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Wind Energy

Wind Turbines in the Ocean Wind Turbine is a device that converts the wind's kinetic energy into electrical power. Wind turbines are manufactured in a wide range of vertical and horizontal axis types. The smallest turbines are used for applications such as battery charging for auxiliary power for boats or caravans or to power traffic warning signs. Slightly larger turbines can be used for making contributions to a domestic power supply while selling unused power back to the utility supplier via the electrical grid. Arrays of large turbines, known as wind farms, are becoming an increasingly important source of intermittent renewable energy and are used by many countries as part of a strategy to reduce their reliance on fossil fuels. Wind Turbine Info-Graph (Motion Gif)

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Wind Energy Land or Water Area Needed Energy Types
Renewable Energy Statistics

Wind Energy was producing energy for 6 million homes at the end of 2008, Now it's up to 13 million as of 2012, providing about 3 percent of Americas energy needs. In 2015, the United States, wind power accounts for about 4 percent of overall electricity production (181.79 terawatt-hours) but supplies significant amounts of power in various states and regions. In May 2015, the Pacific Northwest’s Bonneville Power Administration generated more than 40 percent of its electricity for its 13 million residents from wind energy alone. In Texas, record wind output in March met about 40 percent of the demand for most of the state’s electric grid. In 2015, Wind Power in the United States is generating nearly 75,000 megawatts (MW). Nameplate Capacity is the intended full-load sustained output of a facility such as a power plant.

Info-Graph provided by Land Art Generator

Floating Wind Turbine is an offshore wind turbine mounted on a floating structure that allows the turbine to generate electricity in water depths where bottom-mounted towers are not feasible. Locating wind farms out at sea can reduce visual pollution while providing better accommodation for fishing and shipping lanes. In addition, the wind is typically more consistent and stronger over the sea, due to the absence of topographic features that disrupt wind flow. Floating wind parks are wind farms that site several floating wind turbines closely together to take advantage of common infrastructure such as power transmission facilities.
Floating Wind & Current Hybrid Power

World's Largest Offshore Wind Farm Opens in English Channel. 100 turbines covering an area of 13.5 square miles, producing 300 megawatts, which is equivalent to the annual electricity consumption of more than 200,000 British households.

Micro Wind Turbine Vertical Axis Wind Turbine are a type of wind turbine where the main rotor shaft is set transverse to the wind (but not necessarily vertically) while the main components are located at the base of the turbine. This arrangement allows the generator and gearbox to be located close to the ground, facilitating service and repair. VAWTs do not need to be pointed into the wind, which removes the need for wind-sensing and orientation mechanisms. Major drawbacks for the early designs (Savonius, Darrieus and giromill) included the significant torque variation or "ripple" during each revolution, and the large bending moments on the blades. Later designs addressed the torque ripple issue by sweeping the blades helically.

Savonius Vertical Axis Wind Turbine
Vertical-axis wind turbine eggbeater pairs arrangement varying heights.

World Wind Energy Association
American Wind Energy Association

Denmark’s array of onshore and offshore wind farms met 116 percent of its national electricity demand on July 9, 2015, according to the energy tracking website energynet.dk. The next morning, after demand had peaked, the figure rose to 140 percent. Germany, Norway, and Sweden took the power surplus off Denmark’s hands, storing excess electricity in hydropower systems for later use. It’s a new record for Denmark, where wind farms met 39 percent of the country’s electricity needs in 2014, putting the nation of 5 million in the company of Scotland, Germany, and other countries that are producing more than a quarter of their power from renewable sources.

Average Wind Speeds by City in the U.S. Magnetic Coupling is a coupling that transfers torque from one shaft, but using a magnetic field rather than a physical mechanical connection. Magnetic shaft couplings are most often used for liquid pumps and propeller systems, since a static, physical barrier can be placed between the two shafts to separate the fluid from the motor operating in air. Magnetic shaft couplings preclude the use of shaft seals, which eventually wear out and fail from the sliding of two surfaces against each another. Magnetic couplings are also used for ease of maintenance on systems that typically require precision alignment, when physical shaft couplings are used, since they allow a greater off axis error between the motor and driven shaft.

