nearly colorless with a hint of blue. The simplest hydrogen chalcogenide, it is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" for its ability to dissolve many substances. This allows it to be the "solvent of life". It is the only common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas in nature.

The magnetic fluctuations of the tides depend on the electrical conductivity of the water -- and the electrical conductivity of the water depends on its temperature. More than 90 percent of the excess heat in the Earth system goes into the ocean.

Water is the second most abundant substance in the universe. It dissolves more materials than any other solvent. It stores incredible amounts of energy. Life as we know it would not be possible without it. And although it covers more than 70% of the Earth’s surface, many parts of the world are in dire straits for lack of it. Water makes up 75% of our bodies. Every day we drink it, bathe in it, clean with it and use it to dispose of our wastes. Two atoms of hydrogen and one of oxygen. The hydrogen bonds that continually form and reform between its slightly negatively charged oxygen and slightly positively charged hydrogen components. Thanks to these bonds, water molecules attract one another far more strongly than those of almost any other substance. As it cools from its liquid to solid state, actually expands. Virtually every other substance becomes denser as it “freezes,” but thanks to this remarkable property, ice cubes float in our drinks. More importantly for living organisms, lakes and other bodies of water freeze from the top down. The average snow crystal contains about 10 quintillion (10 followed by 18 zeroes) water molecules, it is easy to see why the number of possible combinations is unimaginably large. Water has a cycle of evaporation, condensation, precipitation and runoff back to seas and lakes. The same is true among living organisms, where the hydrogen and oxygen constituents of water are continually combining and recombining through the processes of photosynthesis and respiration. Each time we break down a molecule of glucose, we produce six molecules of water, a reaction that takes place in the typical human body about six septillion (6 followed by 24 zeroes) times per day. Even so, we still don’t produce enough water to meet our own needs. 3% of the Earth’s water is fresh water, the other 97% being found in the oceans. And about 70% of this fresh water is found in glaciers and the ice caps of Antarctica. Earth holds enough water to make a sphere about 860 miles in diameter.

Why does heating water make it a better solvent? Adding energy (heating) increases molecular motion. Increased molecular motion competes with the attraction between solute molecules and tends to make them come apart more easily. Increased molecular motion causes more solvent molecules to contact solute molecules and pull on them with more force, usually resulting in more dissolving. Since different substances are made from different atoms, ions, or molecules, increased temperature will affect their dissolving to different extents.

Warm Showers - Cooking Food

At a low temperature a gas molecule travels, on the average, at a slower speed than than it would at a high temperature. So, at a low temperature the molecules have, on the average, less kinetic energy than they do at a high temperature. Lower speeds, lower kinetic energies. Cooking Heat.

cold and hot water molecules When Heat is added to a substance, the molecules and atoms vibrate faster. As atoms vibrate faster, the space between atoms increases. The motion and spacing of the particles determines the state of matter of the substance. The end result of increased molecular motion is that the object expands and takes up more space. Mass of the object remains the same, however. Solids, liquids and gases all expand when heat is added. When heat leaves all substances, the molecules vibrate slower. The atoms can get closer which results in the matter contracting. Again, the mass is not changed.

Why does Hot Air Rise? When an object or substance heats up, the atoms which compose it start to move and vibrate more quickly. This vibration pushes them apart, causing them to take up more space. That means that a given volume of air (or water, or whatever) will have fewer atoms in it, because some of them were pushed out as it expanded. Fewer atoms means less mass, means less weight per volume. Less weight per volume means less density. Thermals

Density of a substance is its mass per unit volume.

Sky Lantern Sky Lantern is a small hot air balloon made of paper, with an opening at the bottom where a small fire is suspended. They can be dangerous because they could land and start a fire.

