Housing - Shelter - Buildings
that provides privacy and protection from danger or bad
. A place where people are cared for. A dwelling that serves as
living quarters for one or more families
Relating to or being where one lives or where one's roots are. Structures
collectively in which people are housed. A social unit living together.
where something began and flourished. A home
should be an Energy Generator
just an energy user.
- Big 5
dwelling-place used as a permanent or semi-permanent residence for an
individual, family, household or several families in a tribe. It is often
a house, apartment, or other building, or alternatively a mobile home,
houseboat, yurt or any other portable shelter. A principle of
constitutional law in many countries, related to the right to privacy
enshrined in article 12 of the
UN Declaration of Human Rights
inviolability of the home as an individual's place of shelter and
Homes typically provide areas and facilities for sleeping, preparing food,
eating and hygiene. Larger groups may live in a nursing home, children's
home, convent or any similar institution. A homestead also includes
and facilities for domesticated animals. Where more
secure dwellings are not available, people may live in the informal and
sometimes illegal shacks found in slums and shanty towns. More generally,
"home" may be considered to be a geographic area, such as a
, or country. Transitory
accommodation in a treatment facility for a few weeks is not normally
considered permanent enough to replace a more stable location as 'home'.
In 2005, 100 million people worldwide
estimated to be
is the residence where you have your permanent home or principal
establishment and to where, whenever you are absent, you intend to return;
every person is compelled to have one and only one domicile at a time.
Housing that someone is living in. Make one's home in a particular place
is ensuring that members of society have a home in
which to live, whether this is a house, or some other kind of dwelling,
lodging, or shelter.
is an aspect of philosophy researching into the experience of built space,
and as shorthand for architectural
phenomenology, a historical architectural movement.
- Sustainable HabitatSmart Homes
Tiny Small Homes
(hidden homeless) -
(safe places to build) -
Building a Home
Blocks) - Domes
Renovate - Reuse
is the process of
a broken, damaged, or
outdated structure. Renovations are typically either commercial or
residential. Additionally, renovation can refer to making something new,
or bringing something back to life and can apply in social contexts. For
example, a community
can be renovated if it is strengthened and revived.
Renovation and Modernization R&M.
(reuse) - Replacement and Modernization R&M
upgrading of mechanical, electrical, and plumbing systems and
other code-required work to make properties functional is appropriate
within a restoration project. Culture
is upgrading heating
, ventilation and
air conditioning systems
Upgrading rooms with luxuries, such as adding gourmet features to a
kitchen or a hot tub spa to a bathroom. Increasing the capacity of
plumbing and electrical systems. Waterproofing basements.
rooms, especially bedrooms and baths. Maintenance projects can include:
Roof tear-off and replacement. Concrete and masonry repairs to the
foundation and chimney. Repainting rooms, walls or fences. Repairing
plumbing and electrical systems
. Additional living space may be added by:
Turning marginal areas into livable spaces such as turning basements into
rec-rooms, home theaters, or home offices – or attics into spare bedrooms.
Extending one's house with rooms added to the side of one's home or,
sometimes, extra levels to the original roof. Saving energy and reduce
utility costs with: Energy-efficient thermal insulation, replacement
, and lighting. Renewable energy with biomass pellet stoves,
wood-burning stoves, solar panels
, wind turbines,
, and geothermal exchange heat pumps (see autonomous building).
Emergency preparedness safety measures such as: Home fire and burglar
alarm systems. Fire sprinkler systems to protect homes from fires.
Security doors, windows, and shutters. Storm cellars as protection from
tornadoes and hurricanes. Backup generators for providing power during
something to modern
needs or habits, typically by installing modern equipment or adopting
modern ideas or methods. Advance
is to Improve what was Old or
Outdated to a Higher Quality.
and resolution of
problems in a home, and is related to home
to avoid such problems.
is a community-based, volunteer-driven home repair program
that provides FREE repairs to low-income homeowners, thus enabling them to
remain in their homes with an improved quality of life. Currently serving
Fairfield, Hartford and New Haven Counties in Connecticut; and Westchester
County, New York. (800) 887-4673.
is to restore by replacing a part or
putting together what is torn or broken. The act of putting something in
working order again. Disrepair
something that needs to be repaired because it's worn out, broken or old
and in poor working condition due to
appliance parts, lawn equipment parts and consumer electronic parts. We
have over 2 million repair parts and carry all major brands.
Analyzing Building Performance
of an apartment complex or
a small hotel, typically one living on the premises. A hotel employee
whose job is to assist guests by arranging tours, making theater and
restaurant reservations, etc. An employee of an apartment building, hotel,
or office building. A modern concierge may also serve as a personal
lifestyle manager, like a secretary or an adjutant.
(where to build)
(maximize free energy)
is the status or attribution of being a lawful
permanent resident in a particular jurisdiction. A person can remain
domiciled in a jurisdiction even after he has left it, if he has
maintained sufficient links with that jurisdiction or has not displayed an
intention to leave permanently (i.e. if that person has moved to a
different state but has not yet formed an intention to remain there
indefinitely).Traditionally many common law jurisdictions considered a
person's domicile to be a determinative factor in the conflict of laws and
would, for example, only recognize a divorce conducted in another
jurisdiction if at least one of the parties were domiciled there at the
time it was conducted.
is something owned; any tangible or intangible
possession that is owned by someone. A construct whereby objects or individuals can be distinguished.
Affordable Housing is undefined. We should have Intelligent Housing. Housing not based on income, but output.
It's not where or how you get your money, but more importantly, it's the
measurable benefits from the services you provide.
500,000 are homeless and live on the streets on any given night in America
There are only three
neighborhoods in New York City. Around 270,000 homes are Torn Down Annually in the U.S..
Nearly 128 million residential housing units existed in the U.S.
in 2007. Approximately 7.188 million new housing units were built between 2005 and 2009.
is housing which is deemed affordable to those with a median household
Affordable Housing Alliance
Elderly Housing Assistance Programs
Affordable Housing and Senior Housing is not the same thing
Information for Senior Citizens
Fair Housing Act
Federal Programs for Addressing Low-Income Housing Needs
Public housing developments provide affordable homes to 2.1 million
The HOPE VI Program
serves a vital role in the Department of Housing
and Urban Development's efforts to transform Public Housing.
