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Solar Energy - Power from the SunSun Power

Photovoltaics is the conversion of Sunlight into Electricity using semiconducting materials that exhibit the photovoltaic effect, a phenomenon studied in physics, photochemistry, and electrochemistrySolar Panel is designed to absorb the sun's rays as a source of energy for generating electricity or heating. Cities that are Fully Powered by the Sun.

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Energy Types
Resources and Suppliers of Solar Energy
Solar Calculator
Portable Solar - Portable Battery Energy
Organic - Full Spectrum
Solar Heat (Radiant and Thermal Energy)
Batteries - Series or Parallel

http://www.energymatters.com.au/images/misc/zero-solar-bill.gif I use about 9 kwh's of energy a day just for myself, that's around 275 kwh's a month on average. I use energy for an electric stove for 2 meals a day, toaster 2 times a day, Single Cup Coffee maker 3 times a day, 2 monitors with 2 computers on 12 hours a day, router and telephone, refrigerator, hot water heater, microwave oven 2 times day, radio, clock, and having 2 LED lights on for about 14 hours a day. (1,000 square foot apartment) I'm paying around 7 cents per kilowatt-hour. $1.68 a day, with taxes and fees, around $65.00 a month. Most of my appliances are not energy efficient appliances. So I could be using even less energy.

A 4 kilowatts Solar Panel System produces 4,000 watts of DC direct current power. That's 300 to 750 kilowatt hours (kWh) of alternating current (AC) power per month, which could be plenty of energy for 2 people. A 4-kW Solar Kit requires up to 300 square feet of space and at least 5 sun hours per day for 16 panels of high performance 60-cell polycrystalline PV modules. One solar panel is 65 inches by 39 inches. You have an average 12 year lifespan for the inverter, and about a 50 year lifespan for the Solar Panels, which will still be 75 % effective after 50 years. The Solar Kit system whole system is almost 100% recyclable, and easily upgradable. The average price for a 4kW Solar Kit is around $7,000.00 without installation. A 14 kWh Tesla Powerwall Battery Pack cost $6,500 with installation and supporting hardware. So a complete system is around $14,000.00, which is like buying all your energy needs for the next 25 years, for less then half the price. For a Free Quote contact Solar City. And if I can sell my extra energy back to the grid, then it would take me around 12 years to pay off a $14,000.00 complete system. Eversource in Ct. will pay you once a year at 3.4 cents per kwh for energy given back to the grid, which could make the whole system pratically free, especially when you're not producing any more CO2, or creating more pollution, or wasting valuable time, energy, resources and people. And you will not have to be dependent anymore. And you're also creating jobs in America. The main goal is to give everyone 0% interest loans, because this is an investment in our future. Governments need to secure zero interest loans and stop trying to profit from good decisions, like they did with school loans. This way the cost of a solar panel system will not exceeded someone's current energy bill. Thus the major incentives would be uninterrupted power, zero pollution and reduced CO2 contamination. No cost upfront. And in about 15 years after the loan has been paid, people will never have another energy bill again. The Future looks bright, very bright.

I would have a Smart Home setup to have total control over energy use and also monitor everything in the home.

16 W bulb (on 10 hours) – 4.8 kWh/month (57.6 kWh/year) LED's would use less energy
100 W bulb (on 10 hours) – 30 kWh/month (360 kWh/year) LED's would use less energy
Refrigerator – 36.7 kWh/month (440 kWh/year) There are more efficient ones
Dishwasher – 41 kWh/month (492 kWh/year) There are more efficient ones
Clothes Washer – 24.9 kWh/month (299 kWh/year) There are more efficient ones
Electric Clothes Dryer – 74.7 kWh/month (896 kWh/year) There are more efficient ones
Stove & Oven (self-cleaning) – 61.25 kWh/month (735 kWh/year) There are more efficient ones

Kilowatt Hour is a unit of energy equivalent to one kilowatt (1 kW) of power sustained for one hour.
Kilowatt Hours (kWh) is a derived unit of energy equal to 3.6 megajoules. If the energy is being transmitted or used at a constant rate (power) over a period of time, the total energy in kilowatt-hours is the power in kilowatts multiplied by the time in hours. The kilowatt-hour is commonly used as a billing unit for energy delivered to consumers by electric utilities.

Watt Hour is a measure of electrical energy equivalent to a power consumption of one watt for one hour.
1 watt hour = 0.001 Kilowatt Hour
A 300-Watt item used for 5 minutes per day will consume 25-Watt Hours per day.

Plasma TV uses 330 watts / LCD TV uses 213 watts - LCD Monitor 80-150 watts
Laptop 60-250 watts - Laptop Computer 40-120 / Microwave 500-1500 watts / Toaster 1,100 watts
15 cu. ft. Chest freezer uses 1080 watt-hours /day
20 cu. ft. Refrigerator (AC) uses 1411 watt-hours/day

In 2006, the average install cost for a Solar Panel was about $14 a watt. As of 2012 it's about $4 a watt. In 2006, about 30,000 U.S. households had solar panels. This number jumped to 400,000 in 2013. Solar Energy is only .05 percent of the country's total energy.  Average Solar Panel Size is 18 Square Feet, or a little less than 3-1/2 x 5-1/2 Feet.

A Gigawatt of power provides enough energy for about 700,000 homes. Efficiency 

The average annual electricity consumption for a U.S. residential utility customer was 11,496 kWh a year, an average of 958 Kilowatt Hours (kWh) per month. A 100-Watt bulb burning for 10 hours uses 1 kilowatt hour. People in the U.S. pay about 12 cents per kilowatt-hour on average.

Renewable Energy Statistics

Info-Graph below provided by Land Art Generator

Solar Power Land Use Needed worldwide Using only solar panels, the world needs approximately 191,817 square miles of land, or about the area of Spain, to power the planet. (The Sahara Desert is 3.5 million square miles List of Deserts by Area)  The Average household uses approximately 18,000 kWh per year, which doesn't mean that's how much electricity people need, or, how much more energy efficient appliances can be. So the average household might need around 42 solar panels, but that all depends on the quality and the size of the solar panel, because they are getting smaller and they are getting more efficient as more advancements are made.

Many people wonder if solar panels are worth the investment, of course they are. They actually start paying for themselves immediately. Once you correctly calculate the current cost for your energy, whether it's oil, natural gas or coal. And once you correctly calculate all the side effects from your current energy supplier, like pollution, poison, CO2 emissions, waste, time, people, resources and so on, you can easily see in a side by side comparison that Solar panels are the best investment for you and the planet. Think about all the mining of coal, then the processing, then building of power stations, then building power lines, and then the millions of people who have to manage and maintain the infrastructure, which creates even more waste, more pollution, more wasted time and so on. So you can easily see that solar energy is the least expensive energy provider that we have so far, and also has the least amount of pollution, and you don't need all that wasted infrastructure that you are currently dependent on. Freedom.

Solar energy helped avoid between 3,000 and 12,700 premature deaths in the US between 2007 and 2015. Fossil fuels produce large amounts of pollutants like carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter, which are responsible for ill-health and negative climate effects. The researchers found that the US saved between $35 billion and $220 billion in that period because of avoided deaths, fewer sick days, and climate-change mitigation.

Solar Power by Country (wiki)
Photovoltaics Companies (wiki)
List of largest Power Stations in the World (wiki)
Renewable Energy Milestones

In 2013 there was a 47 percent jump in the number of home solar installations in the U.S., and by the end of the year more than 400,000 American homes had solar power.

