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Permaculture - Forest Garden

Forest Gardening is a low maintenance sustainable plant-based food production and agroforestry system based on woodland ecosystems, incorporating fruit and nut trees, shrubs, herbs, vines and perennial vegetables which have yields directly useful to humans. Making use of companion planting, these can be intermixed to grow in a succession of layers, to build a woodland habitat. Permaculture is a system of agricultural and social design principles centered on simulating or directly utilizing the patterns and features observed in natural ecosystems.


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Forest Garden with 1 Acre can Feed 5-10 People, only take 1 Day a Week Harvesting, and only 10 Days a Year Maintaining.

Forest GardenForest Gardening is a low-maintenance sustainable plant-based food production and agroforestry system based on woodland ecosystems, incorporating fruit and nut trees, shrubs, herbs, vines and perennial vegetables which have yields directly useful to humans. Making use of companion planting, these can be intermixed to grow in a succession of layers, to build a woodland habitat.

Edible Forest Gardens

Canopy (biology) is the aboveground portion of a plant community or crop, formed by the collection of individual plant crowns. In forest ecology, canopy also refers to the upper layer or habitat zone, formed by mature tree crowns and including other biological organisms (epiphytes, lianas, arboreal animals, etc.). Sometimes the term canopy is used to refer to the extent of the outer layer of leaves of an individual tree or group of trees. Shade trees normally have a dense canopy that blocks light from lower growing plants. Canopy structure is the organization or spatial arrangement (three-dimensional geometry) of a plant canopy. Leaf Area Index (LAI), leaf area per unit ground area, is a key measure used to understand and compare plant canopies. It is also taller than the understory layer. Canopy

Forest Ecology is the scientific study of the interrelated patterns, processes, flora, fauna and ecosystems in forests. The management of forests is known as forestry, silviculture, and forest management. A forest ecosystem is a natural woodland unit consisting of all plants, animals and micro-organisms (Biotic components) in that area functioning together with all of the non-living physical (abiotic) factors of the environment. The forest ecosystem is very important.

Silviculture is the practice of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, health, and quality of forests to meet diverse needs and values.

Trees and Shrubs offer new Food Crops to Diversify the Farm. A landscape should provide a variety of nutritious foods, high-quality habitat, and ecosystem services, while also delivering a healthy profit to the landowner.

Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, using, conserving, and repairing forests and associated resources to meet desired goals, needs, and values for human and environment benefits.

Layering has evolved as a common means of vegetative propagation of numerous species in natural environments. Layering is also utilized by horticulturists to propagate desirable plants. Natural layering typically occurs when a branch touches the ground, whereupon it produces adventitious roots. At a later stage the connection with the parent plant is severed and a new plant is produced as a result. The horticultural layering process typically involves wounding the target region to expose the inner stem and optionally applying rooting compounds. In ground layering or simple layering, the stem is bent down and the target region buried in the soil. This is done in plant nurseries in imitation of natural layering by many plants such as brambles which bow over and touch the tip on the ground, at which point it grows roots and, when separated, can continue as a separate plant. In either case, the rooting process may take from several weeks to a year. Layering is more complicated than taking cuttings, but has the advantage that the propagated portion continues to receive water and nutrients from the parent plant while it is forming roots. This is important for plants that form roots slowly, or for propagating large pieces. Layering is used quite frequently in the propagation of bonsai; it is also used as a technique for both creating new roots and improving existing roots. Pruning - Grafting

Plants for a Future

Sustainable Farming - Sustainable Landscaping - Vertical Farming

Films about Forest Gardening and Permaculture
Martin Crawford's 3 Dimensional Forest Garden (youtube 13 mins.)
300 Year Old Food Forest (youtube)
Forest Gardening Explained - Low Maintenance (youtube) 
"Permaculture Trio" -- Forest Gardening, Edible Landscapes & Urban Permaculture with Robert Hart (youtube) 
Shubhendu Sharma: How to Grow a Tiny Forest Anywhere (video)
Satoyama I Japans Secret Water Garden (youtube)
Satoyama (wiki)
A Permaculture Food Forest (youtube)
Permaculture Principles at Work (youtube)
Natural World: Farm for the Future (youtube)
Permaculture - A Quiet Revolution (video)
How to grow a forest in your backyard: Shubhendu Sharma (video and interactive text)
Stratification (vegetation) Shrub Layer - Sub-Tree Layer - Tree Layer - Canopy Layer

Swaleny is a edible forest garden on a floating platform barge that is 110-foot by 30-foot.  An Acre is 43,560 square feet.