Nation’s State Housing Finance Agencies (HFAs) created the
National Council of State
Low-Income Housing Tax Credit
is a dollar-for-dollar tax credit in the
United States for affordable housing investments. It was created under
the Tax Reform Act of 1986 (TRA86) and gives incentives for the
utilization of private equity in the development of affordable housing
aimed at low-income Americans. LIHTC accounts for the majority
(approximately 90%) of all affordable rental housing created in the United
States today. As the maximum rent that can be charged is based upon the
Area Median Income ("AMI"), LIHTC housing remains unaffordable to many
low-income (<30% AMI) renters.
Overview of the
Low Income Housing Tax Credit Program
Kickback Scheme stole $34 million
from 14 tax credit projects,
including almost $2 million from Labre Place.
Per Capita Income
. Connecticut is the 4th richest state in the United
States of America with a per capita income $36,775 (2010). All data is
from the 2010 United States Census and the 2006-2010 American Community
Survey 5-Year Estimates.
Community Reinvestment Act
is intended to encourage depository
institutions to help meet the credit needs of the communities in which
they operate, including low- and moderate-income neighborhoods, consistent
with safe and sound operations. It was enacted by the Congress in 1977 (12
U.S.C. 2901) and is implemented by Regulation BB (12 CFR 228). The
regulation was substantially revised in May 1995 and updated again in
Residential Cluster Development
is the grouping of
residential properties on a development site in order to use the extra
land as open space
, recreation or
agriculture. It is increasingly becoming popular in subdivision
development because it allows the developer to spend much less on land and
obtain much the same price per unit as for detached houses. The shared
garden areas can be a source of conflict however. Claimed advantages
include more green/public space, closer community, and an optimal storm
water management. Cluster development often encounters planning
Factory Built Homes
Energy Efficient Homes
is a legal entity, usually a cooperative
or a corporation, which owns real estate, consisting of one or more
residential buildings; it is one type of housing tenure.
Why Condo's Suck
a large gathering of people sharing a
; An intentional
community of people living together, sharing common interests, often
having common values and beliefs, as well as
resources, and, in some communes, work and income and assets. In addition
to the communal economy, consensus decision-making, non-hierarchical
structures and ecological living have become important core principles for
Co-operative Living Arrangements
occur when three or
more biologically unrelated people choose to live together and share a
common residential structure. Typically, in these co-ops, several people
occupy a single dwelling unit, such as a large house, with each person (or
couple) having a private area, including a bedroom and, often, a bathroom.
In addition, the common areas of the dwelling usually include a shared
kitchen, dining room and living room plus, at times, recreation or outdoor
is an intentional community of private homes clustered around shared
space. Each attached or single family home has traditional amenities,
including a private kitchen. Shared spaces typically feature a common
house, which may include a large kitchen and dining area, laundry, and
recreational spaces. Shared outdoor space may include parking, walkways,
open space, and gardens. Neighbors also share resources like tools and
Specialized Housing: La Casa Permanent Supportive Housing
is when all the residents of the entire
apartment shared the use of the hallways, kitchen (commonly known as the
"communal kitchen"), bathroom and telephone (if any). The communal
apartment became the predominant form of housing in the USSR for
generations, and examples still exist in "the most fashionable central
districts of large Russian cities".
is to provide affordable housing.
is a combination of housing and
services intended as a cost-effective way to help people live more stable,
productive lives, and is an active "community services and funding" stream
across the United States.
is a house (frequently a family home)
in which lodgers rent one or more rooms for one or more nights, and
sometimes for extended periods of weeks, months, and years. The common
parts of the house are maintained, and some services, such as laundry and
cleaning, may be supplied. They normally provide "room and board," that
is, at least some meals as well as accommodation. A "lodging house," also
known in the United States as a "rooming house," may or may not offer
meals. Lodgers legally only obtain a license to use their rooms, and not
exclusive possession, so the landlord retains the right of access.
Room and Board
describes a situation where, in
exchange for money, labor or other considerations, a person is provided
with a place to live as well as meals on a comprehensive basis.
a building primarily providing sleeping and residential quarters for large
numbers of people, often boarding school, college or university students.
is a planned residential community designed from the start to have a high
degree of social cohesion and teamwork. The members of an intentional
community typically hold a common social, political, religious, or
spiritual vision and often follow an alternative lifestyle. They typically
share responsibilities and resources. Intentional communities include
collective households, cohousing communities, coliving, ecovillages,
monasteries, communes, survivalist retreats, kibbutzim, ashrams, and
housing cooperatives. New members of an intentional community are
generally selected by the community's existing membership, rather than by
real-estate agents or land owners (if the land is not owned collectively
by the community).
are traditional or intentional communities whose goal is to become more
socially, culturally, economically and ecologically sustainable.
Ecovillages are consciously designed through locally owned, participatory
processes to regenerate and restore their social and natural environments.
of the neighbourhoods that form Amsterdam Zuidoost ('Amsterdam
South-East') borough (or "stadsdeel") of Amsterdam, Netherlands. To many
people, the Bijlmer designation is used to refer to Amsterdam Zuidoost and
Diemen Zuid as a pars pro toto. The other neighbourhoods in Amsterdam
Zuidoost are Gaasperdam, Bullewijk, Venserpolder and Driemond. The
Bijlmermeer neighbourhood, which today houses almost 50,000 people of over
150 nationalities, was designed as a single project. The original
neighbourhood was designed as a series of nearly identical high-rise
buildings laid out in a hexagonal grid. The apartments were meant to
attract a suburban set, rather like condominium housing. The buildings
have several features that distinguish them from traditional Dutch
high-rise flats, such as tubular walkways connecting the flats and
garages. The blocks are separated by large green areas planted with grass
and trees. Each flat has its own garages where cars can be parked. The
Bijlmer was designed with two levels of traffic. Cars drive on the top
level, the decks of which fly over the lower level's pedestrian avenues
and bicycle paths. This separation of fast and slow moving traffic is
conducive to traffic safety. However, in recent years, the roads are once
again being flattened, so pedestrians, cycles and cars travel alongside
each other. This is a move to lessen the effects of the 'inhuman' scale of
some of the Bijlmer's designs. It is felt a direct line of sight will also
improve safety from muggers. Because of the Bijlmer's peripheral position
relative to the city centre, it was decided that metro lines would be
built connecting the Bijlmer with other neighbourhoods. The Oostlijn (east
line, comprising two lines, numbered 53 and 54) links the Bijlmer to the
Central Station of Amsterdam, while the Ringlijn links it with the port
area at Sloterdijk.