Hot Air Balloon is a lighter than air aircraft consisting of a bag, called an envelope, which contains heated air. Suspended beneath is a gondola or wicker basket (in some long-distance or high-altitude balloons, a capsule), which carries passengers and (usually) a source of heat, in most cases an open flame. The heated air inside the envelope makes it buoyant since it has a lower density than the colder air outside the envelope. As with all aircraft, hot air balloons cannot fly beyond the atmosphere. Unlike gas balloons, the envelope does not have to be sealed at the bottom, since the air near the bottom of the envelope is at the same pressure as the surrounding air. In modern sport balloons the envelope is generally made from nylon fabric and the inlet of the balloon (closest to the burner flame) is made from a fire resistant material such as Nomex. Modern balloons have been made in all kinds of shapes, such as rocket ships and the shapes of various commercial products, though the traditional shape is used for most non-commercial, and many commercial, applications. Wind Chill.


Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid, or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid, or gaseous solvent. The solubility of a substance fundamentally depends on the physical and chemical properties of the solute and solvent as well as on temperature, pressure and the pH of the solution. The extent of the solubility of a substance in a specific solvent is measured as the saturation concentration, where adding more solute does not increase the concentration of the solution and begins to precipitate the excess amount of solute. The solubility of a substance is an entirely different property from the rate of solution, which is how fast it dissolves. Solvents composed of polar molecules, such as water, dissolve other polar molecules, such as table salt, while nonpolar solvents, such as gasoline, dissolve nonpolar substances such as wax. The degree that a solvent dissolves a given solute is known as its solubility. Solute molecule is a molecule that's soluble.

"The probability of you drinking a glass of water that contains a molecule of water that also passed through a dinosaur is almost 100%."

Does Water take Longer to Boil at Higher Altitudes?

A common misconception is that it takes longer to boil water at high altitudes. As explained, it is the exact opposite. Increased elevation = decreased boiling point. Thus this lower boiling point actually takes less time to reach, so water starts to boil at a lower temperature. The confusion is created by the fact that because of this lower boiling point, it actually takes longer to cook food in or over water. Because less Heat is being transferred through radiation, conduction, and convection, it will take longer to cook a pot of Alpine Pasta at 10,000 feet than at 1,000 feet elevation. Other factors not related to elevation gain, such as colder temperatures and windy conditions, can also increase the time required to cook food over a stove. These factors can be combated using a backpacking stove windscreen. Altitude affects cooking in three different ways: As elevation increases, the boiling point of water decreases – When water boils at lower temperatures, it takes longer for foods to cook in or over water because less heat is being transferred. As water’s boiling point decreases and cooking times increase, the quicker liquid will evaporate – Because water is boiling at a lower temperature, water will begin to evaporate sooner. As elevation increases, air pressure decreases and the faster leavening gases (air, carbon dioxide and water vapor) expand – This mostly only affects baking at high altitudes where the amount of leavening agents should be reduced. For water to increase in temperature, water molecules must be made to move faster within the water; this requires breaking hydrogen bonds, and the breaking of hydrogen bonds absorbs heat. Heat Capacity is the capability of water to absorb heat without undergoing an increase in temperature.

High Altitude Cooking - Cooking Heat

Boiling Point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor. The boiling point of a liquid varies depending upon the surrounding environmental pressure.

Boil Water with No Heat! - Hydrostatics (youtube)

Mpemba Effect is the observation that, in some circumstances, warmer water can freeze faster than colder water. there is disagreement on exactly what the effect is and under what circumstances it occurs.

Leavening Agent is any one of a number of substances used in doughs and batters that cause a foaming action (gas bubbles) that lightens and softens. An alternative or supplement to leavening agents is a mechanical action by which air is incorporated. Leavening agents can be biological or synthetic chemical compounds. The gas produced is often carbon dioxide, or occasionally hydrogen. When a dough or batter is mixed, the starch in the flour and the water in the dough form a matrix (often supported further by proteins like gluten or polysaccharides, such as pentosans or xanthan gum). Then the starch gelatinizes and sets, leaving gas bubbles that remain.

Fluid Mechanics is the branch of physics that studies the mechanics of fluids (liquids, gases, and plasmas) and the forces on them.

Hydrostatics is the branch of fluid mechanics that studies incompressible fluids at rest.

Bernoulli's Principle states that an increase in the speed of a fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a decrease in the fluid's potential energy.

Pressure is the Force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed force divided by area.

