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Vitamins - Minerals - Supplements - Energy Bars

The word "Vitamin" means 'Vital to Life'

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Vitamins and their Benefits Vitamin is an organic compound and a vital nutrient that an organism requires in limited amounts. An organic chemical compound (or related set of compounds) is called a vitamin when the organism cannot synthesize the compound in sufficient quantities, and it must be obtained through the diet; thus, the term "vitamin" is conditional upon the circumstances and the particular organism. For example, ascorbic acid (one form of vitamin C) is a vitamin for humans, but not for most other animal organisms. Supplementation is important for the treatment of certain health problems, but there is little evidence of nutritional benefit when used by otherwise healthy people.

2.5 Million Kids Suffer Every Year from Vitamin Deficiencies - Food Security

The World Bank estimates that iron deficiency is a $50 billion drain on global GDP. Lucky Iron Fish are fish-shaped cast iron ingots used to provide dietary supplementation of iron to individuals living affected by iron-deficiency anaemia. The ingots are placed in a pot of boiling water to leach elemental iron into the water and food. Lucky Iron Fish

Zinc deficiency causes increased child mortality due to infectious diseases, because it prevents the immune system from working properly. Lack of iron increases the death rates of mothers and lowers the IQ of children.

Micronutrient Deficiency is a lack of one or more of the micronutrients required for plant or animal health. In humans and other animals they include both vitamin deficiencies and mineral deficiencies, whereas in plants the term refers to deficiencies of essential trace minerals.

Antinutrients - Malnutrition

Malabsorption is a state arising from abnormality in absorption of food nutrients across the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Impairment can be of single or multiple nutrients depending on the abnormality. This may lead to malnutrition and a variety of anaemias. Malabsorption syndrome occurs when something prevents the bowel from absorbing important nutrients and fluids, including proteins, fats, and vitamins. Malabsorption can be caused by conditions such as celiac disease, Crohn’s disease, lactose intolerance, and intestinal damage. Risk factors include a family history of malabsorption or cystic fibrosis, excessive alcohol consumption, and travel to the Caribbean or Southeast Asia. Cooking Effects on Food Nutrients

Harvest Plus is breeding crops to increase their Nutritional Value.

Biofortification is the idea of breeding crops to increase their nutritional value. This can be done either through conventional selective breeding, or through genetic engineering. Biofortification differs from ordinary fortification because it focuses on making plant foods more nutritious as the plants are growing, rather than having nutrients added to the foods when they are being processed. This is an improvement on ordinary fortification when it comes to providing nutrients for the rural poor, who rarely have access to commercially fortified foods. As such, biofortification is seen as an upcoming strategy for dealing with deficiencies of micronutrients in the developing world. In the case of iron, WHO estimated that biofortification could help curing the 2 billion people suffering from iron deficiency-induced anemia
Research Programs

CGIAR is a global partnership that unites organizations engaged in research for a food secure future. CGIAR research is dedicated to reducing rural poverty, increasing food security, improving human health and nutrition, and ensuring sustainable management of natural resources.

When and How Much?
Dietary Reference Intake (wiki)
Recommended Allowances

Vitamins and Herbs - Nutrition Products (amazon)

Minerals is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms, other than carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur present in common organic molecules. The remaining elements are classed as minerals in the four groups of essential nutrients (the others are vitamins, essential fatty acids, and essential amino acids).

Dietary Supplement is intended to provide nutrients that may otherwise not be consumed in sufficient quantities. Supplements as generally understood include vitamins, minerals, fiber, fatty acids, or amino acids, among other substances. U.S. authorities define dietary supplements as foods, while elsewhere they may be classified as drugs or other products.

Dietary Element is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms, other than carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur present in common organic molecules. The remaining elements are classed as minerals in the four groups of essential nutrients (the others are vitamins, essential fatty acids, and essential amino acids). Dietary Minerals (wiki)

Zinc eaten at levels found in biofortified crops reduces 'wear and tear' on DNA

Vitamin D deficiency increases risk of chronic headache

Amino Acids

Antioxidant is a molecule that inhibits the oxidation of other molecules. Oxidation is a chemical reaction that can produce free radicals, leading to chain reactions that may damage cells. Antioxidants such as thiols or ascorbic acid (vitamin C) terminate these chain reactions. The term "antioxidant" is mainly used for two different groups of substances: industrial chemicals which are added to products to prevent oxidation, and natural chemicals found in foods and body tissue which are said to have beneficial health effects.