Electromagnetic Clutch operate electrically but transmit torque mechanically. This is why they used to be referred to as electro-mechanical clutches. Over the years, EM became known as electromagnetic versus electro-mechanical, referring more about their actuation method versus physical operation. Since the clutches started becoming popular over 60 years ago, the variety of applications and clutch designs has increased dramatically, but the basic operation remains the same today. Single-face clutches make up approximately 90% of all electromagnetic clutch sales. Electromagnetic clutches are most suitable for remote operation since no mechanical linkages are required to control their engagement, providing fast, smooth operation. However, because the activation energy dissipates as heat in the electromagnetic actuator when the clutch is engaged, there is a risk of overheating. Consequently, the maximum operating temperature of the clutch is limited by the temperature rating of the insulation of the electromagnet. This is a major limitation. Another disadvantage is higher initial cost.

Typhoon Turbine. Harvesting the energy from typhoons.

Wind Energy Resources

Small Wind TurbinesVertical Windturbine
Trinity Portable Wind Turbine
Wind Lens  
Sauer Energy
Gold Wind Global

Vortex Bladeless Wind Turbines
Vortex Bladeless
Urban Green Energy
Wind Spire Energy
Helix Wind
Solar Mill (youtube)

Wind Turbine for Home
Roscoe Wind Farm (wiki)
Wind Power Research Analysis
Hybrid Hydro Wind System
El Hierro

Wind Spires
Wind Energy
Wind Power
First Wind
Vibro Wind Panels jetsongreen.com
Dual-Rotor Wind Turbine
Coaxial Rotors
Sheer Wind
Down Draft Tower
Small Wind Certification

Batteries (backup power)

Airborne Wind Turbine (is a design concept for a wind turbine with a rotor supported in the air without a tower, thus benefiting from more mechanical and aerodynamic options, the higher velocity and persistence of wind at high altitudes, while avoiding the expense of tower construction, or the need for slip rings or yaw mechanism. An electrical generator may be on the ground or airborne. Challenges include safely suspending and maintaining turbines hundreds of meters off the ground in high winds and storms, transferring the harvested and/or generated power back to earth, and interference with aviation. Airborne wind turbines may operate in low or high altitudes; they are part of a wider class of Airborne Wind Energy Systems (AWES) addressed by high-altitude wind power and crosswind kite power. When the generator is on the ground, then the tethered aircraft need not carry the generator mass or have a conductive tether. When the generator is aloft, then a conductive tether would be used to transmit energy to the ground or used aloft or beamed to receivers using microwave or laser. Kites and 'helicopters' come down when there is insufficient wind; kytoons and blimps may resolve the matter with other disadvantages. Also, bad weather such as lightning or thunderstorms, could temporarily suspend use of the machines, probably requiring them to be brought back down to the ground and covered. Some schemes require a long power cable and, if the turbine is high enough, a prohibited airspace zone. As of July 2015, no commercial airborne wind turbines are in regular operation.
Airborne Wind Energy Association
Airborne Wind Energy System
Air Born Wind Turbine

Wind Turbine has a 1.7-megawatt General Electric turbine, which rises 432 feet above the ground from the tip of a blade.
Takes 43 truckloads to pour close to 400 cubic yards of concrete. The concrete base is 9 feet deep and nearly 60 feet across.
When wind speeds are more than 45 mph, the blades will lock for safety.

Crookes Radiometer also known as a light mill, consists of an airtight glass bulb, containing a partial vacuum. Inside are a set of vanes which are mounted on a spindle. The vanes rotate when exposed to light, with faster rotation for more intense light, providing a quantitative measurement of electromagnetic radiation intensity. The reason for the rotation was a cause of much scientific debate in the ten years following the invention of the device, but in 1879 the currently accepted explanation for the rotation was published. Today the device is mainly used in physics education as a demonstration of a heat engine run by light energy.

The Thinker Man