Facebook Twiter Goole Plus Linked In YouTube Blogger

Food Chemistry - Combining Foods

Knowing how the different combinations of foods react in the body, and how they taste.

Previous SubjectNext Subject

BHTLearning how to maximize your health and energy without having to eat more. Learn about the chemistry of food, and how certain foods that are eaten together can benefit you, and how other foods that are eaten together can actually minimize the benefits from those foods. The timing of when you should eat certain foods is also important. Like if you eat bread before your main meal you could spike your blood sugar and amp up your appetite. But if you eat the bread after your dinner you will slow down the process of carbohydrates turning into sugar. Food combinations also effect flavor and taste. You can eat the same healthy foods everyday, but there are some foods that you shouldn't eat all the time every day. it is important to vary your diet to make sure that you are covering all your nutritional needs, and that you're not getting too much of any one food, because some foods can be harmful to certain people, and you could also develop intolerances. You should also know which vitamins that should be taken together for maximum effect, and know which supplements that should not be taken together

Food Chemistry is the study of chemical processes and interactions of all biological and non-biological components of foods. Additives

Medication Drugs and Food Interactions - What you eat and drink can affect the way your medicines work.

Food Physical Chemistry is considered to be a branch of Food chemistry concerned with the study of both physical and chemical interactions in foods in terms of physical and chemical principles applied to food systems, as well as the applications of physical/chemical techniques and instrumentation for the study of foods. Seasoning

Food Science is the applied science devoted to the study of food. The Institute of Food Technologists defines food science as "the discipline in which the engineering, biological, and physical sciences are used to study the nature of foods, the causes of deterioration, the principles underlying food processing, and the improvement of foods for the consuming public.

Food Engineering is a multidisciplinary field of applied physical sciences which combines science, microbiology, and engineering education for food and related industries. Food engineering includes, but is not limited to, the application of agricultural engineering, mechanical engineering and chemical engineering principles to food materials. Food engineers provide the technological knowledge transfer essential to the cost-effective production and commercialization of food products and services. Physics, chemistry, and mathematics are fundamental to understanding and engineering products and operations in the food industry.

Mixologist is a person who creates cocktails; a bartender. Mixology is the art of combining various ingredients to make cocktails. So we can teach Chemistry and get Drunk at the same time, awesome. In scientific terms it would be exploring the effects of alcohol on the human mind and body. And not all students will drink because you will need some students to be researchers who are sober and not affected by a chemical substance, so that their judgment, cognition, consciousness, memory, concentration, function, performance, ability, capacity, vision, hearing and mobility is not impaired in any way.
Flavor and balance are probably the most important components of cocktail quality, but it's the temperature, texture, aroma, strength, and presentation that makes for a wel-rounded drink. Some Texture Descriptors for Cocktails and Spirits are: Thick, syrupy, not dilute enough. Thin, weak, non-integrated, over-shaken. Silky. Light. Bubbly, fizzy. Tannic, astringent. Soft, pillowy, foamy, frothy. Slushy, viscous, chewy. Crunchy. (crisp, firm, dry, and brittle). Gloppy, chunky (pieces of a substance mixed in with something creamier). Viscosity - Pudding (wiki) - Watery or Creamy? Cold or Warm?

Creamy is food or drink having the rich taste or a thick smooth texture.

Distillation (making alcohol) 

“To our brains, 'taste' is actually a fusion of a food's taste, smell and touch into a single sensation. Texture and odor play as important a role as taste buds in the way we experience what we eat."

Food Label Meanings
Processed Food
Acid Foods and PH

Scio is a Pocket Molecular Sensor that Tells You What's Really in the Food like calories, and sugar and fat.

Molecular Gastronomy is a subdiscipline of food science that seeks to investigate the physical and chemical transformations of ingredients that occur in cooking. Its program includes three axes, as cooking was recognized to have three components, which are social, artistic and technical. Molecular cuisine is a modern style of cooking, and takes advantage of many technical innovations from the scientific disciplines.