Free Radicals are atoms or groups of atoms with an odd (unpaired) number of electrons and can be formed when oxygen interacts with certain molecules. Once formed these highly reactive radicals can start a chain reaction, like dominoes. Unpaired electrons can cause damage to Cells, Proteins and even DNA as these highly reactive atoms travel through the body seeking to pair up with other electrons. When we oxidize our food to produce energy there's a number of free radicals that are produced that are side products of that action and many of these are quite toxic. Free radicals may be formed through natural human physiological processes as well as from the environment. They may be the result of diet, stress, smoking, alcohol, exercise, inflammation, drugs or exposure to sunlight and air pollutants. While there are many types of free radicals that can be formed, the most common in aerobic (oxygen breathing) organisms are oxygen free radicals, often referred to as Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), which include superoxides, hydroxyl anions, hydrogen peroxide and singlet oxygen.

Superoxide is a compound that contains the superoxide anion with the chemical formula O−2. The systematic name of the anion is dioxide(1−). The reactive oxygen anion superoxide is particularly important as the product of the one-electron reduction of dioxygen O2, which occurs widely in nature. Whereas molecular oxygen (dioxygen) is a diradical containing two unpaired electrons, the addition of a second electron fills one of its two degenerate molecular orbitals, leaving a charged ionic species with single unpaired electron and a net negative charge of −1. Both dioxygen and the superoxide anion are free radicals that exhibit paramagnetism.

Amidogen is a radical compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH2. A member of the amino group, it may be regarded as an ammonia (NH3) molecule which has had one of its hydrogen atoms removed. NH2 as a functional group is common in nature, as it forms part of many compounds, e.g. the phenethylamines. The free radical is present in solutions of ammonia because, like water, ammonia undergoes molecular autoionisation to form its acid and base conjugates.

Phytochemical are chemical compounds produced by plants, generally to help them thrive or thwart competitors, predators, or pathogens.

Fat Soluble refers to the ability of a chemical compound to dissolve in fats, oils, lipids, and non-polar solvents.

Diuretic is any substance that promotes diuresis, that is, the increased production of urine. Dehydration

Nutraceutical is a pharmaceutical-grade and standardized nutrient.

Can combined Exercise and Nutritional intervention improve Muscle Mass and Function?

Vitamin Deficiency in Later Life. One in two persons aged 65 and above has suboptimal levels of vitamin D in the blood and one in four older adults has suboptimal vitamin B12 levels.