Solar Market Report 2014

Calculate How Many Solar Panels you need

Sun Hours Chart of U.S. Take your 1,000 kWh/mo and divide that by 30 to get your kWh/day. 1,000 / 30 = 33.3 kWh/day
Then you divide this by the number of solar hours per day your area gets. Let's say 5. 33.3 / 5 = 6.67 kW
Last you need to adjust for real world inefficiencies. A good rule of thumb is to suppose approximately 75% - 80% inefficiencies. So increase your system a little. 6.67 kW / 0.75 = 8.9 kW.

Solar Time (Solar Hours) s a calculation of the passage of time based on the Sun's position in the sky. The fundamental unit of solar time is the day. Two types of solar time are apparent solar time (sundial time) and mean solar time (clock time).
Solar Estimate

Sunshine Recorder

Net Metering allows consumers who generate some or all of their own electricity to use that electricity anytime, instead of when it is generated. This is particularly important with wind and solar, which are non-dispatchable. Monthly net metering allows consumers to use solar power generated during the day at night, or wind from a windy day later in the month. Annual net metering rolls over a net kilowatt credit to the following month, allowing solar power that was generated in July to be used in December, or wind power from March in August.

Average Solar Panel Size is 18 Square Feet, or a little less than 3-1/2 x 5-1/2 Feet.
Depending on the quality of the solar panel, A 20kW Solar Kit requires up to 1,400 square feet of space, assuming at least 5 sun hours per day, and knowing that only 78% of the solar system’s rated power is actually delivered to the source. First you find out how many sun hours you have on the average where you live, and then you have measured how much energy you need to run the necessary energy efficient appliances that you have, like a refrigerator, water heater, stove, computers, and lights. Then you can calculate how many solar panels you need to install based on your energy needs and the average sunlight you receive in a day, the size and efficiency of the solar panels will vary depending on the manufacturer.

Solar Calculations

Net Metering State

Annual U.S. Solar PV Installations from 2000-2014 A megawatt (MW, one million watts) is a unit of electric capacity or electric load. A MW is equal to 1,000 kilowatts. Watt
A megawatt of solar capacity is typically enough to power 200 average U.S. homes. One kilowatt-hour is 3.6 megajoules.

In 2010, the average annual electricity consumption for a U.S. residential utility customer was 11,496 kWh a year, an average of 958 Kilowatt Hours (kWh) per month.
Tennessee had the highest annual consumption - 16,716 kWh. 
New Jersey
Maine the lowest at 6,252 kWh. 
Cost of electricity by source
Web Math

Solar panels on a rooftop in cool, foggy San Francisco produce only one percent less electricity than one in nearby Sacramento, where it’s sunny and hot.

2,500 square-foot home with 32 solar panels installed on the roof will generate around 11.5 kilowatts of electricity.

Solar Myths
Community Energy Inc tell your electrical power supplier that you want your electricity from renewable sources.
Web Enrollment

Despite strong support for renewable-energy development at the state and local levels, many consumers still face local ordinances or homeowner association rules that prohibit, restrict or drastically increase the cost of installing a solar-energy system. Meanwhile, owners of existing systems face potential challenges when trees or new structures on neighboring properties shade their systems. Solar access laws, which may be implemented at both the state and local levels, are designed to protect a consumer’s right to install and operate a solar-energy system on a home or business, and to maintain access to sunlight.

Solar Policy Guide
Rules prevent solar panels in many states with abundant sunlight
Solar Access Law in the United States

Solar Easement is a right, expressed as an easement, restriction, covenant, or condition contained in any deed, contract, or other written instrument executed by or on behalf of any landowner for the purpose of assuring adequate access to direct sunlight for solar energy systems.

Solar Access is the ability of one property to continue to receive sunlight across property lines without obstruction from another’s property (buildings, foliage or other impediment). Solar access is calculated using a sun path diagram. Sun is the source of our vision and energy. Its movements inform our perception of time and space. Access to sun is essential to energy conservation and to the quality of our lives. Solar access is differentiated from solar rights or solar easement, which is specifically meant for direct sunlight for solar energy systems, whereas solar access is a right to sunlight upon certain building façades regardless of the presence of active or passive solar energy systems.

Grid Parity occurs when an alternative energy source can generate power at a levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) that is less than or equal to the price of purchasing power from the electricity grid. The term is most commonly used when discussing renewable energy sources, notably solar power and wind power. Grid parity depends upon whether you are calculating from the point of view of a utility or of a retail consumer.

But of course we have to use energy wisely without waste and abuse. When they say that a solar farm will produce enough energy for 250,00 homes, that is an incomplete sentence of little meaning. What kind of homes are you talking about? Do the people living in these homes understand energy usage? How much energy does a home really need without being wasteful?
How much corruption, waste and abuse was used in making this solar farm?

Insolation is the power per unit area received from the Sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range of the measuring instrument. Irradiance may be measured in space or at the Earth's surface after atmospheric absorption and scattering. It is measured perpendicular to the incoming sunlight. Total solar irradiance (TSI), is a measure of the solar power over all wavelengths per unit area incident on the Earth's upper atmosphere. The solar constant is a conventional measure of mean TSI at a distance of one astronomical Unit (AU). Irradiance is a function of distance from the Sun, the solar cycle, and cross-cycle changes.Irradiance on Earth is also measured perpendicular to the incoming sunlight. Insolation is the power received on Earth per unit area on a horizontal surface. It depends on the height of the Sun above the horizon.

Sunshine Duration is a climatological indicator, measuring duration of sunshine in given period (usually, a day or a year) for a given location on Earth, typically expressed as an averaged value over several years. It is a general indicator of cloudiness of a location, and thus differs from insolation, which measures the total energy delivered by sunlight over a given period. Sunshine duration is usually expressed in hours per year, or in (average) hours per day. The first measure indicates the general sunniness of a location compared with other places, while the latter allows for comparison of sunshine in various seasons in the same location. Another often-used measure is percentage ratio of recorded bright sunshine duration and daylight duration in the observed period. An important use of sunshine duration data is to characterize the climate of sites, especially of health resorts. This also takes into account the psychological effect of strong solar light on human well-being. It is often used to promote tourist destinations.

Sun Hours Per Day

Solar Power Generator

Solar Power Generator Using parts easily available from your local stores, you can make a small solar power generator for $250 to $300. Great for power failures and life outside the power grid. Power your computer, modem, vcr, tv, cameras, lights, or DC appliances anywhere you go. Use in cabins, boats, tents, archaeological digs, or while travelling throughout the third world. Have one in the office store room in case of power failures in your high-rise. I keep mine in my bedroom where it powers my CD player, turntable, lights, modem, laptop, and (ahem) a back massager. I run a line out the window to an 8" x 24" panel on the roof.

1. Buy yourself a small solar panel. For about $100 you should be able to get one rated at 12 volts or better (look for 16 volts) at an RV or marine supplies store.

2. Buy yourself a battery. Get any size deep cycle 12 volt lead/acid battery. You need the deep cycle battery for continuous use. The kind in your car is a cranking battery--just for starting an engine. Look for bargains, it should cost about $50-60.

3. Get a battery box to put it in for $10. (This is good for covering up the exposed terminals in case there are children about If you going to install the system in a pump shed, cabin, or boat, skip this.)

3. Buy a 12 volt DC meter. Radio Shack has them for about $25.

4. Buy a DC input. I like the triple inlet model which you can find at a car parts store in the cigarette lighter parts section for about $10. This is enough to power DC appliances, and there are many commercially available, like fans, one-pint water boilers, lights, hair dryers, baby bottle warmers, and vacuum cleaners. Many cassette players, answering machines, and other electrical appliances are DC already and with the right cable will run straight off the box.

5. But if you want to run AC appliances, you will have to invest in an inverter. This will convert the stored DC power in the battery into AC power for most of your household appliances. I bought a 115 volt 140 watt inverter made by Power-to-Go at Pep Boys for $50. More powerful inverters are available by mail. Count up the number of watts you'll be using (e.g., a small color television(=60 watts) with a VCR(=22 watts), you'll need 82 watts).