Housing and Community Development
Moshe Safdie: How to Reinvent the Apartment Building
and Affordable: New Options in Factory-Built Housing
Theaster Gates: How to Revive a Neighborhood with imagination
Beauty and Art
Rental Housing Crisis
Rent to Own Homes
Energy Study InstituteBig
5 NeedsU.S. Department of
Splitting the Rent Accurately
51.2 million people around the world live as
and are living under forced displacement. "internally displaced
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
I love the
Young Shelter Box
idea, especially if you also put a
in the box. I would call it the Shelter Box with Hope,
with Hope standing for ' H
ducation '. You have to give people the
necessary information and knowledge that is needed to recover and rebuild after a
, or from any man made disaster, like
Solar Powered Flat Pack Refugee Shelters, Easily
Deployable Emergency Housing
Shigeru Ban: Emergency Shelters Made From Paper
Shigeru Ban Architects
Engineering Knowledge and Tools
Port A Bach
Refugee Wearable Dwelling
is a temporary shelter
consisting of sheets of fabric or other material draped over,
attached to a frame of poles or attached to a supporting rope. While
smaller tents may be free-standing or attached to the ground, large tents
are usually anchored using guy ropes tied to stakes or tent pegs. First
used as portable homes by nomadic peoples, tents are now more often used
for recreational camping and temporary shelters.
Severe Weather Pods for Underground Emergency Shelter and
Floors for Shelters to help people stay off ground that
is prone to getting wet
Micro- Home Solutions
mHS City Lab - 100 SHELTERS Tent
Delhi Urban Shelter Improvement Board
Social Service Society
Emergency Shelter Types
Building an Emergency Shelter with Whatever You
How To Build An A-Frame Shelter
How to Build an
Terra Vivos High End Advanced Underground Shelters
Atlas Survival Shelters
is a defensive fortification designed
to protect people or valued materials from falling bombs or other attacks.
Bunkers are mostly underground, compared to blockhouses which are mostly
above ground. Bunkers can also be used as protection from
, or used as command
and control centers, or storage facilities.
De-Markies Expandable Camper
Building a Tiled Roof Hut
Learn how to transition from a temporary
to a sustainable
is 8 x 8 x 40 feet, weighs around 8,600
lbs. and Holds 3 to 10 people. (17 Million Worldwide). Around 11
million available. The inside of a used container should be stripped and
sandblasted to remove all contaminates.
High Cube shipping containers
are 9 feet 6 inches
tall on the exterior. They are 1 foot taller than standard height containers.
They are also 8 feet 6 inches wide, making them 6 inches wider than standard containers
as well. Earthquake Safety
can deliver 10,000
Top 15 Pros and
Cons of Building a Shipping Container House in 2017
Incredible 20ft Shipping Container Home
or COR-TEN Steel
and sometimes written without the hyphen as corten steel,
is a group of steel alloys which were developed to eliminate the need for
painting, and form a stable rust-like appearance if exposed to the weather
for several years.
We can also use the same Shelter Box idea using
. Instant Homes that are up and
running with almost everything that you need to live and work.
Shipping Containers filled with food, water and
, medicine, educational material,
How to Books,
Efficient Cooking Stoves
, seeds, tools,
supplies, tents and building material. And then the same
Shipping Containers can be used as a home or put
together to build classrooms and Doctors offices.
complex built out of recycled shipping containers
, houses some of the
40,000 homeless vets.
could also be a Garden.
Shipping Container can also be used for
Indoor Hydroponic Farming
Private Sleeping Quarters
are some people who have ideas on how
Shipping Container Homes can look.
Shipping Container Homes
Shipping Container Homes
Container Home Plans
Containers 2 Clinics
Reaction Housing System Exo Shelter
Mobile home - EBS block-expandable building system block
3-IN-1 Foldable Shelter Deployment
Micro Compact Home
Seabox Containerized Shelters
Shipping Container Cabin
Refugee First Response
Shipping Container Homes Beautiful Luxury
constructed entirely from 6 recycled shipping
containers, the two-story, 2,192-square-foot structure includes three
bedrooms, an open-plan living/kitchen/dining area, office with built-in
desk, plus a steel spiral staircase that leads to a rooftop deck with
panoramic views. Location: Denver,
Colorado Price: $749,000
Everyone should have
, just incase you need to move in a
Being able to move
homes can get people closer to jobs, especially seasonal jobs. Mobile
homes can also move people during emergencies and
. We could have
fleets that will automatically move homes and
people from harms way like during floods
Small Houses - Tiny Homes
Singles, Couples, Small Family
Small House Movement
is a description for the
architectural and social movement that advocates
Tiny House Association
Tiny Home Builders
Tiny House Build
The Tiny Home
How to Build a Small House
Alternative Living Spaces
Cornerstone Tiny Homes
Four Lights Houses
Tiny Homes with a Big Impact
Mobile Loaves & Fishe
Quick Cheap Cube
Worlds First Tiny House Hotel
Cabin Spacey - Home Anywhere! Smart Urban Pioneers
Tiny House Design
Alpha Tiny Homes
Covo Mio Tiny
The Alpha Tiny
House Has It All
is a self-contained apartment in an owner occupied
single-family home / lot that is either attached to the principal dwelling
or in a separate structure on the same property. In British English the
term "annexe" is used instead, or accessory dwelling units or granny flat.
My Favorite Tiny House on a Trailer >
344 sq/ft. (35' including hitch) x 8.5'W x 13'5"H. - 11,000-13,000 lbs.
Traveler XL Tiny House
, maybe add a
Fold Out Extension
with glass sides, or a fold down deck?
x 8.5'W x 13'6"H, up to 355 Sq.ft. Introductory Price: $73,400.
The Fontana (8’x24′) by
Cornerstone Tiny Homes
Or some combination of all three using
(image) - Building Air and Moisture Barriers
Systems Premade that are Lighter and more Durable
then Wood Frames
buildings anywhere in the world, onsite and offsite construction.
is a category of steel used for making
variety of shapes. Many structural steel shapes take the form of an
elongated beam having a profile of a specific cross section. Structural
steel shapes, sizes, chemical composition, mechanical properties such as
strengths, storage practices, etc., are regulated by standards in most
industrialized countries. Most structural steel shapes, such as I-beams,
have high second moments of area, which means they are very stiff in
respect to their cross-sectional area and thus can support a high load
without excessive sagging.
(Steel C-Studs - Metal Studs).