Polyphenol are a structural class of mainly natural, but also synthetic or semisynthetic, organic chemicals characterized by the presence of large multiples of phenol structural units. The number and characteristics of these phenol structures underlie the unique physical, chemical, and biological (metabolic, toxic, therapeutic, etc.) properties of particular members of the class. Examples include tannic acid. The historically important chemical class of tannins is a subset of the polyphenols. The name derives from the Ancient Greek word πολύς (polus, meaning "many, much") and the word phenol which refers to a chemical structure formed by attaching to an aromatic benzenoid (phenyl) ring, an hydroxyl (-OH) group akin to that found in alcohols (hence the -ol suffix). The term polyphenol appears to have been in use since 1894. Both natural phenols and the larger polyphenols play important roles in the ecology of most plants. Their effects in plant tissues can be divided into the following categories: Release and suppression of growth hormones such as auxin. UV screens to protect against ionizing radiation and to provide coloration (plant pigments). Deterrence of herbivores (sensory properties). Prevention of microbial infections (phytoalexins). Signaling molecules in ripening and other growth processes. The most abundant polyphenols are the condensed tannins, found in virtually all families of plants. Larger polyphenols are often concentrated in leaf tissue, the epidermis, bark layers, flowers and fruits but also play important roles in the decomposition of forest litter, and nutrient cycles in forest ecology. Generally foods contain complex mixtures of polyphenols. The most important food sources are commodities widely consumed in large quantities such as fruit and vegetables, green tea, black tea, red wine, coffee, chocolate, olives, and extra virgin olive oil. Herbs and spices, nuts and algae are also potentially significant for supplying certain polyphenols. Some polyphenols are specific to particular food (flavanones in citrus fruit, isoflavones in soya, phloridzin in apples); whereas others, such as quercetin, are found in all plant products such as fruit, vegetables, cereals, leguminous plants, tea, and wine. Some polyphenols are considered antinutrients, compounds that interfere with the absorption of essential nutrients, especially iron and other metal ions, but also by binding to digestive enzymes and other proteins, particularly in ruminants. Phenolic and carotenoid compounds with antioxidant properties in vegetables have been found to be retained significantly better through steaming than through frying. Polyphenols in wine, beer and various nonalcoholic juice beverages can be removed using finings, substances that are usually added at or near the completion of the processing of brewing. Many polyphenolic extracts, such as from grape skin, grape seeds, olive pulp or maritime pine bark, are sold as ingredients in functional foods, dietary supplements, and cosmetics without proof of effect or legal health claims. Some polyphenol ingredients have self-affirmed GRAS status in the United States. There are no recommended Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) levels established for polyphenols. The diverse structures and uncertain metabolic fate of phenolic compounds following digestion prevent understanding about their potential health effects. Specifically, because the presumed antioxidant role of polyphenols in vivo cannot be established, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued labeling guidance to manufacturers that polyphenols cannot be mentioned as antioxidant nutrients unless physiological evidence exists to verify such a qualification and a DRI value has been established. Further, because purported health claims for specific polyphenol-enriched foods remain unproven, health statements about polyphenols on product labels are prohibited by the FDA. Compared with the effects of polyphenols in vitro, the possible functions in vivo remain unknown due to 1) the absence of validated in vivo biomarkers; 2) long-term studies failing to demonstrate effects with a mechanism of action, sensitivity and specificity or efficacy; and 3) invalid applications of high, unphysiological test concentrations in the in vitro studies, which are subsequently irrelevant for the design of in vivo experiments. Traditional medicine. Herbal teas contain soluble polyphenols which impart astringent effects thought to have medicinal properties. In the Ayurveda system of folk medicine, the pomegranate and its polyphenol-rich peel are assumed to be useful for therapy. With respect to food and beverages, the cause of astringency is not fully understood, but it is measured chemically as the ability of a substance to precipitate proteins.

Wine polyphenols could fend off bacteria that cause cavities and gum disease. Health benefits of polyphenols have been attributed to the fact that these compounds are antioxidants, meaning they likely protect the body from harm caused by free
radicals. However, recent work indicates polyphenols might also promote health by actively interacting with bacteria in the gut. That makes sense because plants and fruits produce polyphenols to ward off infection by harmful bacteria and other pathogens.
two wine polyphenols in isolation -- caffeic and p-coumaric acids -- were generally better than the total wine extracts at cutting back on the bacteria's ability to stick to the cells. When combined with the Streptococcus dentisani, which is believed to be
an oral probiotic, the polyphenols were even better at fending off the pathogenic bacteria. The researchers also showed that metabolites formed when digestion of the polyphenols begins in the mouth might be responsible for some of these effects.

Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−. It consists of an oxygen and hydrogen atom held together by a covalent bond, and carries a negative electric charge. It is an important but usually minor constituent of water. It functions as a base, a ligand, a nucleophile and a catalyst. The hydroxide ion forms salts, some of which dissociate in aqueous solution, liberating solvated hydroxide ions. Sodium hydroxide is a multi-million-ton per annum commodity chemical. A hydroxide attached to a strongly electropositive center may itself ionize, liberating a hydrogen cation (H+), making the parent compound an acid. The corresponding electrically neutral compound •HO is the hydroxyl radical. The corresponding covalently-bound group –OH of atoms is the hydroxyl group. Hydroxide ion and hydroxyl group are nucleophiles and can act as a catalyst in organic chemistry. Many inorganic substances which bear the word "hydroxide" in their names are not ionic compounds of the hydroxide ion, but covalent compounds which contain hydroxyl groups.