6. Use a drill to attach the meter and DC input to the top of the box.

7. Use insulated wire to attach the meter to the wingnut terminals on the battery. Connect the negative (-) pole first. Only handle one wire at a time. Connect the DC inlet to the battery in the same way. Connect the solar panel to the battery in the same way.

8. Close the lid (I use a bungee cord to keep it tight). Put the solar panel in the sun. It takes 5-8 hours to charge a dead battery; 1-3 hours to top off a weak one. It will run radios, fans, and small wattage lights all night, or give you about 5 hours of continuous use at 115 volt AC, or about an hour boiling water. This system may be added on to with larger panels, inverters, and batteries.

Resources for Solar Energy

Solar City

Solar Shingles also called photovoltaic shingles, are solar panels or solar modules designed to look like and function as conventional roofing materials, such as asphalt shingle or slate, while also producing electricity. Solar shingles are a type of solar energy solution known as building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV). 5 million new roofs are installed in the U.S. every year.

Monocrystalline 24v System

Clean Energy Campaign

Solar Farm in Les-mees France The photo on the right is 112,780 solar modules covering an area around 500 acres, or 0.78 square miles of land, receiving horizontal solar irradiation that supplies 1,556 kWh/m² a year that produces 100 megawatts of clean power, which could power 36,000 homes, depending on how much energy those homes consume or how energy efficient they are?

Cities that are Fully Powered by the Sun so far

Vote Solar
Green for All
Tax Credits for Clean Energy
Federal Tax Credits
Renewable Energy Certificate
Cities Producing Clean Energy
Project Sunroof
Grid Alternatives
Community Energy
Solar Power Cooperative

Community Solar Farm is a solar power installation that accepts capital from and provides output credit and tax benefits to individual and other investors. In some systems you buy individual solar panels which are installed in the farm after your purchase. In others you purchase kW capacity or kWh of production. The farm's power output is credited to investors in proportion to their investment, with adjustments to reflect ongoing changes in capacity, technology, costs and electricity rates. Companies, cooperatives, governments or non-profits operate the farms. Centralizing the location of solar systems has advantages over residential installations that include: Trees, roof size and/or configuration, adjacent buildings, the immediate microclimate and/or other factors which may reduce power output. Building codes, zoning restrictions, homeowner association rules and aesthetic concerns. Lack of skills and commitment to install and maintain solar systems. Expanding participation to include renters and others who are not residential property owners.

Solar Gardens
My Sun Share
Solar Estimate
Multijunction Photovoltaic Cell
Fraunhofer Solar Panels 44.7% efficient
Sharp Solar Panels 37.9% efficient
Investing in Solar
Sun Farmer

Topaz Solar Farm is a 550-megawatt (MW) photovoltaic power station in San Luis Obispo County, California. Construction on the project began in November 2011 and ended in November 2014. It is one of the world's largest solar farms. The $2.5 billion project includes 9 million CdTe photovoltaic modules based on thin-film technology, manufactured by U.S. company First Solar.

First Solar is an American photovoltaic (PV) manufacturer of rigid thin film modules, or solar panels, and a provider of utility-scale PV power plants and supporting services that include finance, construction, maintenance and end-of-life panel recycling. First Solar uses cadmium telluride (CdTe) as a semiconductor to produce CdTe-panels, that are competing successfully with conventional crystalline silicon technology. In 2009, First Solar became the first solar panel manufacturing company to lower its manufacturing cost to $1 per watt and produced CdTe-panels with an efficiency of about 14 percent at a reported cost of 59 cents per watt in 2013.

First Solar
Solar Clover
Solar Power in France is the 7th biggest producer of PV electricity in the world (wiki)
Roads made of Solar Panels

The Thrilling Potential for Off-Grid Solar Energy: Amar Inamdar 2017 (video and text)

Organic Solar Power

Bacteria Solar Harvesting Organic Solar Cell is a type of photovoltaic that uses organic electronics, a branch of electronics that deals with conductive organic polymers or small organic molecules, for light absorption and charge transport to produce electricity from sunlight by the photovoltaic effect. An example of an organic photovoltaic is the polymer solar cell. Organic solar cells can be flexible, transparent, and light-weight, and can be manufactured in arbitrary shapes or colors.

Organic Solar Cell Consortium
Transparent Photovoltaic

Luminescent Solar Concentrator
Wysips Clear Solar Cell Display

Food Additive Key to Environmentally Friendly, Efficient, Plastic Solar Cells Plastic solar cells, or organic photovoltaics are popular because they are lightweight, flexible, transparent and inexpensive to manufacture, making them useful in multiple applications. o-methylanisole (o-MA) as the solvent. O-MA is a commonly used flavoring agent in foods, and is nontoxic to humans. Researchers from North Carolina State University and the Chinese Academy of Sciences have created an efficient, semi-printed plastic solar cell without the use of environmentally hazardous halogen solvents. These solar cells can be manufactured at room temperature, which has implications for large-scale commercial production.

Perovskite Solar Cell is a type of solar cell which includes a perovskite structured compound, most commonly a hybrid organic-inorganic lead or tin halide-based material, as the light-harvesting active layer. Perovskite materials such as methylammonium lead halides are cheap to produce and simple to manufacture. Solar cell efficiencies of devices using these materials have increased from 3.8% in 2009 to 22.1% in early 2016, making this the fastest-advancing solar technology to date. With the potential of achieving even higher efficiencies and the very low production costs, perovskite solar cells have become commercially attractive, with start-up companies already promising modules on the market by 2017.

Perovskite solar cell design could outperform existing commercial technologies.
Perovskite is a calcium titanium oxide mineral composed of calcium titanate, with the chemical formula CaTiO3.
Perovskite Structure is any material with the same type of crystal structure as calcium titanium oxide (CaTiO3), known as the perovskite structure, or XIIA2+VIB4+X2−3 with the oxygen in the face centers. Perovskites take their name from the mineral, which was first discovered in the Ural mountains of Russia by Gustav Rose in 1839 and is named after Russian mineralogist L. A. Perovski (1792–1856).
Printable solar cells just got a little closer
Major advance in solar cells made from cheap, easy-to-use perovskite
Polaron Perovskite Solar Cell infrared radiation is converted into electrical energy.
The Power of Perovskite technology forecast to replace the classic photovoltaic cells.
Record stability for Perovskite Solar Cells, efficiency over 20%.
Double perovskites in environmentally friendly lead-free perovskites solar cells.

Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells (PSCs) sets a new world-record efficiency performance of 22.1 % in small cells and 19.7 percent in 1-square-centimeter cells.

Watching Atoms Move in Hybrid Perovskite Crystals Reveals Clues to Improving Solar Cells

Spectrum (electromagnetic)

Ames Laboratory scientists are able to “see” light-to-energy transfer in new solar cell materials

Materials International Space Station Experiment is a series of experiments mounted externally on the International Space Station (ISS) that investigates the effects of long-term exposure of materials to the harsh space environment.

Third-Generation Photovoltaic Cell are solar cells that are potentially able to overcome the Shockley–Queisser limit of 31–41% power efficiency for single bandgap solar cells. This includes a range of alternatives to cells made of semiconducting p-n junctions ("first generation") and thin film cells ("second generation"). Common third-generation systems include multi-layer ("tandem") cells made of amorphous silicon or gallium arsenide, while more theoretical developments include frequency conversion, (IE changing the frequencies of light that the cell cannot use to light frequencies that the cell can use - thus producing more power), hot-carrier effects and other multiple-carrier ejection techniques. Emerging photovoltaics include: Copper zinc tin sulfide solar cell (CZTS), and derivates CZTSe and CZTSSe. Dye-sensitized solar cell, also known as "Grätzel cell". Organic solar cell. Perovskite solar cell. Polymer solar cell. Quantum dot solar cell. Especially the achievements in the research of perovskite cells have received tremendous attention in the public, as their research efficiencies recently soared above 20 percent. They also offer a wide spectrum of low-cost applications. In addition, another emerging technology, concentrator photovoltaics (CPV), uses high-efficient, multi-junction solar cells in combination with optical lenses and a tracking system.