Organic Synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis and is concerned with the construction of organic compounds via organic reactions. Organic molecules often contain a higher level of complexity than purely inorganic compounds, so that the synthesis of organic compounds has developed into one of the most important branches of organic chemistry.

Proper Food Combination Chart Food Synergy
Food Matrix Chart (image)

Food Combining also known as trophology, is a term for a nutritional approach that advocates specific combinations of foods as central to good health and weight loss (such as not mixing carbohydrate-rich foods and protein-rich foods in the same meal).

Food Paring for Flavor

Fusion Cuisine is cuisine that combines elements of different Culinary Traditions.

Cooking Effects on Food
Nutrition Knowledge

Antinutrient are natural or synthetic compounds that interfere with the absorption of nutrients. Nutrition studies focus on
those antinutrients commonly found in food sources and beverages. Protease inhibitors are substances that inhibit the actions of trypsin, pepsin and other proteases in the gut, preventing the digestion and subsequent absorption of protein. For example, Bowman-Birk trypsin inhibitor is found in soybeans. Examples: Protease inhibitors are substances that inhibit the actions of trypsin, pepsin and other proteases in the gut, preventing the digestion and subsequent absorption of protein. For example, Bowman–Birk trypsin inhibitor is found in soybeans. Lipase inhibitors interfere with enzymes, such as human pancreatic lipase, that catalyze the hydrolysis of some lipids, including fats. For example, the anti-obesity drug orlistat causes a percentage of fat to pass through the digestive tract undigested. Amylase inhibitors prevent the action of enzymes that break the glycosidic bonds of starches and other complex carbohydrates, preventing the release of simple sugars and absorption by the body. Amylase inhibitors, like lipase inhibitors, have been used as a diet aid and obesity treatment. Amylase inhibitors are present in many types of beans; commercially available amylase inhibitors are extracted from white kidney beans. Phytic acid has a strong binding affinity to minerals such as calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, and zinc. This results in precipitation, making the minerals unavailable for absorption in the intestines. Phytic acids are common in the hulls of nuts, seeds and grains. Oxalic acid and oxalates are present in many plants, particularly in members of the spinach family. Oxalates bind to calcium and prevent its absorption in the human body. Glucosinolates prevent the uptake of iodine, affecting the function of the thyroid and thus are considered goitrogens. They are found in broccoli, brussel sprouts, cabbage and cauliflower. Excessive intake of required nutrients can also result in them having an anti-nutrient action. Excessive intake of fiber can reduce the transit time through the intestines to such a degree that other nutrients cannot be absorbed. Because calcium, iron, zinc and magnesium share the same transporter within the intestine, excessive consumption of one of these minerals can lead to saturation of the transport system and reduced absorption of the other minerals. Some proteins can also be antinutrients, such as the trypsin inhibitors and lectins found in legumes. These enzyme inhibitors interfere with digestion. Another particularly widespread form of antinutrients are the flavonoids, which are a group of polyphenolic compounds that include tannins. These compounds chelate metals such as iron and zinc and reduce the absorption of these nutrients, but they also inhibit digestive enzymes and may also precipitate proteins. Saponins in plants may serve as anti-feedants.

Eating Tips

Food Chemistry Chart You'll get more plant-based iron from black beans if you eat them with something rich in vitamin C, like red pepper.
Effects of egg consumption on carotenoid absorption from co-consumed, raw vegetables
Hummus made with sesame seeds (in tahini) slathered on whole wheat bread gives you all the amino acids to form a complete protein.

Phytates — a kind of acid — in things like tea and coffee may decrease the absorption of iron and zinc.
Combining Turmeric and Black Pepper makes curcumin, the pigment in turmeric that has anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties, easier for the body to access.

Influence of Piperine on the Pharmacokinetics of Curcumin

Pharmacokinetics is a branch of pharmacology dedicated to determining the fate of substances administered to a living organism.