Dimensions - Rules and Regulations
vehicle that is bent upwards towards the ends, i.e. the centre is
'dropped'. This gives two advantages: the centre of gravity of the
bodywork is lowered, relative to the wheels, which improves stability;
secondly the wheels may be of larger diameter, giving a smoother ride over
a rough surface.
House With 1st Floor Bedroom + Full Kitchen
Benefits of Living in a Smaller Home
Less Maintenance, Less Energy
, Less Furniture to
purchase, Less opportunity to accumulate stuff that you
Less clutter, Easier to organize,
Less cleaning time, Less indoor pollution, Less
environmental impact, Less financial risk,
Easier to Move and Relocate. More time for being
Outside. Small is Big.
Having a little is having little to lose,
it's also having very little that someone can take from you or steel from
you. Having a lot means you have a lot to lose, and it's also having a lot
that someone can take from you or steal from you. Your
Intelligence is not measured by how many things that you have, it's
measured by how many things that you have under your control. And not just
in control of the material world, but also in control of the
living proves that people really don't need a lot to live comfortably,
it's more about the quality then quantity."
material form or substance
consisting of matter. Tiny
Houses Benefits Info-Graphic
It's not really
Downsizing, it's more about Realizing, realizing that you had too much
Water Saving Technologies
is a great Air B&B warning video and a good argument for
why Tiny Homes makes perfect sense. New guests or new friends can
sometimes spiral out of control and turn your life into complete chaos, or
perceived chaos. This is one of the reasons why living in a tiny house can
be so beneficial. When you have very little space to offer, people will
seldom impose. When you have a lot of space that you're not using, then
you sometimes fill that space with things that you don't need. And you
sometimes just want to share what you have because you have more than what
you need. But most people never consider the reasons why they have so much
to begin with. Inviting people into your home is sometimes the same thing
as inviting people into your life. Having more is only beneficial when you
use everything effectively and efficiently, otherwise it becomes wasted
space and a sign of ignorant consumption. The movie of course was much
more than this. It was mostly about the fears that some women have. It was
filled with too many contradictions, just like peoples fears are, which
make no sense at all. So
if you remove the fabric of time
, the entire
movie is all about a women's fears that were dramatically portrayed and
condensed into a 2 hour movie. Horror
movies can be dangerous
My $500 house in Detroit — and the neighbors who helped me rebuild it:
(video and text)
Space Saving Furniture ideas
Furniture for Small Spaces
Dual Purpose Space Saving Furniture
Eight Rooms from 350 Square Feet Apartment
Utilizing Small Spaces
Open Concept Modern
Tiny House with Elevator Bed
Kent Larson: Brilliant
Designs to Fit more People in every City
Folding Wall Bed Designs
Inside Photos a Small Apartment around 360 Square Feet
Videos of People
building Tiny Houses
We The Tiny House People
(Documentary): Small Homes, Tiny Flats & Wee Shelters
What Not To Do On A Tiny House Build (the good and bad
of a small home on wheels)
Community and Access to Tools on Sustainable Culture
Videos with Great Ideas for Small Homes
Tiny home packs storage stairs, 2 lofts, tub in 136 sq
Couple Builds Own Tiny House on Wheels in 4 Months for
MiniHome Walk-Through with David Suzuki
Graham Hill Living with Less Stuff
The Caravan Tube House
Spaghetti Western on Lean Urbanism
Documentary featuring Paolo Soleri (Arcosanti), Brad
“Darby” Kittel (Tiny Texas Houses), Patrick Kennedy (CITYSPACES
microapartments, Panoramic Interests), John Wells (Field
Lab), Luke Iseman
(Boxouse), Tom Duke (EarthshipsBiotecture), Stephanie
Schull (shelter program, Frank Lloyd Wright School of
Architecture), Ben Berto (principal planner, Marin
County), Johnny Sanphillippo (granolashotgun.com,
mortgage-free home), Begin Tollas family (Arcosanti),
Rawaf al Rawaf (Arcosanti), Mimi Webb Miller (Terlingua
How Airplanes Are
Designed To Feel Bigger On The Inside
The Monocle Is A
Lucky Couple's Dream Tiny House
Tiny House Listings
Tiny House Direct
Tiny Home Supercenter
Titan Tiny Homes
(Illinois Chicago - $55,000)Factory Built
Build your Own
Tiny House Hot Water Heaters- options, pros and cons
Homes that use 41
gallons or less of hot water daily, Tankless Water Heaters can be 24% to
34% more energy-efficient than storage tank heaters.
On Demand Hot Water
120v Electric Point of Use
Tankless Water Heater
Propane Water Heater
Vented Propane Fireplace
Tiny Homes Competition Winner Announced!
Chicago Tiny Home Summit
Can also use the same idea on
Prefab Modular Homes
made from recycled material
How to Build a 12 x 20 Cabin
Plastic Soda Bottles become Light Source
Architecture for Humanity
has great ideas using a global network of building
Factor e Farm
Wind Storm OSB
Open Architecture Network
Bungalow in a Box
Eco-Friendly Mobile Homes for Trailer Parks
Green Homes for Trailer Parks
are specialist dwelling types of prefabricated
building, which are manufactured off-site in advance, usually in standard
sections that can be easily shipped and assembled. Some current prefab
home designs include architectural details inspired by postmodernism or
is the practice of assembling components of a structure in a factory or
other manufacturing site, and transporting complete assemblies or
sub-assemblies to the construction site where the structure is to be
panelization - is the process of building a modular wall, roof and floor
sections in an environmentally controlled manufacturing facility and
delivering them to the construction site for installation. Due to being
constructed in a highly controlled environment, you can expect the
following from panelized construction: Lower job site waste from rejected
low grades of lumber. More consistent quality and construction. A lower
chance of theft from a job site.
are sectional prefabricated buildings, or houses,
that consist of multiple sections called modules. "Modular" is a method of
construction differing from other methods of building. The module sections
are constructed at an off site (sometimes, remote) facility, then
delivered to the intended site of use. Complete construction of the
prefabricated sections are completed on site. The prefabricated sections
are sometimes lifted and placed on basement walls using a crane, the
module prefabricated sections are set onto the building's foundation and
joined together to make a single building. The modules can be placed
side-by-side, end-to-end, or stacked, allowing a wide variety of
configurations and styles in the building layout.
delivers pre-cut materials on site.
construction system is an unfoldable modular living unit
that can be setup in a couple of days.
self-deploying folding systems and re-locatable buildings.
is a low cost, sustainable, rapidly deployable, long stay
and dignified house which is shipped in pieces and assembled by the end
users. The basic building components are galvanized tube steel for the
base, structural insulated metal panel for walls, floor and roof and can
be customizes with conventional interior and exterior finishes.
self-sustainable smart house powered solely by solar and wind energy. It
allows you to live off-the-grid, with the luxury of a hotel room.
are eco-conscious and proudly manufactured in British Columbia, Canada for
easy DIY assembly.