Lectin are carbohydrate-binding proteins, macromolecules that are highly specific for sugar moieties. Lectins perform recognition on the cellular and molecular level and play numerous roles in biological recognition phenomena involving cells, carbohydrates, and proteins. Lectins also mediate attachment and binding of bacteria and viruses to their intended targets. Lectins are ubiquitous in nature and are found in many foods. Some foods such as beans and grains need to be cooked or fermented to reduce lectin content, but the lectins consumed in a typical balanced diet are not harmful. Some lectins are beneficial, such as CLEC11A which promotes bone growth, while others may be powerful toxins such as ricin. Lectins may be disabled by specific mono- and oligosaccharides, which bind to ingested lectins from grains, legume, nightshade plants and dairy; binding can prevent their attachment to the carbohydrates within the cell membrane. The selectivity of lectins means that they are very useful for analyzing blood type, and they are also used in some genetically engineered crops to transfer traits, such as resistance to pests and resistance to herbicides. Lectins serve many different biological functions in animals, from the regulation of cell adhesion to glycoprotein synthesis and the control of protein levels in the blood. They also may bind soluble extracellular and intercellular glycoproteins. Some lectins are found on the surface of mammalian liver cells that specifically recognize galactose residues. It is believed that these cell-surface receptors are responsible for the removal of certain glycoproteins from the circulatory system. Another lectin is a receptor that recognizes hydrolytic enzymes containing mannose-6-phosphate, and targets these proteins for delivery to the lysosomes. I-cell disease is one type of defect in this particular system. Lectins also are known to play important roles in the immune system. Within the innate immune system lectins such as the MBL, the mannose-binding lectin, help mediate the first-line defense against invading microorganisms. Other lectins within the immune system are thought to play a role in self-nonself discrimination and they likely modulate inflammatory and autoreactive processes. Intelectins (X-type lectins) were shown to bind microbial glycans and may function in the innate immune system as well. Lectins are ubiquitous in nature and all foods – plant and animal – contain some type of the proteins. Because some lectins can be harmful if poorly cooked or consumed in great quantities, or when absorbed into the bloodstream by individuals with ‘leaky gut syndrome’, reduced-lectin diets have been proposed. Since lectins are present to some degree in all plant and animal foods, a lectin-free diet is impossible. Individuals eliminating any food groups need to be deliberate about consuming adequate nutrients, and may also require dietary supplementation to maintain health.

Vitamins - Minerals

Healthy Food Vitamin Chart Everyone should be aware of what Vitamins and Minerals are needed for Optimum Health and Energy Level.

Your energy level comes from multiple sources and knowing these sources and how they react with one another is very crucial. The three major sources are eating healthy, good sound sleep and exercising. Other sources that can effect your energy levels are environment, allergies, medication and chemical imbalances to name a few. The word " Vitamin " means ' vital to life' and it comes from the Latin word vita (life) and the biochemical term amine (nitrogen-containing) though not all vitamins contain nitrogen. Vitamins are organic compounds that assist enzymes in converting food into energy, support your immune system and provide structures for your bones, skin and other tissues. With a few exceptions the body cannot manufacture or synthesize vitamins. They must be supplied in the diet or in dietary supplements. And eating lots of foods does not necessarily mean that you will get all your necessary vitamins and Dietary Minerals. Also sometimes vitamins can increase your Metabolism, which can affect your appetite, but not everyone has the same affect from vitamins. In order to fully optimize your vitamin and mineral needs you need to have blood and urine samples analyzed for your bodies exact vitamin and mineral usage. This is because everyone has different needs and also has different reactions to certain vitamins and minerals. Some people might need more of certain vitamins and minerals and some might need less of certain vitamins and minerals. Some vitamins and minerals might even be no good for you depending on your body’s sensitivity or allergic reaction. So Doctors must increase their training and knowledge about Nutrition and also know how to do a complete Blood Test in order to analyze a persons correct nutritional needs and also to see if there is any food allergies or adverse effects from certain vitamins, minerals, herbs or drugs. 