Creating a Forest Garden: Working with Nature to Grow Edible Crops (Book on Amazon by Martin Crawford)


Forset Garden Layout Map Permaculture is a system of agricultural and social design principles centered on simulating or directly utilizing the patterns and features observed in natural ecosystems. Permaculture was developed, and the term coined by Bill Mollison and David Holmgren in 1978. It has many branches that include but are not limited to ecological design, ecological engineering, environmental design, construction and integrated water resources management that develops sustainable architecture, and regenerative and self-maintained habitat and agricultural systems modeled from natural ecosystems.

Perma-Culture Design

Polyculture is agriculture using multiple crops in the same space, in imitation of the diversity of natural ecosystems.

Common Circle
Earth Flow
Permaculture Video
Seattle Builds Nations First Food Forest
Seeds of Permaculture
Permaculture Education Cente
Home Biome


Edible Landscapes
Foraging Wild Foods

Moringa Oleifera young seed pods and leaves are used as vegetables. It can also be used for water purification and hand washing, and is sometimes used in herbal medicine. It is a fast-growing, drought-resistant tree, native to the southern foothills of the Himalayas in northwestern India. Moringa - Miracle Trees

Fruit Tree is a tree which bears fruit that is consumed or used by humans and some animals — all trees that are flowering plants produce fruit, which are the ripened ovaries of flowers containing one or more seeds. In horticultural usage, the term 'fruit tree' is limited to those that provide fruit for human food. Types of fruits are described and defined elsewhere (see Fruit), but would include "fruit" in a culinary sense, as well as some nut-bearing trees, such as walnuts.

Fruit Tree Planting - Tree Values

Edible Plants List (wiki)

Occidental Art & Ecology - The Land Institute

Urban Forestry is the care and management of single trees and tree populations in urban settings for the purpose of improving the urban environment. Urban forestry advocates the role of trees as a critical part of the urban infrastructure. Urban foresters plant and maintain trees, support appropriate tree and forest preservation, conduct research and promote the many benefits trees provide. Urban forestry is practiced by municipal and commercial arborists, municipal and utility foresters, environmental policymakers, city planners, consultants, educators, researchers and community activists.

Soil Testing - Botany (plants)


Plant Nursery is a place where plants are propagated and grown to usable size. They include retail nurseries which sell to the general public, wholesale nurseries which sell only to businesses such as other nurseries and to commercial gardeners, and private nurseries which supply the needs of institutions or private estates. Some retail and wholesale nurseries sell by mail. Nurseries may supply plants for gardens, for agriculture, for forestry and for conservation biology. Some nurseries specialize in one phase of the process: propagation, growing out, or retail sale; or in one type of plant: e.g., groundcovers, shade plants, or rock garden plants. Some produce bulk stock, whether seedlings or grafted, of particular varieties for purposes such as fruit trees for orchards, or timber trees for forestry. Some produce stock seasonally, ready in springtime for export to colder regions where propagation could not have been started so early, or to regions where seasonal pests prevent profitable growing early in the season.

Start a Plant Nursery Business
Start a Plant Nursery
Nursery Business
How to Start a Profitable Backyard Plant Nursery
Forest Farm
Walnut Tree Nursery (youtube)

Sawmill is a facility where logs are cut into lumber. Prior to the invention of the sawmill, boards were rived (split) and planed, or more often sawn by two men with a whipsaw, one above and another in a saw pit below.

Forest Protection

Gristmill grinds grain into flour. The term can refer to both the grinding mechanism and the building that holds it. (Sorghum Mill).

Farmers Markets

Land and Water Management

Danny Woo International District Community Garden Seattle, Wash.
Emergent Layer (tropical rainforest)
Ornamental Food Scapes

RuBisCO is an enzyme involved in the first major step of carbon fixation, a process by which atmospheric carbon dioxide is converted by plants and other photosynthetic organisms to energy-rich molecules such as glucose. In chemical terms, it catalyzes the carboxylation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (also known as RuBP). It is probably the most abundant enzyme on Earth.

Architecture of the photosynthetic oxygen-evolving center
Photosynthetic Vesicle Architecture and Constraints on Efficient Energy Harvesting

Temperate Agroforestry Research: considering multifunctional woody polycultures and the design of long-term field trials.

Agronomy Day is a collaborative field day hosted by the Department of Crop Sciences in partnership with several academic units in the College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences (ACES). From nitrogen management to drone demonstrations Agronomy Day shares cutting-edge research with practical implications for your farm or business. CEU and CCA credits are available during tour stops.

Edible Landscapes

Growing Food instead of Non-Edible Plants

Edible Lawns
Edible Landscaping
From Lawns to Edible Landscapes (youtube)
Edible Landscapes London
Plant Maintenance
Pam Warhurst Edible Landscapes (video)

The Thinker Man