Rapid decompression key to making low-density liquid water. There are at least 17 forms of water ice, and two proposed forms of super-cooled liquid water. New work from high-pressure geophysicists finds evidence of the long-theorized, difficult-to-see low-density liquid phase of water.

Barometer is a scientific instrument used in meteorology to measure atmospheric pressure.

Meteorology is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere.

Atmospheric Pressure sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure exerted by the weight of air in the atmosphere of Earth atmospheric pressure is closely approximated by the hydrostatic pressure caused by the weight of air above the measurement point.

The origin of water’s unusual properties found. Using x-ray lasers, researchers at Stockholm University have been able to map out how water fluctuates between two different states when it is cooled. At -44°C these fluctuations reach a maximum pointing to the fact that water can exist as two different distinct liquids. How water’s density, specific heat, viscosity and compressibility respond to changes in pressure and temperature is completely opposite to other liquids that we know. We all are aware that all matter shrinks when it is cooled resulting in an increase in the density. We would therefore expect that water would have high density at the freezing point. However, if we look at a glass of ice water, everything is upside down, since we expect that water at 0°C being surrounded by ice should be at the bottom of the glass, but of course as we know ice cubes float. Strangely enough for the liquid state, water is the densest at 4 degrees C, and therefore it stays on the bottom whether it’s in a glass or in an ocean. If you chill water below 4 degrees, it starts to expand again. If you continue to cool pure water (where the rate of crystallization is low) to below 0, it continues to expand – the expansion even speeds up when it gets colder. Many more properties such as compressibility and heat capacity become increasingly strange as water is cooled. Now researchers at Stockholm University, with the help of ultra-short x-ray pulses at x-ray lasers in Japan and South Korea, have succeeded in determining that water reaches the peak of its strange behaviour at -44°C. Water is unique, as it can exist in two liquid states that have different ways of bonding the water molecules together. The water fluctuates between these states as if it can’t make up its mind and these fluctuations reach a maximum at -44°C. It is this ability to shift from one liquid state into another that gives water its unusual properties and since the fluctuations increase upon cooling also the strangeness increases.


Ice is water frozen into a solid state. Depending on the presence of impurities such as particles of soil or bubbles of air, it can appear transparent or a more or less opaque bluish-white color. Temperature

Ice Crystals are solid ice exhibiting atomic ordering on various length scales and include hexagonal columns, hexagonal plates, dendritic crystals, and diamond dust. The highly symmetric shapes are due to depositional growth, namely, direct deposition of water vapour onto the ice crystal.

Ice Ih ice-phase-one is the hexagonal crystal form of ordinary ice, or frozen water. Virtually all ice in the biosphere is ice Ih, with the exception only of a small amount of ice Ic that is occasionally present in the upper atmosphere. Ice Ih exhibits many peculiar properties that are relevant to the existence of life and regulation of global climate.

Ice Ic is a metastable cubic crystalline variant of ice.

Ice II is a rhombohedral crystalline form of ice with a highly ordered structure. It is formed from ice Ih by compressing it at temperature of 198 K at 300 MPa or by decompressing ice V. When heated it undergoes transformation to ice III. Ordinary water ice is known as ice Ih.

Ice III is a form of solid matter which consists of tetragonal crystalline ice, formed by cooling water down to 250 K at 300 MPa. It is the least dense of the high-pressure water phases, with a density of 1160 kg/m3 (at 350 MPa). The proton-ordered form of ice III is ice IX.

Spinning ice disk in Michigan's Pine River. An ice disc forms when a section of ice on a partially frozen river breaks off and is pushed in circular rotation by an eddy current, smoothing the ice disc into a perfect circle.

Evaporation (dehydration)

Halo (optical phenomenon) also known as a nimbus, icebow or gloriole) is an optical phenomenon produced by light interacting with ice crystals suspended in the atmosphere, resulting in a wide variety of colored or white rings, arcs and spots in the sky. Many halos are near the Sun or Moon, but others occur elsewhere or even in the opposite part of the sky. Halo types are the circular halo (properly called the 22° halo), light pillars and sun dogs, but there are many more; some of them fairly common, others (extremely) rare.