Liberation - the process of release of a drug from the pharmaceutical formulation. See also IVIVC.
Absorption - the process of a substance entering the blood circulation.
Distribution - the dispersion or dissemination of substances throughout the fluids and tissues of the body.
Metabolization (or biotransformation, or inactivation) – the recognition by the organism that a foreign substance is present and the irreversible transformation of parent compounds into daughter metabolites.
Excretion - the removal of the substances from the body. In rare cases, some drugs irreversibly accumulate in body tissue.

Foods digest at different rates: Wait 2 hours after eating fruit, 3 hours after eating starches, 4 hours after eating protein.


Taking vitamins at the same time as a cup of coffee or tea can interfere with the body's absorption of many necessary nutrients. It is probably better to consume your caffeine between meals, not just before or just after. Caffeine is also a mild diuretic, which increases urination. So water soluble vitamins, such as the B-vitamins, can be depleted as a result of the fluid loss. Water-soluble vitamins: Vitamin C, biotin and the seven B vitamins — thiamin (B-1), riboflavin (B-2), niacin (B-3), pantothenic acid (B-5), pyridoxine (B-6), folic acid (B-9) and cobalamin (B-12). Brain Benefits from Coffee
Fat-soluble vitamins: A, D, E or K. Oregon State Coffee Research.

Coffee also increases the excretion of the minerals magnesium, potassium, sodium and phosphate. There is also evidence that caffeine interferes with the action of vitamin A. Dehydration

Unfiltered coffee is a significant source of cafestol and kahweol, diterpenes that have been found to raise serum total and LDL cholesterol concentrations in humans.

Caffeine causes calcium to be excreted in the urine and feces. For every 150 mg of caffeine ingested, about the amount in one cup of coffee, 5 mg of calcium is lost. Caffeine inhibits vitamin D receptors, which limit the amount that will be absorbed. Because vitamin D is important in the absorption and use of calcium in building bone, this could also decrease bone mineral density, resulting in an increased risk for osteoporosis. Caffeine interferes with the body's absorption of iron, which is necessary for red blood cell production.  Caffeine may reduce the absorption of manganese, zinc and copper. So don't take vitamins with coffee.

The Plant:
There are around 70 types of the Coffea flowering plant, and two major types, Coffea Arabica (Arabica beans) and Coffea canephora var. Robusta (Robusta beans).  Coffee Production - The Coffee Faq - The History of Coffee

Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant, which is a genus of flowering plants whose seeds, called coffee beans, are used to make various coffee beverages and products. It is a member of the family Rubiaceae. They are shrubs or small trees native to tropical and southern Africa and tropical Asia. Coffee contains many phytochemicals, antioxidants and other nutrients that research has shown as beneficial to our bodies.


Beans are baked somewhere between 180 and 250 degrees Celsius for somewhere between 2 and 25 minutes. During the scorch, sugars and fats degrade, amino acids and sugars react with each other, and degradation products spark chain reactions. culminates in the formation of dozens of aromatic compounds that make up that enticing coffee bouquet.
Coffee Roasting - Maillard Reaction - High Heat Dangers


Compounds include aldehydes, ketones, furans, pyrazines, pyridines, phenolic compounds, indoles, lactones, esters and benzothiazines. But for chlorogenic acids, more roasting leads to less of these beneficial phenols. Chlorogenic acids: Around 45 of these phenolic compounds have been found in coffee caffeic acid, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties.
Trigonelline: This bitter alkaloid has been linked to protecting the brain from damage, blocking cancer cells from moving around, combating bacteria, and lowering blood sugar and total cholesterol. Kahweol and cafestol: These diterpenes, which contribute to the bitter taste of coffee, have been linked to preventing and battling cancer cells. But, they’ve also been linked to raising cholesterol.


Using a standard home grinder for 42 seconds compared with 5 seconds doubled the amount of caffeine squeezed out of a 37 gram portion.  Rok Hand Coffee Grinder   RAFINO Coffee Grind Refining System.