Forta Modular Residential Building Construction
modular construction technique which allows us to build ecologically clean
and sustainable buildings, while saving energy and time
Factory Built Home
Pre Built Tiny
House on Trailer
Advanced Prefabricated Architecture
mobile, durable and practical with an aluminum exterior and a minimalistic
interior. (37.8' X 10.8' X 10.8').
Prefabrication maximises efficiency, speed and sustainability.
(designed, built, delivered and assembled)
Vipp Shelter Tiny
Prefab as Precise Industrial-era Appliance
prefab tiny home by Morten
Bo Jensen. Modules are transported by truck to the site.
are pre-built micro
home designs, 300 square-feet and 10.5-foot ceilings, giant
floor-to-ceiling windows, and optimized storage that makes the home feels twice
as big. Smart Home
Total Area: 470 sq. ft. Size: 44'x17'
How 16 containers
became 8 market-rate Phoenix Apartments
Small Homes can be Prebuilt and Delivered
Tiny House Kits
that comes with everything you need for assembling
your tiny house, including every screw and window. You put your house
together like a puzzle. You’ll get walls, roofing, flooring, windows and
doors, all in place, delivered to your site. You’re left with just the
interior finishing and decorating.
China can build a 18 story building in around 2 weeks by using premade
. Creating apartments for 1,100 people.
We need Houses that can be Assembled and
This way homes can be easily transported, and people
can move when needed. Just think, a City of Modular Homes that is Fully
Survival Pods or Yurt
Great for places that have major
. Because now you can move away from danger and
then return when the area is safe again. And of course
can be used to
help mobilize people when needed.
Tiny House Plans for Families
designs and produces homes, cabins, barns and garages that are
specifically designed for assembly by amateur owner-builders. We will work
with you to turn your ideas into a building that meets your specific
requirements. A team of two people can assemble one of our cabins in about
Artisan Tiny House
Plans with Step by Step Process that Makes Building
Your Project Easy, Fast and Affordable.
highly customizable post and beam timber frame storage sheds,
garden sheds, storage-shed kitsand prefab cottages.
log cabin kits feature open floor plans and do not include
interior walls, insulation, kitchen, bathroom, electric and dormers. Most
of these items are available for purchase with your kit as options, please
contact us for a quote.
Tiny House Family
How to Build a Shelter
How to Build and
Frame Tiny House Walls: Ana White Tiny House Build [Episode 3]
Your Own House - (VPRO Documentary - 2013)
Natural Building Material
Amphibian Houses for Rising Water
- Building Tools
Sketch Up 3D Drawing Software
Pronto House Disassembly
Assemble and Disassemble Container House
Nomad Micro Home easily Assembled under 30k
House Open Source Home Building Kit
Use the most
advanced building design knowledge available that would
make the home energy efficient, healthy, easy to
maintain, comfortable, functional and suited for
. Some house
designs are inefficient in a particular area.
Use the best building materials that are available that
are sustainable, state-of-the art, healthy and long lasting. The building
should also be easy to repurpose, be customizable, be
reusable and easy to recycle.
and style that would beautify the inside and
out without wasting materials, or without adding any
instability to the structure, or make any of the
buildings functions less practical.
Form Follows Function
Patterns are only one approach
to providing guidance in design. Properties of good
Nature of Order
) are supportive of life and growth.
Structure Follows Strategy
Architectural Model Building Kits
Green Building Ideas
1. Levels of scale.
2. Strong centers.
4. Alternating repetition.
5. Positive space.
6. Good shape.
7. Local symmetries.
8. Deep interlock and ambiguity.
13. The Void.
14. Simplicity and Inner Calm.
Futuristic Building Designs
Thinking Outside the Box
Passive House: Triple vs Double Pane Windows
National Fenestration Rating Council
exits in case
Low-Temp Production Could Mean Cheaper, Flexible Smart Windows
have the ability to control both heat and light from the sun.
is a glass or glazing whose light transmission properties are
altered when voltage, light or heat is applied. Generally, the glass
changes from translucent to transparent, changing from blocking some (or
all) wavelengths of light
to letting light pass through. Smart glass
, suspended particle,
micro-blind and polymer dispersed liquid crystal devices. When installed
in the envelope of buildings, smart glass creates climate adaptive
building shells, with the ability to save costs for heating,
air-conditioning and lighting and avoid the cost of installing and
maintaining motorized light screens or blinds or curtains. Blackout smart
glass blocks 99.4% of ultraviolet light
, reducing fabric fading; for SPD-type
smart glass, this is achieved in conjunction with low emissivity coatings.
Critical aspects of smart glass include material costs, installation
costs, electricity costs and durability, as well as functional features
such as the speed of control, possibilities for dimming, and the degree of
transparency. Smart Windows
shading and solar thermal energy
harvesting. Liquids in windows and
façades can be loaded with the nanoscale magnetic iron particles.
Smart Glass Technology
Engineers develop eco-friendly panels that
switch from transparent to opaque. Someday we won’t need curtains or
blinds on our windows, and we will be able to block out light—or let it
in—with just the press of a button.
Measures how well a product prevents heat from escaping.
The lower the U-factor, the better a product is at
keeping heat inside the building.
The rate at which a window, door, or skylight conducts
non-solar heat flow. It's usually expressed in units of
For windows, skylights, and glass doors, a U-factor may
refer to just the glass or glazing alone.
measures the resistance to heat loss. R-value is a
measure of conductance and resistance.
NFRC U-factor ratings, however, represent the entire
window performance, including frame and spacer material.
The lower the U-factor, the more energy-efficient the
window, door, or skylight.
Solar Heat Gain
Measures how much heat from the sun is blocked.
The fraction of solar radiation admitted through a
window, door, or skylight -- either transmitted directly
and/or absorbed, and subsequently released as heat
inside a home. The lower the SHGC, the less solar heat
it transmits and the greater its shading ability. A
product with a high SHGC rating is more effective at
collecting solar heat during the winter. A product with
a low SHGC rating is more effective at reducing cooling
loads during the summer by blocking heat gain from the
sun. Your home’s climate, orientation, and external
shading will determine the optimal SHGC for a particular
window, door, or skylight. For more information about
SHGC and windows, see passive solar window design.