Low-Cost Solar Power

Carbon Nanotubes in Photovoltaics Organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs) are fabricated from thin films of organic semiconductors, such as polymers and small-molecule compounds, and are typically on the order of 100 nm thick. Because polymer based OPVs can be made using a coating process such as spin coating or inkjet printing, they are an attractive option for inexpensively covering large areas as well as flexible plastic surfaces. A promising low cost alternative to conventional solar cells made of crystalline silicon, there is a large amount of research being dedicated throughout industry and academia towards developing OPVs and increasing their power conversion efficiency.

Nanocrystal Solar Cell are solar cells based on a substrate with a coating of nanocrystals. The nanocrystals are typically based on silicon, CdTe or CIGS and the substrates are generally silicon or various organic conductors. Quantum dot solar cells are a variant of this approach, but take advantage of quantum mechanical effects to extract further performance. Dye-sensitized solar cells are another related approach, but in this case the nano-structuring is part of the substrate.

NREL, University of Washington Scientists Elevate Quantum Dot Solar Cell World Record to 13.4 Percent

Photonic Crystal is a periodic optical nanostructure that affects the motion of photons in much the same way that ionic lattices affect electrons in solids. Photonic crystals occur in nature in the form of structural coloration—and, in different forms, promise to be useful in a range of applications.

Ultra-broadband light trapping using nanotextured decoupled graphene multilayers optoelectronics, and spectroscopy Ultrasensitive optical absorption in graphene based on bound states in the continuum Graphene-based material that traps electromagnetic waves, produce energy from not just sunlight, but any device that emits microwave or radio waves. Convert electromagnetism into usable electricity.

Solar Cell Efficiency by UNSW


Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation). This chemical energy is stored in carbohydrate molecules, such as sugars, which are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water in most cases, Oxygen is also released as a waste product. Most plants, most Algae, and Cyanobacteria perform photosynthesis; such organisms are called photoautotrophs. Photosynthesis is largely responsible for producing and maintaining the oxygen content of the Earth's atmosphere, and supplies all of the organic compounds and most of the energy necessary for life on Earth. (Splits a water molecule into Hydrogen and Oxygen - Fusion) - Photosynthetic Water Splitting - In photosynthesis, water splitting donates electrons to the electron transport chain in photosystem II, which is the first protein complex in the light-dependent reactions of oxygenic photosynthesis. It is located in the thylakoid membrane of plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. Within the photosystem, enzymes capture photons of light to energize electrons that are then transferred through a variety of coenzymes and cofactors to reduce plastoquinone to plastoquinol. The energized electrons are replaced by oxidizing water to form hydrogen ions and molecular oxygen. By replenishing lost electrons with electrons from the splitting of water, photosystem II provides the electrons for all of photosynthesis to occur. The hydrogen ions (protons) generated by the oxidation of water help to create a proton gradient that is used by ATP synthase to generate ATP. The energized electrons transferred to plastoquinone are ultimately used to reduce NADP+ to NADPH or are used in cyclic photophosphorylation. Plants carry out photosynthesis by converting photons of light striking their chromophores into another form of energy known as an exciton. An exciton is an energetic state of a molecule, or closely coupled group of molecules after they are excited by light absorption. A bound state of an electron and an electron hole which are attracted to each other by the electrostatic Coulomb force. (A photon takes all possible paths simultaneously). 1 mole of photon = 1 gram of biomass or 0.5 gram of yield.

Photosynthesis Info-Graph (image)

What Is Photosynthesis? (youtube)

The ability to model and build molecular circuits for gathering light energy and moving it around in a controlled fashion, opens the door for the design and development of a variety of nano-scale devices that are powered and controlled by light. The effectiveness of biological systems and nanomachines in capturing light and transporting energy is owing to the highly ordered nanoscale architecture of photoactive molecules. Li-Fi

New Light on Photosynthesis ASU

X-Rays Captures Images of Photosynthesis in Action
Study sheds X-Ray Light on mysteries of Photosynthesis

Chlorophylls A and B are two pigments were soaking up most of the sunlight -- the violets, indigos, blues, green, yellows and oranges.

Scientists Tweak Photosynthesis to Boost Crop Yield by boosting levels of three proteins involved in photosynthesis.

The origins of photosynthesis in a sun-loving bacteria. Chlorophyll is the pigment that makes plants green. In plants, chlorophyll captures the sun's energy and uses it to make sugars out of carbon dioxide from the air and water. Oxygenic photosynthesis in higher plants, green algae and cyanobacteria make use of Photosystem I (PSI), which is a Type I RC, and Photosystem II (PSII), which is a Type II RC. These work together to extract electrons from water to ferredoxin and finally reduce an energy carrier NADP+ to NADPH. In contrast, anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, such as Heliobacterium modesticaldum, use a single RC to drive a cyclic electron transfer (ET) pathway that creates a proton-motive force across the membrane, which is used to drive energy production and metabolism by ATP synthesis. The reaction centers enclose these participants like a cage to efficiently capture all the available energy and photons of light by bringing all the elements together in the same vicinity. Reaction centers (RC) come in two main flavors of cofactors: iron (Type I) or quinone (Type II). Heliobacteria have the simplest known reaction center and use unique chlorophylls.

Photosynthesis may originated 3.6 billion years ago. The earliest oxygen-producing microbes may not have been cyanobacteria, which are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.

Research sheds light on how Plants Breathe. For guard cells to work effectively, First, the level of water or turgor pressure inside the cell, secondly the elasticity of the cell wall, thirdly it's kidney shaped geometry that converts pressure into shape changes.

Photosynthesis uses PC645 protein vibrations as 'traffic signals', controlling the transformation of sunshine into useful energy. PC645 controls where energy goes by tuning the vibrations of pigments to enhance energy transport along specific routes.

Guard Cell are specialized cells in the epidermis of leaves, stems and other organs that are used to control gas exchange. They are produced in pairs with a gap between them that forms a stomatal pore. The stomatal pores are largest when water is freely available and the guard cells turgid, and closed when water availability is critically low and the guard cells become flaccid. Photosynthesis depends on the diffusion of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the air through the stomata into the mesophyll tissues. Oxygen (O2), produced as a byproduct of photosynthesis, exits the plant via the stomata. When the stomata are open, water is lost by evaporation and must be replaced via the transpiration stream, with water taken up by the roots. Plants must balance the amount of CO2 absorbed from the air with the water loss through the stomatal pores, and this is achieved by both active and passive control of guard cell turgor and stomatal pore size.

Photosynthetic protein structure that harvests and traps infrared light

Artificial Photosynthesis

Advance in artificial photosynthesis combining biocompatible light-capturing nanowire arrays with select bacterial populations.

Enhanced energy transport in genetically engineered excitonic networks.

Artificial Photosynthesis gets big boost from new Catalyst. The new catalyst is made of nickel, iron, cobalt and phosphorus, all elements that are low-cost and pose few safety hazards. It can be synthesized at room temperature using relatively inexpensive equipment, and remained stable as long as 100 hours.