Brewing methods are also critical for squeezing out the goodness of the beans. There’s a variety of methods to choose from: Brief boiling (Turkish), steeping (French press), Filtering (drip coffee), and pressurized (espresso). Espresso machines, which force hot (91-96 degrees Celsius) pressurized (~9 bar) water evenly over fine, well-packed coffee grinds, produces the brews with the most concentrated doses of caffeine. 

Cold-Brewed Coffee
is 67 percent less acidic than hot-brewed. Also lowers the burnt flavor and bitterness that you get from hot-brewed coffee. Cold Brewed Tea

World Brewers Cup is a competition which showcases the craft and skill of filter coffee brewing by hand.  Aeropress
Jolt - Brew Coffee & Tea in the Palm of Your Hand is a portable coffee and tea brewer that can brew anywhere in the world using rechargeable batteries.
Oomph Portable Coffee Maker fast hand powered portable coffee maker and travel cup!
Gina Coffee Brewer - kickstarter

In the early morning, our bodies produce high levels of cortisol, the stress hormone that helps us become more alert. Filling the body with caffeine first thing in the morning signals the body to make less cortisol, which means the body will start relying on coffee, rather than its natural functions, to wake up. So waiting a couple of hours after you wake up to drink your coffee will benefit you more. 

Coffee Drinking Info-Graph (image)
Coffee Consumption by Country (image)

Coffee I Like: seattles best post alley 5 dark roast, gevalia kaffe majestic roast, newmans own organics special blend medium roast, starbucks pike place roast, lavazza italy coffee kilimanjaro single origin, lavazza italy coffee classico medium roast, lavazza italy coffee gran aroma medium roast, peets coffee reserve ethiopia yargacheffe dark roast, brionis medium roast healthy morning.

If you don't like a particular coffee, mix it with a coffee you do like. As long as that something is good for you, then it helps to mix things you like with things you don't like, because it will always make things that you don't like a little more bearable. Balance. Seasoning. If you don't like something on its own, then mix it with something you do like. If something is still good and good for you, then there is no reason to throw it away. Food Waste. Mixing Pleasure with Responsibility.

Coffee grounds improve compost
Coffee grounds improve compost in two ways. They typically contain about 2% nitrogen (the same amount as manure), which feeds the micro-organisms that digest plant debris and turns it into compost. Second, as they decompose, coffee grounds have been shown to suppress common fungal rots and reduce the growth of E. coli and Staphylococcus spp, according to research published by Washington State University. For optimal compost disease-suppression, shoot for 10 to 20 percent coffee grounds per total compost volume. Earthworms also love coffee grounds. Leaving a bowlful of used grounds in the fridge overnight will rid your icebox of icky odors.

Coffee stimulates the adrenal glands, triggering the release of cortisol, the stress hormone, so anxiety levels could be high in the morning. If you stop drinking coffee you may experienced headaches from caffeine withdrawal, but this should subsided after a few days.

Four Sigmatic Mushroom Coffee with Lion’s Mane & Chaga For Concentration + Focus, Vegan, Paleo, 0.09 Ounce (10 Count). Instant mushroom coffee is regular ground coffee with powders from medicinal mushrooms. It doesn’t taste like mushrooms it's the same as regular coffee except with endurance-boosting cordyceps, calming chaga, and lion’s mane mushroom extracts, which is thought to have cognitive-enhancing properties. anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, gut-friendly, contain high amounts of antioxidants (more than acai, blueberries, and cacao), and support our liver in flushing out toxins.

Coffee affects your metabolism in dozens of other ways besides waking you up, including your metabolism of neurotransmitters typically linked to cannabis. The neurotransmitters related to the endocannabinoid system -- the same ones affected by cannabis -- decreased after drinking four to eight cups of coffee in a day. That's the opposite of what occurs after someone uses cannabis. The study also gives possible insight in the cause of munchies. Coffee may also increase the elimination of steroids.



Protein Complementation

Protein Combining is a dietary strategy for protein nutrition by using complementary sources to optimize biological value and increase the protein quality.

Try not mixing carbohydrate-rich foods and protein-rich foods in the same meal.