Know which vitamins that should be taken together for maximum effect. Know which supplements that should not be taken together. Food Chemistry

Blood Type Diet are distinct diets for each blood type that is unsupported by scientific evidence.

Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.

Organic Molecules in Biochemistry, Vitamins and Cofactors
Vitamin Benefits Chart (image)
Vitamin and Mineral Knowledge

Vitamin Deficiency Testing

Nutrient Testing
Vitamin and Nutrition Lab Tests
Electroacupuncture According to Voll
One X - The First Nutritional Biosensor Live a smarter and healthier lifestyle by monitoring your skin antioxidants level.
Food Sensor

Eventually everyone will wear a device on their wrist that will measure their hydration levels, vitamin levels, blood sugar levels, oxygen levels, protein levels, Triglyceride Levels and so on. This way they will know exactly what nutrition they need and when. And you will not have to wear the device all the time because you will learn from experience how much food and water you actually need each day.

Why Vitamins and Minerals Go Hand in Hand
Get the Very First Caffeinated Bracelet

DNA will ultimately prove that Nutrition is a Science. We will be able to determine what Food Additives are poison and prove what are the exact amounts of the right foods that each individual person requires for maximum health and energy.
I like only certain multi-vitamins that have a recommended dosage, or serving size, for taking several tablets a day. Then I only take one tablet a day even if they recommend 2 or more tablets a day. This way I’m only taking a low dosage of high quality vitamins. The vitamins will also last longer, which lowers the cost too. Some vitamins actually make me breakout. So I found these two Vitamins that work the best with no ill side effects when you take less the the recommended dosage.

I take one tablet daily of GNC MEGA MEN Multivitamins

Nutrition Products (amazon)
Soy Nutrition

Do Multi-Vitamins make you Hungry? Does taking Vitamin Supplements increase Appetite? It does for me, but why? Here is one guess: Vitamin deficiencies that may cause loss of appetite. The following vitamin deficiencies may cause loss of appetite, along with numerous other symptoms. Vitamin B12 - Vitamin A - Vitamin B1 (thiamine) - Vitamin B6 - Biotin (rare and most commonly seen in infants).

When taking Vitamin Supplements you need to know the quality of the product. You need to know the amount of each vitamin and mineral that you need. You need to know the best time to take them. You need to know when not to combine them with other vitamins, minerals, foods or medications. You need to understand absorption rate and the difference between fat-soluble and water-soluble nutrients. You need to know when to take a break from vitamins and for how long.

Food Chemistry

You need to pay close attention to how you feel everyday, because if something that you're eating is giving you problems, you have to know when to stop eating that particular food, or stop taking that particular medicine or supplement. Do you notice any changes that may be an indicator that something is wrong physically or mentally? But knowing what exactly is making you feel discomfort is not that easy. You can stop one thing at a time if you can, but you may have to stop several things at once, which makes it harder to figure out the culprit, but it's not impossible.

The Metallome

A list of life-supporting metals with illustrative biological functions.*
Sodium: nerve function, osmotic pressure balance, and charge stability of cell
Potassium: nerve function, osmotic pressure balance, and charge stability of cell
Magnesium: plant photosynthesis, structure stabilizer
Calcium: skeletal structure forming (teeth, bones), control signal trigger
Vanadium: catalyst for oxygen reactions, possibly involved in oxygen transport
Chromium: possibly involved in insulin function
Manganese: activator of certain enzymes, plant photosynthesis Iron: oxygen transport and storage, electron transport catalyst
Cobalt: cell division, a constituent of vitamin B12
Nickel: hydrogen activation, catalytic protection from toxic superoxide
Copper: respiratory chain electron transport catalyst, catalytic protection from toxic superoxide
Zinc: super acid catalyst, enzyme activator, blood pH control
Molybdenum: nitrogen fixation in plants, oxygen atom transfer catalyst
Tungsten: oxygen atom transfer catalyst.

Elements Chart


Vitamins Vaporizer

The Thinker Man