Artificial Photosynthesis is a chemical process that replicates the natural process of photosynthesis, a process that converts sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide into carbohydrates and oxygen. The term, artificial photosynthesis, is commonly used to refer to any scheme for capturing and storing the energy from sunlight in the chemical bonds of a fuel (a solar fuel). Photocatalytic water splitting converts water into hydrogen ions and oxygen, and is a main research area in artificial photosynthesis. Light-driven carbon dioxide reduction is another studied process, that replicates natural carbon fixation.

Perovskite Solar Cell (organic)

From Leaf to Tree: Large-Scale Artificial Photosynthesis

The leaves of some begonias, their chloroplasts have evolved a nanoscale light-trapping structure to help them survive in the darkness of the forest floor. Chloroplast main role is to conduct photosynthesis, where the photosynthetic pigment chlorophyll captures the energy from sunlight and converts it and stores it in the energy-storage molecules ATP and NADPH while freeing oxygen from water. They then use the ATP and NADPH to make organic molecules from carbon dioxide in a process known as the Calvin cycle. Chloroplasts carry out a number of other functions, including fatty acid synthesis, much amino acid synthesis, and the immune response in plants. The number of chloroplasts per cell varies from 1 in algae up to 100 in plants like Arabidopsis and wheat.

Fernando Uribe-Romo on Synthetic Photosynthesis artificial leaf bionic leaf (youtube) University of Central Florida, chemist Fernando Uribe-Romo has developed a synthetic crystalline molecule that can trap carbon dioxide (CO2) and convert the energy from sunlight into organic compounds that can be used as fuels. Technology could one day be used on roofs of residences, removing CO2 from the air while powering the home.

Bionic Leaf Turns Sunlight Into Liquid Fuel (youtube) A cross-disciplinary team at Harvard University has created a system that uses solar energy to split water molecules and hydrogen-eating bacteria to produce liquid fuels. The system can convert solar energy to biomass with 10 percent efficiency, far above the one percent seen in the fastest-growing plants.

Solar-to-Fuel System Recycles CO2 to Make Ethanol and Ethylene
Copper Catalyst Yields High Efficiency CO2-to-Fuels Conversion

Scientists Design Molecular System for Artificial Photosynthesis. System is designed to mimic key functions of the photosynthetic center in green plants to convert solar energy into chemical energy stored by hydrogen fuel.

A new material has been created based on gold and black phosphorus to produce clean hydrogen fuel using the full spectrum of sunlight.

Water splitting–biosynthetic system with CO2 reduction efficiencies exceeding photosynthesis. Photosynthesis fixes CO2 from the air by using sunlight. Industrial mimics of photosynthesis seek to convert CO2 directly into biomass, fuels, or other useful products.

Solar Paint that can absorb water vapour and split it to generate hydrogen -- the cleanest source of energy. Unlike silica gel, the new material, synthetic molybdenum-sulphide, also acts as a semi-conductor and catalyses the splitting of water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen.

Japanese scientists have now developed a fully integrated microfluidic device that produces hydrogen fuel and converts it into electrical energy based on photocatalysis. They designed a photocatalytic microgenerator of hydrogen fuel, combined with a micro fuel cell, all set up on a microfluidic chip. This microfluidic power generator is based on sunlight and can provide continuously power supply to other miniaturized devices at room temperature and at atmospheric pressure.

Photocatalysis is the acceleration of a photoreaction in the presence of a catalyst. In catalysed photolysis, light is absorbed by an adsorbed substrate. In photogenerated catalysis, the photocatalytic activity (PCA) depends on the ability of the catalyst to create electron–hole pairs, which generate free radicals (e.g. hydroxyl radicals: •OH) able to undergo secondary reactions. Its practical application was made possible by the discovery of water electrolysis by means of titanium dioxide.

Photovoltaic Thermal Hybrid Solar Collector are systems that convert solar radiation into thermal and electrical energy. These systems combine a solar cell, which converts sunlight into electricity, with a solar thermal collector, which captures the remaining energy and removes waste heat from the PV module.

Luminescent Solar Concentrator is a device for concentrating radiation, solar radiation in particular, to produce electricity. Luminescent solar concentrators operate on the principle of collecting radiation over a large area, converting it by luminescence (commonly specifically by fluorescence) and directing the generated radiation into a relatively small output target.

Cyborg bacteria outperform plants when turning sunlight into useful compounds. Bioreactor loaded with bacteria decorated with cadmium sulfide, light-absorbing nanocrystals (middle) to convert light, water and carbon dioxide into useful chemicals.

Butterfly Wing Inspires Photovoltaics: Light Absorption Can Be Enhanced by Up to 200 Percent. Sunlight reflected by solar cells is lost as unused energy. The wings of the butterfly Pachliopta aristolochiae are drilled by nanostructures (nanoholes) that help absorbing light over a wide spectrum far better than smooth surfaces. Researchers have now succeeded in transferring these nanostructures to solar cells and, thus, enhancing their light absorption rate by up to 200 percent.

Full Spectrum Solar Power

Solar Spectrum Full Spectrum Photovoltaics
Full Spectrum Solar Cell

New solar cell is more efficient, costs less than its counterparts Layers of new photovoltaic cell harvest more of sun’s energy for efficiencies above 40 percent.

Scientists Design Solar Cell That Captures Nearly All Solar Spectrum Energy

Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Grätzel Cell titanium oxide, graphite, iodine.

3-D Nano Cone-Based Solar
Nano Solar
Full Spectrum Solar

Solar Cells Get Boost with Integration of Water-Splitting Catalyst onto Semiconductor

Maximum Power Point Tracking is a technique used commonly with wind turbines and photovoltaic (PV) solar systems to maximize power extraction under all conditions.

New Fabrication Technique Leads to Broader Sunlight Absorption in Plastic Solar Cells

Energy Transformation is the process of changing one form of energy to another form of energy. In physics, the term energy describes the capacity to produce certain changes within any system, without regard to limitations in transformation imposed.

The photon, the particle of light, the sunlight, the quantum of light captured by a chlorophyll molecule, is delivered to what's called the reaction center, where it can be turned into chemical energy. And it doesn't just follow one route; it follows multiple pathways at once, to optimize the most efficient way of reaching the reaction center without dissipating as waste heat.

Light-Harvesting Polymers: Ultrafast Energy Transfer in Polystyrene-Based Arrays of p-Conjugated Chromophores

Microscopic FLUENCE rake doubles efficiency of low-cost solar cells

Nanowire–Bacteria Hybrids for Unassisted Solar Carbon Dioxide Fixation to Value-Added Chemicals

"Bionic leaf" uses bacteria to convert solar energy into liquid fuel Harvard scientists have created a system that could speed adoption of solar-generated fuels as a power source.

Prototype Shows How Tiny Photodetectors Can Double Their Efficiency. UC Riverside research invokes quantum mechanical processes that occur when two atomically thin materials are stacked together. Tiny devices convert light into electrons, whose subsequent movement generates an electronic signal. Within atoms, electrons live in states that determine their energy level. When electrons move from one state to another, they either acquire or lose energy. Above a certain energy level, electrons can move freely. An electron moving into a lower energy state can transfer enough energy to knock loose another electron.

Portable Solar Energy - Backup Battery Power

Portable Solar Energy Portable Solar Power
Portable Solar Power
Solar Paper, thin, light solar charger
The Kodiak - Solar System In A Box
Omnicharge: Portable Power Bank
Kalipak Portable Solar Power System

PocketPower solar charger fits in your pocket.

Micro-Scale Bio-Solar Cell that generates a higher power density for longer than any existing cell of its kind. A microfluidic lab-on-a-chip system that generates its own power is essential for stand-alone, independent, self-sustainable point-of-care diagnostic devices to work in limited-resource and remote regions. Miniaturized biological solar cells (or micro-BSCs) can be the most suitable power source for those applications because the technique resembles the earth’s natural ecosystem. Micro-BSCs can continuously generate electricity from microbial photosynthetic and respiratory activities over day-night cycles, offering a clean and renewable power source with self-sustaining potential.