Proteins (knowledge)


Hay Diet
Separating food into three groups: alkaline, acidic, and neutral Acidic foods are protein rich, such as meat, fish, dairy, etc.
Alkaline foods are carbohydrate rich, such as rice, grains and potatoes.
Alkaline Diet - PH

Pairing Foods for Flavor Enhancement

Food Combining Chart Flavor is the sensory impression of food or other substance, and is determined primarily by the chemical senses of taste and smell. The "trigeminal senses", which detect chemical irritants in the mouth and throat as well as temperature and texture, are also important to the overall Gestalt of flavor perception. The flavor of the food, as such, can be altered with natural or artificial flavorants which affect these senses.
Flavor Pairing

Food Pairing is a method for identifying which foods go well together. The method is based on the principle that foods combine well with one another when they share key flavor components. Foodpairing is a relatively new method and is often confused with wine and food matching. By contrast, foodpairing uses HPLC, gas chromatography and other laboratory methods to analyse food and to find chemical components that they have in common.

Food Pairing discover new flavor combinations in seconds.
Foods that Change Sense of Taste
Food Combinations
Flavor Combinations
Food Combos

Eating Disorders

The Dorito Effect is when food lying to us.
In nature, flavor and nutrition go hand in hand.

If Flavorist's from Flavor Companies really cared about people they would use their expertise to make healthy food taste good, not junk food. Making money at the expense of other peoples health is insane and criminal. 
Food Science

Institute of Food Technologists

Sensory Analysis is a scientific discipline that applies principles of experimental design and statistical analysis to the use of human senses (sight, smell, taste, touch and hearing) for the purposes of evaluating consumer products.

Lexical Gustatory Synesthesia is a rare form of synesthesia in which spoken and written language (as well as some colors and emotions) causes individuals to experience an automatic and highly consistent taste/smell.

How Food Color Changes the Experience of Taste
Tea and Food Pairing

Why does Delicious or Good Flavor not always mean Healthy?

Food Knowledge
Physical Health Knowledge
Food Photos
What People Eat
School Lunches

Trigeminal Nerve is a nerve responsible for sensation in the face and motor functions such as biting and chewing.

Smart Gastronomy Lab

3D Printing Food
NASA 3D Food
Smooth Food
Pureed Meals
Generation W
Natural Machines Video (youtube)

6 Sensor Labs Portable Allergen Sensor

Sense of Taste

Sweet - Salty - Sour - Bitter

Taste is one of the five traditional senses that belongs to the gustatory system. Taste is the sensation produced when a substance in the mouth reacts chemically with taste receptor cells located on taste buds in the oral cavity, mostly on the tongue. Taste, along with smell (olfaction) and trigeminal nerve stimulation (registering texture, pain, and temperature), determines flavors of food or other substances. Humans have taste receptors on taste buds (gustatory calyculi) and other areas including the upper surface of the tongue and the epiglottis. Every Flavor is a Chemical Compound.

Umami, which is the fifth taste, which is the mysterious but interesting pleasant savory taste.

Palate is the roof of the mouth in humans and other mammals. It separates the oral cavity from the nasal cavity. The palate is divided into two parts, the anterior bony hard palate, and the posterior fleshy soft palate (or velum).

Palate Cleanser is generally a neutral flavored element in food that enables to clear the palate from one flavor to another; in cultures where diversity of flavors in dishes is customary, the palate cleanser is considered an essential companion to entrees.

Palatability is the hedonic reward (i.e., pleasure) provided by foods or fluids that are agreeable to the "palate", which often varies relative to the homeostatic satisfaction of nutritional, water, or energy needs. The palatability of a food or fluid, unlike its flavor or taste, varies with the state of an individual: it is lower after consumption and higher when deprived. Palatability of foods, however, can be learned. It has increasingly been appreciated that this can create a hedonic hunger that is independent of homeostatic needs.