Measures how much outside air comes into a home or
building through a product.
The rate of air movement around a window, door, or
skylight in the presence of a specific pressure
difference across it. It's expressed in units of cubic
feet per minute per square foot of frame area (cfm/ft2).
A product with a low air leakage rating is tighter than
one with a high air leakage rating.
Measures the amount of water and pressure that a window
can resist to keep the water from leaking through it.
The higher the water infiltration rating, the better the
window is at resisting water leakage
Measures how well a product resists the formation of
condensation. Condensation resistance is expressed as a
number between 1 and 100. The higher the number, the
better a product is able to resist condensation.
The ability of glazing in a window, door, or skylight to
transmit sunlight into a home can be measured and rated
according to the following energy performance
The fraction of the visible spectrum of sunlight (380 to
720 nanometers), weighted by the sensitivity of the
human eye, that is transmitted through the glazing of a
window, door, or skylight. A product with a higher VT
transmits more visible light. VT is expressed as a
number between 0 and 1. The VT you need for a window,
door, or skylight should be determined by your home's
day lighting requirements and/or whether you need to
reduce interior glare in a space.
The ratio between the SHGC and VT. It provides a gauge
of the relative efficiency of different glass or glazing
types in transmitting daylight while blocking heat
gains. The higher the number, the more light transmitted
without adding excessive amounts of heat. This energy
performance rating isn't always provided.
This advanced glass design features an innovative
exterior coating that, when activated by sunlight,
reduces water spots by up to 99 percent. It comes
standard on Andersen 400 Series products. Depending on
the home's location, Low-E4 glass can reduce energy
bills by up to 25 percent when compared to ordinary
Not all Low-E coatings are created equal, nor is the
Low-E coating on glass units manufactured today the same
as it was as recently as two or three years ago.
Advances in glass coatings technology and stronger
regional energy code requirements have helped to create
a new generation and more sophisticated array of Low-E
Solar Heat Gain can also be controlled by the use
of Low-E coatings combined with the use of tints, and
can even be influenced by which glass surface the Low-E
coating is placed upon. Additionally, since less than ½
of the total solar energy spectrum is visible to the
human eye, solar performance of glass can be visually
(low e or low thermal emissivity)
refers to a surface condition that emits low levels of
radiant thermal (heat) energy. All materials absorb,
reflect and emit radiant energy, but here, the primary
concern is a special wavelength interval of radiant
energy, namely thermal radiation of materials with
temperatures approximately between 40 to 60 degrees
that blocks 95 percent of ultraviolet rays that can
damage furniture, carpets, and wall coverings.
Structural Performance Rating
Measures the amount of air pressure (wind load) a window
can resist before failing. The amount of structural
pressure ratings required for windows in your area is
often determined by local code requirements. The higher
the structural performance ratings, the more wind load a
window can resist.
Measures the amount of
through a window. The higher the
sound transmission rating, the better the product is at
blocking noise from coming through the window.
Measures the ability of a
window to resist different types of forces. For example,
there are burglar-resistant windows, fire-resistant
windows, bullet-resistant windows, wind-borne
debris-resistant windows, and many others. Many of these
products have special uses for different building types
and may be covered by local building code requirements.
What are the other options to
consider when shopping for windows?
In addition to the NFRC Label, ratings comparisons, and
ENERGY STAR, buyers may consider a number of other
factors when choosing windows. These include: air
infiltration, water infiltration, structural
performance, acoustical performance, security
performance, product cost, and warranty. Product cost
and warranties are issues to be considered when making
any major purchase, and this information is available
from the window distributor or manufacturer
Acoustical Window Inserts
Transparent wood Windows are Cooler than Glass
is a type of window covering. There are many different
kinds of window blinds which use a variety of control systems. A typical
window blind is made up of several long horizontal or vertical slats of
various types of hard material, including wood, plastic or metal which are
held together by cords that run through the blind slats. Window blinds can
be maneuvered with either a manual or remote control by rotating them from
an open position, with slats spaced out, to a closed position where slats
overlap and block out most of the light. There are also several types of
window coverings, called shades, that use a single piece of soft material
instead of slats. The term window blinds can also be used to describe
window coverings generically—in this context window blinds include almost
every type of window covering, i.e. shutters, roller blinds, cellular
shades (also called honeycomb shades), wood blinds (also called 2 inch
horizontals), Roman blinds and standard vertical and horizontal blinds
(also called Venetians). In the United Kingdom, awnings are sometimes
called blinds or shades.
is a piece of cloth intended to block or obscure light, or
drafts, or water in the case of a shower curtain. A curtain is also the
movable screen or drape in a theater that separates the stage from the
auditorium or that serves as a backdrop.
Location, Location -
Knowing where you build.
You have to carefully plan where you should build a
because the location of a house is extremely important. Knowing
your options and your choices can make all the
Things to consider when
choosing land to build a Home or a City
Rivers, Lakes and Water
Sheds: What is upstream and down stream. Is your
home close to clean
? How much
in a year? What types of storms happen? Expected weather? Climate change predictions? Wind Patterns?
is an overflow of water
that submerges land which is
usually dry. A covering by water of land not normally covered by water. In
the sense of "flowing water", the word may also be applied to the inflow
of the tide. Flooding may occur as an overflow of water from water bodies,
such as a river, lake, or ocean, in which the water overtops or breaks
levees, resulting in some of that water escaping its usual boundaries, or
it may occur due to an Accumulation of Rainwater
on saturated ground in an
areal flood. While the size of a lake or other body of water will vary
with seasonal changes in precipitation and snow melt
, these changes in
size are unlikely to be considered significant unless they flood property
or drown domestic animals. Floods can also occur in rivers when the flow
rate exceeds the capacity of the river channel, particularly at bends or
meanders in the waterway. Floods often cause damage to homes and
businesses if they are in the natural flood plains of rivers. While
riverine flood damage can be eliminated by moving away from rivers and
other bodies of water, people have traditionally lived and worked by
rivers because the land is usually flat and fertile and because rivers
provide easy travel and access to commerce and industry. Some floods
develop slowly, while others such as flash floods, can develop in just a
few minutes and without visible signs of Rain
. Additionally, floods can be
local, impacting a neighborhood or community, or very large, affecting
entire river basins.Inundation
is the rising of a body of water and its overflowing onto normally dry land.
reduces the risk of a shorelines vulnerability to
wave damage, flooding and erosion
. Rather than create a wall between
people and water.
is an experiment in the management of dynamic coastline. It is
run off South Holland in the Netherlands. A
was created by humans; the surface is about 1
km². It is expected that this sand is then moved over the years by the
action of waves, wind and currents along the coast. To protect the West of
the Netherlands against the sea, the beaches along the coast are
artificially replenished every five years, and it is expected that the
sand engine will make replenishment along the Delfland Coast unnecessary
for the next 20 years. This method is expected to be more cost effective
and also helps nature by reducing the repeated disruption caused by
is a Flood Hazard Area that is lower than
the Base Flood Elevation. V zones are the most hazardous of the Special
Flood Hazard Areas.