Yolk Station efficient small solar panel can charge your smartphone in about 2.5 hours on a sunny day. That’s about the same as a wall charger.

Kogalla Solar Storage Bank is the first portable solar array with integrated storage. Powerful, lightweight and compact.

SOLARTAB C - The World's Quickest Solar Charger with the most versatile and efficient solar charger ever, USB-C or USB.

SunRaiden Solar Inverter Charger - Kickstarter

RIVER: Your Mobile Power Station & Solar Generator. Smartest Portable Power for All Devices. Holds Charge 1 Year. (2) AC, (4) USB Fast-Charge, & more.

PLUG - Battery Pack is a High capacity battery pack with two AC wall outlets and solar charging. 40% OFF MSRP through 9.21.

Kalisaya Power
SunnyBAG LEAF+ 6 Watt flexible solar system with less than 200 grams + 6000mAh power bank.

PowerPlant: Electricity-on-demand, wherever you go.

Portable Solar Power
Mophie Cellphone Charging
Solar Backup Generator Plug N Play Kit
Solman Solar Products
RV Solar Shop
Solar Station
100W Starter Solar Panel Kit (amazon)
Solar e Cube 1500 (amazon)
mPower Solar Generator
LightSaver Max: Powerfilm

Sunport uses real solar energy from certified solar farms.

Portable Smartflower' Petals-Shaped Solar Panel Array Follows The Sun - Austrian Company GmbH.

Charging Tools

Batteries (all about batteries)

Windows and Solar Panel in one

Solar Power Windows (youtube)
Fully Transparent Solar Cell
Transparent solar technology can be applied to Windows
KAIST Team Develops Semi-Transparent Solar Cells with Thermal Mirror Capability

Window Films

Anti-Fogging: Water-Repellent Nanotextures Found to Have Excellent Anti-Fogging Abilities. Cone-shaped nanotextures could prevent fog condensation on surfaces in humid environments, including for power generation and transportation applications.

Non-Reflective Glass. By texturing glass surfaces with nanosized features, scientists almost completely eliminated surface reflections Anti-Reflective Coating (wiki)

Smart windows that go from clear to dark in under a minute. Dynamic Windows with Neutral Color, High Contrast, and Excellent Durability Using Reversible Metal Electrodeposition.

Titanium Dioxide is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formula TiO2. When used as a pigment, it is called titanium white, Pigment White 6 (PW6), or CI 77891. Generally it is sourced from ilmenite, rutile and anatase. It has a wide range of applications, from paint to sunscreen to food coloring. When used as a food coloring, it has E number E171. World production in 2014 exceeded 9 million metric tons.

Reactive Oxygen Species are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen. Examples include peroxides, superoxide, hydroxyl radical, and singlet oxygen.

Flexible Thin Film Solar Panels

Electroplating is a process that uses electric current to reduce dissolved metal cations so that they form a thin coherent metal coating on an electrode. The term is also used for electrical oxidation of anions onto a solid substrate, as in the formation silver chloride on silver wire to make silver/silver-chloride electrodes. Electroplating is primarily used to change the surface properties of an object (e.g. abrasion and wear resistance, corrosion protection, lubricity, aesthetic qualities, etc.), but may also be used to build up thickness on undersized parts or to form objects by electroforming.

Co-Solvents in Polymer Solar Cell

Concentrated Photovoltaics uses lenses and curved mirrors to focus sunlight onto small, but highly efficient, multi-junction (MJ) solar cells.
IBM Solar Collector Magnifier
Spherical Solar Concentrating System

Solar Glass Square Blocks with Intelligent Optics from Build Solar

Solar Power Resources

Group Discounts
Direct Wafer Technology
Here Comes the Sun (Film)
Sun Power Corp
Nextek Power
MR Solar
AM Solar
Trans Solar
Silicon Solar
Solar Gadgets
American Solar Energy
Solar Living
Sol Logic
Energy Matters
Make a Solar Cell (youtube)
Find Solar Professional
Solar Installations
Solar Decathlon
Subterranean Solar Panel
The Solar Guide
Solar Contact
Build it Solar
Free Sunpower
Sunsaluter Follow the Sun
Westinghouse Solar
Solar Daily News
Solar Energy Industries Assoc
Graphene Photovoltaics
Qbotix Solbot Slides Panels

Space-Based Solar Power

Green Jobs

New ‘Double-Glazed’ solar power device using Gas rather than Vacuum to collect electricity. An international scientific collaboration has successfully integrated a sub-micron thin, nanophotonic silicon film into a crystalline solar cell for the first time. The addition of nanophotonic structures can strongly improve light absorption.

Solar Heat - Radiant and Thermal Energy

Solar Heat Solar Energy is radiant light and heat from the Sun that is harnessed using a range of ever-evolving technologies such as solar heating, photovoltaics, solar thermal energy, solar architecture and artificial photosynthesis.

Solar Irradiance is the power per unit area received from the Sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range of the measuring instrument. Irradiance may be measured in space or at the Earth's surface after atmospheric absorption and scattering. It is measured perpendicular to the incoming Sunlight. Total solar irradiance (TSI), is a measure of the solar power over all wavelengths per unit area incident on the Earth's upper atmosphere. The solar constant is a conventional measure of mean TSI at a distance of one astronomical Unit (AU). Irradiance is a function of distance from the Sun, the solar cycle, and cross-cycle changes. Irradiance on Earth is also measured perpendicular to the incoming sunlight. Insolation is the power received on Earth per unit area on a horizontal surface. It depends on the height of the Sun above the horizon and the cloud cover. Thermal Electric Generators.

Solar Thermal Energy is a form of energy and a technology for harnessing solar energy to generate thermal energy or electrical energy for use in industry, and in the residential and commercial sectors.

Solar Cooking Food - Food Dryers (preserve food)

Solar Thermal Collector collects heat by absorbing sunlight. A collector is a device for capturing solar radiation. Solar radiation is energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation from the infrared (long) to the ultraviolet (short) wavelengths. The quantity of solar energy striking the Earth's surface (solar constant) averages about 1,000 watts per square meter under clear skies, depending upon weather conditions, location and orientation.

Solar Furnace is a structure that uses concentrated solar power to produce high temperatures, usually for industry. Parabolic mirrors or heliostats concentrate light (Insolation) onto a focal point. The temperature at the focal point may reach 3,500 °C (6,330 °F), and this heat can be used to generate electricity, melt steel, make hydrogen fuel or nanomaterials.

Solar Thermal Power Stations list of the largest facilities generating electricity through the use of solar thermal power, specifically concentrated solar power, ranging from 392 MW to 0.25 MW.

Thermal Energy Storage - Geo-Thermal - Passive

Solar Heating - Solar Heater

Solar Hot Water for Home
Solar Hot Water - Pools

Water Purification (filters)

SunampPV is a system which uses excess electricity from a Solar PV array to heat hot water without the need for an immersion heater tank.

Solar Panels Plus
Solar Direct
Solar Collector
Solar Roofs
Home Power

Solar Balloon (youtube)

Solar Ovens for Cooking Food

Heat Pipe is a heat-transfer device that combines the principles of both thermal conductivity and phase transition to efficiently manage the transfer of heat between two solid interfaces. At the hot interface of a heat pipe a liquid in contact with a thermally conductive solid surface turns into a vapor by absorbing heat from that surface. Heat Sink. The vapor then travels along the heat pipe to the cold interface and condenses back into a liquid – releasing the latent heat. The liquid then returns to the hot interface through either capillary action, centrifugal force, or gravity, and the cycle repeats. Due to the very high heat transfer coefficients for boiling and condensation, heat pipes are highly effective thermal conductors. The effective thermal conductivity varies with heat pipe length, and can approach 100 kW/(mK) for long heat pipes, in comparison with approximately 0.4 kW/(mK) for copper.