Tongue is a muscular organ in the mouth of most vertebrates that manipulates food for mastication, and is used in the act of swallowing. It is of importance in the digestive system and is the primary organ of taste in the gustatory system. The tongue's upper surface (dorsum) is covered in taste buds housed in numerous lingual papillae. It is sensitive and kept moist by saliva, and is richly supplied with nerves and blood vessels. The tongue also serves as a natural means of cleaning the teeth. A major function of the tongue is the enabling of speech in humans and vocalization in other animals.

Taste Buds contain the taste receptor cells, which are also known as gustatory cells. The taste receptors are located around the small structures known as papillae found on the upper surface of the tongue, soft palate, upper esophagus, the cheek and epiglottis. These structures are involved in detecting the five elements of taste perception: salty, sour, bitter, sweet and umami; through the combination of these elements we detect "flavors." A popular myth assigns these different tastes to different regions of the tongue; in reality these tastes can be detected by any area of the tongue. Via small openings in the tongue epithelium, called taste pores, parts of the food dissolved in saliva come into contact with the taste receptors. These are located on top of the taste receptor cells that constitute the taste buds. The taste receptor cells send information detected by clusters of various receptors and ion channels to the gustatory areas of the brain via the seventh, ninth and tenth cranial nerves. On average, the human tongue has 2,000–8,000 taste buds.

Taste Receptor is a type of receptor which facilitates the sensation of taste. When food or other substances enter the mouth, molecules interact with saliva and are bound to taste receptors in the oral cavity and other locations. Molecules which give a sensation of taste are considered "sapid". Taste receptors are divided into two families: Type 1, sweet, first characterized in 2001: TAS1R2 – TAS1R3. Type 2, bitter, first characterized in 2000: TAS2R1 – TAS2R50, and TAS2R60. Combinations of these receptors in dimers or other complexes contributes to different perceptions of taste. Visual, olfactive, “sapictive” (the perception of tastes), trigeminal (hot, cool), mechanical, all contribute to the perception of taste. Of these, transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) vanilloid receptors are responsible for the perception of heat from some molecules such as capsaicin, and a CMR1 receptor is responsible for the perception of cold from molecules such as menthol, eucalyptol, and icilin.

TAS2R38 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TAS2R38 gene. TAS2R38 is a bitter taste receptor.

Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AHR gene. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor is a ligand-activated transcription factor involved in the regulation of biological responses to planar aromatic (aryl) hydrocarbons. This receptor has been shown to regulate xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome P450. Phenotype

Dysgeusia is a distortion of the sense of taste. Dysgeusia is also often associated with ageusia, which is the complete lack of taste, and hypogeusia, which is a decrease in taste sensitivity.

Taste Disorders
Baby Eating Lemon
Becoming a Taste Tester (wkihow)
How to Taste Test
Taste Facts
Flavoring Kits 
Tasting Science
Taste and Oral Sensations vary in humans
Rewired Taste System Reveals How Flavors Move From Tongue to Brain

Our taste buds and sense of smell are easily molded by our preconceptions and expectations. Can You Trust Your Taste Buds? (WINE CHALLENGE) (youtube)

150 Aromas and Flavors that can be tasted in Wines

The Brain Perceives Taste with All Senses, Research Reveals
Associative learning changes cross-modal representations in the gustatory cortex

Taste receptors really are everywhere, including the colon. And if it gets exposed to too much bitterness, it triggers a release of ions, which in turn causes water to pour into the gut via osmosis, and the body experiences diarrhea.

Our Perceptions of food can also effect flavor. People have been known to like a wine more when they were told it's expensive.

You can also gross yourself out. And people who get sick from a particular food will also perceive that food differently. People can also perceive certain foods differently when having Hypersensitivity or Hyposensitivity, which is less than normal sensitivity to a foreign agent, such as an allergen, in which the response is unusually delayed or lessened in degree. Also called hypoergia. Your flavor perception can also change when there is too many foods blended together, Crossmodal.

I don't let taste tell me what to eat. Though it's important that we understand that taste my be an indication that some food may not be safe for us to eat, we can not let taste stop us from eating food that we know is good for us.