Ice Core Laboratory: Analizing Earths History by studying Ice Cores that go back thousands of years.

Ice Water Molecules Arranged in a Lattice of Squares Between 2 Sheets of Graphene (youtube)

Ringwoodite is a high-pressure phase of Mg2SiO4 formed at high temperatures and pressures of the Earth's mantle between 525 and 660 km (326 and 410 mi) depth. It is polymorphous with the olivine phase forsterite (a magnesium iron silicate). Ringwoodite is notable for being able to contain hydroxide ions (oxygen and hydrogen atoms bound together) within its structure.

Wadsleyite is a high-pressure phase of polymorphous Mg2SiO4. An orthorhombic mineral with the formula β-Mg2SiO4, it was first found in nature in the Peace River meteorite from Alberta, Canada. It is formed by a phase transformation from forsterite (α-Mg2SiO4) under increasing pressure and eventually transforms into spinel-structured ringwoodite (γ-Mg2SiO4) as pressure increases further. The structure can take up a limited amount of other bivalent cations instead of magnesium, but contrary to the α and γ structures, a β structure with the sum formula Fe2SiO4 is not thermodynamically stable. Its cell parameters are approximately a = 5.7 Å, b = 11.7 Å and c = 8.24 Å.

Ice Cap is an ice mass that covers less than 50,000 km2 of land area (usually covering a highland area). Larger ice masses covering more than 50,000 km2 are termed ice sheets. Ice caps are not constrained by topographical features (i.e., they will lie over the top of mountains). By contrast, ice masses of similar size that are constrained by topographical features are known as ice fields. The dome of an ice cap is usually centred on the highest point of a massif. Ice flows away from this high point (the ice divide) towards the ice cap's periphery. Ice caps have significant effects on the geomorphology of the area they occupy. Plastic moulding, gouging and other glacial erosional features become present upon the glacier's retreat. Many lakes, such as the Great Lakes in North America, as well as numerous valleys have been formed by glacial action over hundreds of thousands of years. On Earth, there are about 30 million km3 of total ice mass. The average temperature of an ice mass ranges between −20 °C and −30 °C. The core of an ice cap exhibits a constant temperature that ranges between −15 °C and −20 °C. A high-latitude region covered in ice, though strictly not an ice cap (since they exceed the maximum area specified in the definition above), are called polar ice caps; the usage of this designation is widespread in the mass media and arguably recognized by experts. Vatnajökull is an example of an ice cap in Iceland.

Glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries. Glaciers slowly deform and flow due to stresses induced by their weight, creating crevasses, seracs, and other distinguishing features. They also abrade rock and debris from their substrate to create landforms such as cirques and moraines. Glaciers form only on land and are distinct from the much thinner sea ice and lake ice that form on the surface of bodies of water. On Earth, 99% of glacial ice is contained within vast ice sheets in the polar regions, but glaciers may be found in mountain ranges on every continent including Oceania's high-latitude oceanic islands such as New Zealand and Papua New Guinea. Between 35°N and 35°S, glaciers occur only in the Himalayas, Andes, Rocky Mountains, a few high mountains in East Africa, Mexico, New Guinea and on Zard Kuh in Iran. Glaciers cover about 10 percent of Earth's land surface. Continental glaciers cover nearly 13,000,000 km2 (5×106 sq mi) or about 98 percent of Antarctica's 13,200,000 km2 (5.1×106 sq mi), with an average thickness of 2,100 m (7,000 ft). Greenland and Patagonia also have huge expanses of continental glaciers. Glacial ice is the largest reservoir of fresh water on Earth. Many glaciers from temperate, alpine and seasonal polar climates store water as ice during the colder seasons and release it later in the form of meltwater as warmer summer temperatures cause the glacier to melt, creating a water source that is especially important for plants, animals and human uses when other sources may be scant. Within high-altitude and Antarctic environments, the seasonal temperature difference is often not sufficient to release meltwater. Because glacial mass is affected by long-term climatic changes, e.g., precipitation, mean temperature, and cloud cover, glacial mass changes are considered among the most sensitive indicators of climate change and are a major source of variations in sea level. A large piece of compressed ice, or a glacier, appears blue, as large quantities of water appear blue. This is because water molecules absorb other colors more efficiently than blue. The other reason for the blue color of glaciers is the lack of air bubbles. Air bubbles, which give a white color to ice, are squeezed out by pressure increasing the density of the created ice. Erosion

Rain - Snow

Beautiful Glaciers and Ice Photos

Some of Earth’s water may have existed before the Sun was born?