- River Partners
River Protection and Preservation
refers to an
alternative flood mitigation strategy that allows an otherwise-ordinary
structure to float on the surface of rising floodwater rather than succumb
Why not build
in flood zones. This way when the floods come your house
floats instead of gets water damaged or destroyed. You can cover the
bottom part of the
with a deck and have the
floating homes and ecosystems.
Floating Villas, Zeewolde
Barcode Architects - Sluishuis-2
Dutch Docklands - Amillarah
is the part of the year during which local weather conditions (i.e.
rainfall and temperature) permit normal plant growth. What crops can be grown?
Quality of the Land
divides climates into five
main climate groups: A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D
(continental), and E (polar). The second letter indicates the seasonal
precipitation type, while the third letter indicates the level of heat.
Global Warming Risk for 327 toxic Superfund
Nearly 2 million people in the U.S. who live within a mile
of 327 Superfund sites in areas prone to flooding or vulnerable to
sea-level rise caused by climate change. Mostly in low-income, heavily
minority neighborhoods. Risk
City Development Plans
Environmental Impact Assessment
is the assessment of
the environmental consequences (positive and negative) of a plan, policy,
program, or actual projects
prior to the decision to move forward with the proposed action.
is a temporary change in environmental conditions that
causes a pronounced change in an ecosystem. Disturbances often act quickly
and with great effect, to alter the physical structure or arrangement of
biotic and abiotic elements. Disturbance can also occur over a long period
of time and can impact the biodiversity within an ecosystem. Major
ecological disturbances may include fires, flooding, windstorms, insect
outbreaks and trampling. Earthquakes, various types of volcanic eruptions,
tsunami, firestorms, impact events, climate change, and the devastating
effects of human impact on the environment (anthropogenic disturbances)
such as clearcutting, forest clearing and the introduction of invasive
species can be considered major disturbances. Disturbance forces can have
profound immediate effects on ecosystems and can, accordingly, greatly
alter the natural community. Because of these and the impacts on
populations, disturbance determines the future shifts in dominance,
various species successively becoming dominant as their life history
characteristics, and associated life-forms, are exhibited over time.
Jet Plane Traffic
Air Travel Pollution
What is upwind and downwind?
is the direction upwind (toward where the
wind is coming from) from the point of reference. Leeward is the direction
downwind (or downward) from the point of reference.
Large trees that
could fall on your house?
History of the Land
Coal Power Plants
, Gas Power Plants,
National Laboratories or
Laws and Regulations
Engineering Methods for Detecting Sinkholes.
borings or other direct testing - Borings can be
reduced by reconnaissance scanning's using the following
Electromagnetics (EM) and DC Resistivity: detect
variations in subsurface electrical properties related
to anomalously thick or wet soils (electrical
conductivity highs similar to our use of moisture meters
in homes), or voids in the electrically conductive clay
soil mantle (electrical conductivity lows).
How Do Sinkholes
(SP): detects naturally-occurring
minute electrical currents or potentials commonly
associated with concentrated vertical water infiltration
: detects minute variation in
(subsurface voids create missing mass and lower gravity).
Seismic Refraction: profiles the top-of-rock which may
display conical depressions of a type associated with
subsidence sinks or deep gouges or cutters which
represent sinkhole-prone lineaments.
is a geophysical method that uses radar pulses to image the subsurface.
This nondestructive method uses electromagnetic radiation in the microwave
band (UHF/VHF frequencies) of the radio spectrum, and detects the
reflected signals from subsurface structures. GPR can have applications in
a variety of media, including rock, soil, ice, fresh water, pavements and
structures. In the right conditions, practitioners can use GPR to detect
subsurface objects, changes in material properties, and voids and cracks.
Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery
a radar technique used in
and remote sensing
geodetic method uses two or more synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images to
generate maps of surface deformation or digital elevation, using
differences in the phase of the waves returning to the satellite or
aircraft. The technique can potentially measure millimetre-scale changes
in deformation over spans of days to years. It has applications for
geophysical monitoring of natural hazards, for example
, volcanoes and
landslides, and in structural engineering, in particular monitoring of
subsidence and structural stability. (InSAR)
Uninhabited Airborne Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar
of soil particles from within a dam by water that
seeps through the dam is one of the most common causes of failure of
levees and earth dams. Internal erosion is especially dangerous because
there may be no external evidence, or only subtle evidence, that it is
taking place. Usually a sand boil can be found, but the boil might be
hidden under water. A dam may breach within a few hours after evidence of
internal erosion becomes obvious. Internal erosion manifests by the
migration of soil particles by suffusion or piping. Piping is induced by
regressive erosion of particles from downstream and along the upstream
line towards an outside environment until a continuous pipe is formed.
Suffusion is the migration of soil particles through the soil matrix.
Solid Ground that may not be so Solid.
Expansive soils cause more property damage per year than earthquakes,
floods, hurricanes, and tornadoes combined.
is a clay or soil
that is prone to large volume
changes (swelling and shrinking) that are directly related to changes in
water content. Soils with a high content of expansive minerals can form
deep cracks in drier seasons or years; such soils are called vertisols.
Soils with smectite clay minerals, including montmorillonite and bentonite,
have the most dramatic shrink-swell capacity. This type of clay that is
known as a lightweight aggregate with a rounded structure, with a porous
inner, and a resistant and hard outer layer. What is the Swell Pressure of
is a soil in which there is a high content of expansive clay
known as montmorillonite that forms deep cracks in drier seasons or years.
Alternate shrinking and swelling causes self-mulching, where the soil
material consistently mixes itself, causing vertisols to have an extremely
deep A horizon and no B horizon. (A soil with no B horizon is called an
A/C soil). This heaving of the underlying material to the surface often
creates a microrelief known as gilgai.