Olfactory white is a smell composed of many equally strong but diverse smells, perhaps over 30. Mixtures of many different smells across the perceptual range all tend to smell very similar to humans, despite different components making them up. The concept is similar to all different spectral colours combining to form white. Olfactory white is neither pleasant or unpleasant.

Scents - Smells

The Power of Smell

"The human nose can distinguish at least 1 trillion different odours?"

Olfaction is the sense of smell. This sense is mediated by specialized sensory cells of the nasal cavity of vertebrates, which can be considered analogous to sensory cells of the antennae of invertebrates. In humans, olfaction occurs when odorant molecules bind to specific sites on the olfactory receptors. These receptors are used to detect the presence of smell. They come together at the glomerulus, a structure which transmits signals to the olfactory bulb (a brain structure directly above the nasal cavity and below the frontal lobe).

Olfactory System is the part of the sensory system used for smelling (olfaction). Most mammals and reptiles have a main olfactory system and an accessory olfactory system. The main olfactory system detects airborne substances, while the accessory system senses fluid-phase stimuli. The senses of smell and taste (gustatory system) are often referred to together as the chemosensory system, because they both give the brain information about the chemical composition of objects through a process called transduction.

Smelling is a chemical sense that is stimulated by substances such as irritant solutions or vapours capable of exciting receptors in mucous membranes of the nose, mouth, eyes, and respiratory tract. Your ability to smell comes from specialized sensory cells, called olfactory sensory neurons, which are found in a small patch of tissue high inside the nose. These cells connect directly to the brain. Each olfactory neuron has one odor receptor. Once the neurons detect the molecules, they send messages to your brain, which identifies the smell. There are more smells in the environment than there are receptors, and any given molecule may stimulate a combination of receptors, creating a unique representation in the brain. These representations are registered by the brain as a particular smell. Smells reach the olfactory sensory neurons through two pathways. The first pathway is through your nostrils. The second pathway is through a channel that connects the roof of the throat to the nose. Chewing food releases aromas that access the olfactory sensory neurons through the second channel. If the channel is blocked, such as when your nose is stuffed up by a cold or flu, odors can’t reach the sensory cells that are stimulated by smells. As a result, you lose much of your ability to enjoy a food’s flavor. In this way, your senses of smell and taste work closely together. Without the olfactory sensory neurons, familiar flavors such as chocolate or oranges would be hard to distinguish. Without smell, foods tend to taste bland and have little or no flavor. Some people who go to the doctor because they think they’ve lost their sense of taste are surprised to learn that they’ve lost their sense of smell instead. Your sense of smell is also influenced by something called the common chemical sense. This sense involves thousands of nerve endings, especially on the moist surfaces of the eyes, nose, mouth, and throat. These nerve endings help you sense irritating substances—such as the tear-inducing power of an onion—or the refreshing coolness of menthol.

Olfactory Receptors act as Sensitive Chemical Sensors and are found in other areas of the body, and not just our nose. More of our DNA is devoted to genes for different olfactory receptors than for any other type of protein.
Artificial Intelligent Sensors

How Odours are turned into Long-Term Memories. Neuroscientists have investigated which brain area is responsible for storing odors as long-term memories. Some odors can trigger memories of experiences from years back. A new study shows that the piriform cortex, a part of the olfactory brain, is involved in the process of saving those memories; the mechanism, however, only works in interaction with other brain areas.

Piriform Cortex is a region in the brain, part of the rhinencephalon situated in the cerebrum. The function of the piriform cortex relates to the sense of smell.

Smell Disorders. People who have a Smell Disorders either have a decrease in their ability to smell or changes in the way they perceive odors.
Hyposmia [high-POSE-mee-ah] is a reduced ability to detect odors.
Anosmia [ah-NOSE-mee-ah] is the complete inability to detect odors. In rare cases, someone may be born without a sense of smell, a condition called congenital anosmia.
Parosmia [pahr-OZE-mee-ah] is a change in the normal perception of odors, such as when the smell of something familiar is distorted, or when something that normally smells pleasant now smells foul.
Phantosmia [fan-TOES-mee-ah] is the sensation of an odor that isn’t there.