Solar-Powered Generator of both Heat Energy and Electrical Energy.

Masdar and MIT Researchers develop device that makes Steam from Sunlight

Heat Energy

Heat is a form of Energy and the amount of energy flowing from one body of matter to another spontaneously due to their Temperature difference, or by any means other than through work or the transfer of matter. The transfer can be by contact between the source and the destination body, as in conduction; or by radiation between remote bodies; or by way of an intermediate fluid body, as in convective circulation; or by a combination of these. In thermodynamics, heat is often contrasted with work: heat applies to individual particles (such as atoms or molecules), work applies to objects (or a system as a whole). Heat involves stochastic (or random) motion equally distributed among all degrees of freedom, while work is directional, confined to a specific degrees of freedom.

What does Heat do to Molecules?

Thermal Conductivity - Heat Capacity

Heat can be converted into energy, so why are we wasting Heat?

Thermocouple is an electrical device consisting of two different conductors forming electrical junctions at differing temperatures. A thermocouple produces a temperature-dependent voltage as a result of the thermoelectric effect, and this voltage can be interpreted to measure temperature. Thermocouples are a widely used type of temperature sensor.

Body Temperature - Heat Shock

Thermography are examples of infrared imaging science, which is a multidisciplinary field concerned with the generation, collection, duplication, analysis, modification, and visualization of images, including imaging things that the human eye cannot detect.

Infrared Thermometer is a thermometer which infers temperature from a portion of the thermal radiation sometimes called blackbody radiation emitted by the object being measured. They are sometimes called laser thermometers as a laser is used to help aim the thermometer, or non-contact thermometers or temperature guns, to describe the device's ability to measure temperature from a distance. By knowing the amount of infrared energy emitted by the object and its emissivity, the object's temperature can often be determined. Infrared thermometers are a subset of devices known as "thermal radiation thermometers". Fluke 62 MAX Compact Infrared Thermometer (10: 1) Min Temperature (° F) -22 , Max Temperature (° F) 932 , Min Temperature (° C) -30 , Max Temperature (° C) 500.

Thermographic Camera is a device that forms an image using infrared radiation, similar to a common camera that forms an image using visible light. Instead of the 400–700 nanometre range of the visible light camera, infrared cameras operate in wavelengths as long as 14,000 nm (14 µm). Their use is called thermography. (also called an infrared camera or thermal imaging camera). Infrared Spectroscopy (spectrums).

Thermal Radiation is electromagnetic radiation generated by the thermal motion of charged particles in matter. All matter with a temperature greater than absolute zero emits thermal radiation. When the temperature of a body is greater than absolute zero, inter-atomic collisions cause the kinetic energy of the atoms or molecules to change. This results in charge-acceleration and/or dipole oscillation which produces electromagnetic radiation, and the wide spectrum of radiation reflects the wide spectrum of energies and accelerations that occur even at a single temperature. Examples of thermal radiation include the visible light and infrared light emitted by an incandescent light bulb, the infrared radiation emitted by animals that is detectable with an infrared camera, and the cosmic microwave background radiation. Thermal radiation is different from thermal convection and thermal conduction—a person near a raging bonfire feels radiant heating from the fire, even if the surrounding air is very cold. Sunlight is part of thermal radiation generated by the hot plasma of the Sun. The Earth also emits thermal radiation, but at a much lower intensity and different spectral distribution (infrared rather than visible) because it is cooler. The Earth's absorption of solar radiation, followed by its outgoing thermal radiation are the two most important processes that determine the temperature and climate of the Earth. If a radiation-emitting object meets the physical characteristics of a black body in thermodynamic equilibrium, the radiation is called blackbody radiation. Planck's law describes the spectrum of blackbody radiation, which depends only on the object's temperature. Wien's displacement law determines the most likely frequency of the emitted radiation, and the Stefan–Boltzmann law gives the radiant intensity.

Joule Heating also known as ohmic heating and resistive heating, is the process by which the passage of an electric current through a conductor produces heat. Joule's first law, also known as the Joule–Lenz law, states that the power of heating generated by an electrical conductor is proportional to the product of its resistance and the square of the current. Joule heating affects the whole electric conductor, unlike the Peltier effect which transfers heat from one electrical junction to another.

Thermoelectric Effect - Kinetic Energy Types

Thermal Energy refers to the internal energy present in a system due to its temperature.

Thermal Insulation is the reduction of heat transfer (the transfer of thermal energy between objects of differing temperature) between objects in thermal contact or in range of radiative influence. Thermal insulation can be achieved with specially engineered methods or processes, as well as with suitable object shapes and materials. Heat flow is an inevitable consequence of contact between objects of differing temperature. Thermal insulation provides a region of insulation in which thermal conduction is reduced or thermal radiation is reflected rather than absorbed by the lower-temperature body. The insulating capability of a material is measured with thermal conductivity (k). Low thermal conductivity is equivalent to high insulating capability (R-value). In thermal engineering, other important properties of insulating materials are product density (ρ) and specific heat capacity.

Engineers turn plastic insulator into heat conductor. Technique could prevent overheating of laptops, mobile phones, and other electronics. Plastics are excellent insulators, meaning they can efficiently trap heat. Engineers at MIT has developed a polymer thermal conductor -- a plastic material that, however counter intuitively, works as a heat conductor, dissipating heat rather than insulating it. The new polymers, which are lightweight and flexible, can conduct 10 times as much heat as most commercially used polymers. Polymers are both electrically and thermally insulating.

Thermal Management (electronics) All electronic devices and circuitry generate excess heat and thus require thermal management to improve reliability and prevent premature failure. The amount of heat output is equal to the power input, if there are no other energy interactions. There are several techniques for cooling including various styles of heat sinks, thermoelectric coolers, forced air systems and fans, heat pipes, and others. In cases of extreme low environmental temperatures, it may actually be necessary to heat the electronic components to achieve satisfactory operation.

Heat Sink is a passive heat exchanger that transfers the heat generated by an electronic or a mechanical device to a fluid medium, often air or a liquid coolant, where it is dissipated away from the device, thereby allowing regulation of the device's temperature at optimal levels. In computers, heat sinks are used to cool central processing units or graphics processors. Heat sinks are used with high-power semiconductor devices such as power transistors and optoelectronics such as lasers and light emitting diodes (LEDs), where the heat dissipation ability of the component itself is insufficient to moderate its temperature. A heat sink is designed to maximize its surface area in contact with the cooling medium surrounding it, such as the air. Air velocity, choice of material, protrusion design and surface treatment are factors that affect the performance of a heat sink. Heat sink attachment methods and thermal interface materials also affect the die temperature of the integrated circuit. Thermal adhesive or thermal grease improve the heat sink's performance by filling air gaps between the heat sink and the heat spreader on the device. A heat sink is usually made out of copper or aluminium. Copper is used because it has many desirable properties for thermally efficient and durable heat exchangers. First and foremost, copper is an excellent conductor of heat. This means that copper's high thermal conductivity allows heat to pass through it quickly. Aluminium heat sinks are used as a low-cost, lightweight alternative to copper heat sinks, and have a lower thermal conductivity than copper.

Heat Pipe is a heat-transfer device that combines the principles of both thermal conductivity and phase transition to effectively transfer heat between two solid interfaces.