How Soil Destroys
or uneven settlement, occurs when the soil beneath a
structure can not bear the weights imposed. The settlement of a structure
is the amount that the structure will “sink” during and after
construction. Differential settlements become a big problem when the
foundation settles unevenly.
is a system of pipes used to convey fluids (liquids and gases) from one
location to another. The engineering discipline of piping design studies
the efficient transport of fluid.
Do you live next to an as*hole?
This is Kiruna: How to Move a City
Hidden, Abandoned, Dangerous: Old Gas And Oil Wells In
(Local Arial Topo Maps - 500 Mile Radius
Aerial Photos showing how the Land Changes over time
Other Factors to Consider when
looking for a home to settle down:
Schools, Roads, Airports,
Culture, Entertainment, Lifestyle, Recreational
How many people can the land sustain without help from
other states or countries?
population growth? What
available that are renewable?
Where will your
Owner Finance a Home
Title Company - No Liens - Verified Owner -
1 acre of land - flat usable area
Land Use Rules
- Zoning Regulations
describes how a section of land can be used within a set of rules that
helps protect the land, and also protects other people living nearby from
land being misused.
involves the management and modification of natural environment or
wilderness into built environment such as settlements and semi-natural
habitats such as arable fields, pastures, and managed woods. It also has
been defined as "the total of arrangements, activities, and inputs that
people undertake in a certain land cover type.
regulates land use in an efficient and ethical way,
thus preventing land-use conflicts.
Everyone should have the right to live in a home that is
Buying LandCity Planning
The relative physical position or direction of your Home.
Design your house for the whole year.
Building Orientation for Optimum Energy from the Sun
Designing Your Home for Maximum Natural Lighting
Passive Solar Building Design
is when windows,
walls, and floors are made to collect, store, and distribute solar energy
in the form of heat in the winter and reject solar heat in the summer.
This is called passive solar design because, unlike active solar heating
systems, it does not involve the use of mechanical and electrical devices.
The key to design a passive solar building is to best take advantage of
the local climate performing an accurate site analysis. Elements to be
considered include window placement and size, and glazing type, thermal
insulation, thermal mass, and shading. Passive solar design techniques can
be applied most easily to new buildings, but existing buildings can be adapted or "retrofitted".
Architectural Lighting Design
You'll need to call in a roof specialist if your
inspector isn't qualified to inspect the roof. Also,
keep in mind that the roof may be difficult to access
and examine if it's covered with snow. In this case, it
may be possible to include a special provision that
allows you to extend the inspection contingency
specifically to accommodate the roof, in the hope that
the weather improves.
If you or your home
inspector suspect instability or hints of structural
damage, it's important to hire a chimney specialist. The
specialist will be able to use a "chimney cam" (a small
video camera used to inspect the chimney from the
inside) to uncover hidden damage.
A property on a cliff or hillside, or one that is
located in a flood zone, can benefit from a geological
inspection. The inspector could unearth a severe
drainage or ground-shifting problem -- and save you
thousands in repair costs down the line.
Your inspector may be able to tell whether things are,
um, "flowing," but a sewer expert can get a better sense
of the integrity of your sewer line with a sewer camera
to discover cracks or breaks from the house to the
street. A sewer inspection is critical for properties
that are heavily landscaped, where root growth can crack
and clog the pipeline. Don't overestimate the importance
of this inspection; a sewer line replacement can be an
The seller commonly pays for this inspection, because
many mortgage companies and banks will need one before
approving a loan on the house. Regardless of who pays,
make sure you review the finished report and that all
the recommended work has been completed.
Moisture, mold, and toxin
It's important to check for moisture in any crawlspace,
basement, or below-ground-level areas. Moisture
indicates a potential mold problem -- if there isn't one
already. Be sure your house has a clean bill of mold
health, especially in wet areas close to oceans or
If the house was built prior to 1975, you will need an
asbestos inspection. Asbestos can be present on
insulation around ducting, water heaters, and pipes. If
it is accessible and can be removed by an asbestos
specialist, consider asking the seller to foot the bill.
. Nonconforming-use inspection
The issue of nonconforming use does not require a
specific additional inspector. It is usually a joint
effort between your inspector and your real estate agent
to determine if all additions and major changes have
been properly permitted. Converted garages, sun porches,
or add-on bedrooms can increase square footage, but when
completed improperly, they can add headaches when it's
time to make them legal.
- Knowing the History of the Land
Buildings - Large Multi Use Structures
"Building using old outdated materials and
methods is wasteful, negligent and criminal."
is a building or
place that provides a particular service or is used for a particular
industry. Something designed and created to serve a particular
and to afford a
particular convenience or service
service that an organization or a piece of equipment offers you. Skillful
performance or ability without difficulty. A natural effortlessness.
that has a
roof and walls made by combining materials and parts.
estimates there may be 77,000 Empty or
across the country
. Taxpayers own them and are costing taxpayers
billions a year to maintain. Approximately 3.5 million people in
the U.S. are
, many of them
veterans, and there are 18.5 Million
Vacant Homes in the
country. 85% of all empty homes are privately owned. There are
in England in 2013. Philadelphia has an
estimated 40,000 vacant, derelict or underused buildings and
lots, both publicly and privately owned.
Philly Land Bank
Absentee Business Owner
is one who does not personally
manage the business he owns, or who does not live in the community in
which the business operates.
is an economic term for a person who owns
and rents out a profit-earning property, but does not live within the
property's local economic region.
Why are we allowing ignorant criminals to over develop precious
Deconstruction of Buildings
is the selective dismantlement
of building components, specifically for re-use, repurposing, recycling,
and waste management. It differs from demolition where a site is cleared
of its building by the most expedient means. Deconstruction has also been
defined as “construction in reverse”. The process of dismantling
structures is an ancient activity that has been revived by the growing
field of sustainable, green method of building. Buildings, like
everything, have a life-cycle. Deconstruction focuses on giving the
materials within a building a new life once the building as a whole can no
is state-sanctioned, for-profit
archaeological survey and excavation carried out in advance of
construction or other land development. These conditions could include,
but are not limited to, highway projects, major construction, the flood
plain of a proposed dam, or even before the onset of war. Unlike
traditional survey and excavation, rescue archaeology must be undertaken
at speed. Rescue archaeology is included in the broader categories that
are cultural resource management (CRM) and cultural
Nearly 44,000 Commercial Buildings are
Nearly 4.9 million office
buildings existed in 2003 in the U.S.
Every year, approximately 170,000 commercial buildings are constructed.