Otorhinolaryngology is a surgical subspecialty within medicine that deals with conditions of the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) and related structures of the head and neck. Doctors who specialize in this area are called otorhinolaryngologists, otolaryngologists, ENT doctors, ENT surgeons, or head and neck surgeons. Patients seek treatment from an otorhinolaryngologist for diseases of the ear, nose, throat, base of the skull, and for the surgical management of cancers and benign tumors of the head and neck.

Odor Detection Threshold is the lowest concentration of a certain odor compound that is perceivable by the human sense of smell. The threshold of a chemical compound is determined in part by its shape, polarity, partial charges, and molecular mass. The olfactory mechanisms responsible for a compound's different detection threshold is not well understood. As such, odor thresholds cannot be accurately predicted. Rather, they must be measured through extensive tests using human subjects in laboratory settings. Optical isomers can have different detection thresholds because their conformations may cause them to be less perceivable for the human nose. It is only in recent years that such compounds were separated on gas chromatographs that are used in analytical chemistry for separating and analyzing compounds that can be vaporized without decomposition.

Anosmia is the inability to perceive odor or a lack of functioning olfaction—the loss of the sense of smell. Anosmia may be temporary, but some anosmia (including traumatic anosmia) can be permanent. Anosmia is due to a number of factors, including an inflammation of the nasal mucosa, blockage of nasal passages or a destruction of one temporal lobe. Inflammation is due to chronic mucosa changes in the paranasal sinus lining and the middle and superior turbinates.

Olfactory Fatigue is the temporary, normal inability to distinguish a particular odor after a prolonged exposure to that airborne compound. For example, when entering a restaurant initially the odor of food is often perceived as being very strong, but after time the awareness of the odor normally fades to the point where the smell is not perceptible or is much weaker. After leaving the area of high odor, the sensitivity is restored with time. This is one of the reasons why we can't tell how bad we smell because we adapt to smells very quickly.

Parosmia is an olfactory dysfunction that is characterized by the inability of the brain to properly identify an odor's "natural" smell. What happens instead, is that the natural odor is transcribed into what is most often described as an unpleasant aroma, typically a "'burned,' 'rotting,' 'fecal,' or 'chemical' smell." There are instances, however, of pleasant odors. This is more specifically called euosmia (Gk.).

Odor is caused by one or more volatilized chemical compounds, generally at a very low concentration, that humans or other animals perceive by the sense of olfaction. Odors are also commonly called scents, which can refer to both pleasant and unpleasant odors.

Aroma is a chemical compound that has a smell or odor. A chemical-compound has a smell or odor when it is sufficiently volatile to be transported to the olfactory system in the upper-part of the nose.


Lavender can help you relax. 
Pine can help you feel less stress.
Fresh-cut grass can elevate your mood.
Vanilla can elevate your mood.
Jasmine may ease depression.
Cinnamon can sharpen your mind.
Peppermint may boost concentration.
Citrus can help you feel more energized.
Pumpkin can serve as an aphrodisiac.
Apples may mitigate a migraine.
Olive oil can satisfy your appetite.

Memories are most emotional when they’re triggered by scent, as opposed to sight or sound or anything else.

Potpourri is a mixture of dried, naturally fragrant plant material, used to provide a gentle natural scent inside buildings, most commonly in residential settings. It is usually placed in a decorative (often wooden) bowl, or tied in small sachet made from sheer fabric.

Make Potpourri Dried Flowers
Yankee Scents

Scented Products
Scented Oils
The Scent Wizard
Fragrance Shop
Digitizing Scent
Send Postagram Postcards from your iPhone or Android 
The Power of  Scent 

Pheromone is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species. Pheromones are chemicals capable of acting outside the body of the secreting individual to impact the behavior of the receiving individuals. Oxytocin

Tristram Wyatt: Human Pheromone (video)

That Smell - Lynyrd Skynyrd (youtube song) Ooooh that smell, The smell of death surrounds you.

Learning to Cook

Food Photos

The Thinker Man