Deuterium is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen. The nucleus of deuterium, called a deuteron, contains one proton and one neutron, whereas the far more common hydrogen isotope, protium, has no neutron in the nucleus. Deuterium has a natural abundance in Earth's oceans of about one atom in 6420 of hydrogen.

What does a snowflake look like in zero gravity?

Snowflake Snowflakes is a single ice crystal that has achieved a sufficient size, and may have amalgamated with others, then falls through the Earth's atmosphere as snow. Each flake nucleates around a dust particle in supersaturated air masses by attracting supercooled cloud water droplets, which freeze and accrete in crystal form. Complex Shapes emerge as the flake moves through differing temperature and humidity zones in the atmosphere, such that individual snowflakes differ in detail from one another, but may be categorized in eight broad classifications and at least 80 individual variants. The main constituent shapes for ice crystals, from which combinations may occur, are needle, column, plate and rime. Snowflakes appear white in color despite being made of clear ice. This is due to diffuse reflection of the whole spectrum of light by the small crystal facets. Once snowflakes land and accumulate, they undergo metamorphosis with changes in temperature and coalesce into a snowpack. The characteristics of the snowpack reflect the changed nature of the constituent snow crystals.

Crystal is a Solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic Structure, forming a crystal Lattice that extends in all directions. In addition, macroscopic single crystals are usually identifiable by their geometrical shape, consisting of flat faces with specific, characteristic orientations. The scientific study of crystals and crystal formation is known as crystallography. The process of crystal formation via mechanisms of crystal growth is called crystallization or solidification.

Freezing is a phase transition in which a liquid turns into a solid when its temperature is lowered below its freezing point. For most substances, the melting and freezing points are the same temperature; however, certain substances possess differing solid–liquid transition temperatures.

Ice Cutting Experiment (youtube)

Regelation is the phenomenon of melting under pressure and freezing again when the pressure is reduced. Many sources state that regelation can be demonstrated by looping a fine wire around a block of ice, with a heavy weight attached to it.

What does Ice Crystals look like in Space?

Pattern Formation during Ice Crystal Growth?

What happens to Water in Space? (spheres)
Water in the Vacuum of Space

Fractals (symmetry)

Water Encapsulated in a Double Gelatinous Membrane.

Sodium alginate (E-401) from the brown algae and Calcium Chloride (E-509) in a concrete proportions in order to generate a gelification on the exterior of the liquid. The final package is simple, cheap (2ct/unit), resistant, hygienic, biodegradable and even eatable.

Green Career

Colored Ferrofluid Displays (youtube) The Illumination' is a large ferrofluid display with a light in the base and reflective colored ferrofluid.

Water Philosophy

Stand Like a Mountain, Flow Like Water

“Be like water making its way through cracks. Do not be assertive, but adjust to the object, and you shall find a way around or through it. If nothing within you stays rigid, outward things will disclose themselves. Empty your mind, be formless. Shapeless, like water. If you put water into a cup, it becomes the cup. You put water into a bottle and it becomes the bottle. You put it in a teapot, it becomes the teapot. Now, water can flow or it can crash. Be like water, my friend.” - (Bruce Lee)

"Everyone should experience water, and know what it feels like to swim like a fish. Either by snorkeling or by scuba diving. After all, we all were born in water, whether in the womb, or in the sea. Water is Life."

"The supreme goodness is like water. It benefits all things without contention. In dwelling, it stays grounded. In being, it flows to depths. In expression, it is honest. In confrontation, it stays gentle. In governance, it does not control. In action, it aligns to timing. It is content with its nature and therefore cannot be faulted." Tao Te Ching

Man and Son Standing on the Edge of a Sea

The Thinker Man