Non-toxic filamentous virus helps quickly dissipate heat generated by electronic devices

Heat Exchanger is a device used to transfer heat between a solid object and a fluid, or between two or more fluids. The fluids may be separated by a solid wall to prevent mixing or they may be in direct contact. They are widely used in space heating, refrigeration, air conditioning, power stations, chemical plants, petrochemical plants, petroleum refineries, natural-gas processing, and sewage treatment. The classic example of a heat exchanger is found in an internal combustion engine in which a circulating fluid known as engine coolant flows through radiator coils and air flows past the coils, which cools the coolant and heats the incoming air. Another example is the heat sink, which is a passive heat exchanger that transfers the heat generated by an electronic or a mechanical device to a fluid medium, often air or a liquid coolant. Copper (wiki)

Fan is a powered machine used to create flow within a fluid, typically a gas such as air, like with Wind. A fan consists of a rotating arrangement of vanes or blades which act on the air. The rotating assembly of blades and hub is known as an impeller, a rotor, or a runner. Usually, it is contained within some form of housing or case. This may direct the airflow or increase safety by preventing objects from contacting the fan blades. Most fans are powered by electric motors, but other sources of power may be used, including hydraulic motors, hand cranks, internal combustion engines, and solar power. Wind Chill.

Conduction is the transfer of heat (internal energy) by microscopic collisions of particles and movement of electrons within a body. The microscopically colliding objects, that include molecules, atoms, and electrons, transfer disorganized microscopic kinetic and potential energy, jointly known as internal energy. Conduction takes place in all phases of matter, such as solids, liquids, gases and plasmas. The rate at which energy is conducted as heat between two bodies is a function of the temperature difference (temperature gradient) between the two bodies and the properties of the conductive medium through which the heat is transferred. Thermal conduction was originally called diffusion. Heat spontaneously flows from a hotter to a colder body. For example, heat is conducted from the hotplate of an electric stove to the bottom of a saucepan in contact with it. In the absence of an external driving energy source to the contrary, within a body or between bodies, temperature differences decay over time, and thermal equilibrium is approached, temperature becoming more uniform.

Convection is the movement of groups of molecules within fluids such as gases and liquids, including molten rock (rheid). Convection takes place through advection, diffusion or both. Convection cannot take place in most solids because neither bulk current flows nor significant diffusion of matter can take place. Diffusion of heat takes place in rigid solids, but that is called heat conduction. Convection, however, can take place in soft solids or mixtures where solid particles can move past each other. Thermal convection can be demonstrated by placing a heat source (e.g. a Bunsen burner) at the side of a glass full of a liquid, and observing the changes in temperature in the glass caused by the warmer ghost fluid circulating into cooler areas.

Advection is the transport of a substance by bulk motion. The properties of that substance are carried with it. Generally the majority of the advected substance is a fluid. The properties that are carried with the advected substance are conserved properties such as energy.

Heating Element converts electricity into heat through the process of resistive or Joule heating. Electric current passing through the element encounters resistance, resulting in heating of the element. Unlike the Peltier effect, this process is independent of the direction of current flow. Electric frying pans go up to 400 degrees.

Thermodynamics (chemistry)

Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator  is an electrical generator that uses an array of thermocouples to convert the heat released by the decay of a suitable radioactive material into electricity by the Seebeck effect. This generator has no moving parts.

Radio Generator

Solar Lighting and Heating

Lightweight, Wearable Tech Efficiently Converts Body Heat to Electricity

Thermoelectric Generator is a solid state device that converts heat (temperature differences) directly into electrical energy through a phenomenon called the Seebeck effect (a form of thermoelectric effect). Seebeck effect is the conversion of heat directly into electricity at the junction of different types of wire.

Fire Activated Battery Charger
Point Source Power
Flame Stower

Thermal Energy Storage is excess thermal energy to be collected for later use, hours, days or many months later.

Summer Heat gathered in rooftop solar collectors could be stored in soil or rocks and used for heating homes in winter. 


Rankine Cycle is a model that is used to predict the performance of steam turbine systems. The Rankine cycle is an idealized thermodynamic cycle of a heat engine that converts heat into mechanical work.

Heat Engine is a system that converts heat or thermal energy—and chemical energy—to mechanical energy, which can then be used to do mechanical work.

Thermodynamic Cycle consists of a linked sequence of thermodynamic processes that involve transfer of heat and work into and out of the system, while varying pressure, temperature, and other state variables within the system, and that eventually returns the system to its initial state.

Concentrated Sunlight

Concentrated Solar Power Solar Power Tower also known as 'central tower' power plants or 'heliostat' power plants or power towers, is a type of solar furnace using a tower to receive the focused sunlight. It uses an array of flat, movable mirrors (called heliostats) to focus the sun's rays upon a collector tower (the target). Concentrated solar thermal is seen as one viable solution for renewable, pollution-free energy.

Solar Reserve - Powers 75,000 Nevada homes.

Concentrated Solar Power systems generate solar power by using mirrors or lenses to concentrate a large area of sunlight, or solar thermal energy, onto a small area. Electricity is generated when the concentrated light is converted to heat, which drives a heat engine (usually a steam turbine) connected to an electrical power generator or powers a thermochemical reaction (experimental as of 2013).[Heat storage in molten salts allows some solar thermal plants to continue to generate after sunset and adds value to such systems when compared to photovoltaic panels.

Solar Power Plants Mojave Desert (wiki)
Stirling Energy Systems (wiki)
Tessera Solar
Parabolic Reflector (solar ovens)

High Efficient Solar Water Heating Achieved with Nanoparticles of transition metal nitrides and carbides absorb sunlight very efficiently, Solar Heat Utilization Based on Plasmon Resonance of Ceramic Materials.

A Concentrating Photovoltaic System with embedded Microtracking can produce over 50 percent more energy per day than standard silicon solar cells. Arrays of plastic lenslets and a novel translational tracking system to concentrate light over 400 times onto microscale, ultra-high efficiency photovoltaic cells.

Falling Particle Receiver (youtube) - The world's first continuously recirculating high-temperature Falling Particle Receiver for Concentrated Solar Energy was constructed and tested at Sandia National Laboratories. This technology enables clean, renewable energy and electricity on demand with cheap, efficient storage at costs comparable with fossil-fuel-based plants.

Create Fuel using the Sun

Solar Chemical refers to a number of possible processes that harness solar energy by absorbing sunlight in a chemical reaction. The idea is conceptually similar to photosynthesis in plants, which converts solar energy into the chemical bonds of glucose molecules, but without using living organisms, which is why it is also called artificial photosynthesis.

Cerium Oxide

Solar Fuel is a fuel produced from sunlight through artificial photosynthesis or (experimental as of 2013) a thermochemical reaction.

Solar Energy Fuels (pdf)
Solar Synthesis Gas (pdf)
Bionic Leaf turns Sunlight into Liquid Fuel

Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in the crystalline solids.
Hydrogen Storage

Augustin Mouchot (7 April 1825 – 4 October 1911) was a 19th-century French inventor of the earliest solar-powered engine, converting solar energy into mechanical steam power.

Steam Engine

Step by Step: How I Built A Solar Generator For Less Than $300 (youtube)

Natural Lighting using the Sun

Solar Light Tubes Light Tube or light pipes are physical structures used for transporting or distributing natural or artificial light for the purpose of illumination, and are examples of optical waveguides. In their application to daylighting, they are also often called tubular daylighting devices, sun pipes, sun scopes, or daylight pipes

Solar Light Tubes for Home Lighting
Sola Tube

Lucy: Light Indoor Spaces With Real Sunshine, reflects sunlight into your home. Solar powered and portable.

Rawlemon Solar Devices

LED's (lights that use very little energy)

Outdoor Solar Lights

AC Window Blinds

“I’d put my money on the sun and solar energy. What a source of power! I hope we don’t have to wait until oil and coal run out before we tackle that.” — Thomas Alva Edison, 1931.

The Thinker Man