Obesity - Over Eating - Diabetes - Weight Loss
"Eat to Live, Don't Live to Eat."
now affects 1 in every 3 children in the U.S
.. Scientific studies
have shown that 80 percent of these obese children will grow up
to be obese adults with serious health consequences which will
lead to more heart disease
and high blood pressure at
a younger age. One study shows that the average three year old
is failing to develop properly because of their
. About 17 percent of boys and 16 percent of
girls now in the United States, more than 9 million total, are
overweight. 26 million people in America have
79 million have pre-diabetes and 7 million don't even know that
they already have the disease. Another study showed that the
easiest way of increasing physical activity may be as simple as
providing more active play time
and providing relatively inexpensive toys, like balls, jump ropes, bikes
and spending time at local playing fields. So encouraging children to run,
bike, swim and other fun activities, while teaching them healthy habits
such as regular exercise
proper food choices
, will not only
benefit them, but future generations to come as well for they will
certainly pass on this very important information too them. The risk
of obesity doubled among students who skipped breakfast or
ate breakfast inconsistently
. Eat Breakfast Like a
King, Lunch Like a Prince, and Dinner Like a Pauper, or eat your
biggest meal early in the day, or eat
one meal a day
. Over Eating
is a medical condition in which excess Body Fat
has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on
health. People are generally considered obese when their
body mass index
(BMI), a measurement obtained by dividing a person's weight by the square
of the person's height, is over 30 kg/m2, with the range 25–30 kg/m2
defined as overweight. Some East Asian countries use lower values. Obesity
increases the likelihood of various diseases, particularly
type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea
, certain types of
osteoarthritis. School Lunches
African-Americans are 1.5 times as likely to be obese as white people
and they eat fewer vegetables than other racial groups.
Soul Fire Farm
is committed to ending racism and injustice in our food system.
is having more Body Fat
optimally healthy. Being overweight is common especially where food
supplies are plentiful and lifestyles are sedentary. Excess weight has
reached epidemic proportions globally, with more than
1 billion adults
being either overweight or obese in 2003. In 2013 this increased to more
than 2 billion. Increases have been observed across all age groups. A
healthy body requires a minimum amount of fat for proper functioning of
, reproductive, and
, as thermal insulation, as
shock absorption for sensitive areas, and as energy for future use. But
the accumulation of too much storage Fat
impair movement, flexibility
, and alter appearance of the body.
Two Billion People Now
and the U.S. is one of the Fattest Nations on Earth.
Someone has a
seconds in America.
Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
is stealthily showing up in the
livers of millions of Americans. Marked by the accumulation of an
unhealthy amount of fat and scar tissue in the liver, NASH is quietly
reaching epidemic proportions across the globe. Up to 80% of obese people
have the disease. (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis).
Dietary Fat Restriction Results in More Body Fat Loss than
in People with Obesity. The
American Heart Association says 78 million adults and 13 million kids (or
28.5 percent of the country’s population) are obese as of 2016, an
epidemic that spells some $190 billion per year in weight-related medical
Rates have skyrocketed since
. The countries with the fastest obesity growth rates
are the United States, Australia and England. The United States
is the fattest nation among 33 countries with advanced economies
with two-thirds of people in America are overweight or obese and
about a third of adults, more than 72 million, are obese, which
is roughly 30 pounds over a healthy weight. Obesity is a growing
threat to public health because Obesity causes illnesses,
reduces life expectancy, increases health care costs, increases
the risk of heart disease, diabetes and several types of cancer
and other diseases. Obesity cost the U.S. an estimated $147
billion in weight-related medical bills in 2008, according to a
study by scientists.
More than one-third (34.9% or 78.6 million) of U.S. adults are
Obesity Among Older Adults
The estimated annual medical cost of obesity in the U.S. was
$147 billion in 2008. (Fat Storm).
29 million people
, 9 percent of the
U.S. population, have diabetes
Over Weight People can have Lower Cognitive Abilities
Over weight people have a tendency to suffer more with depression
and can also have
a lower IQ
Hippocampal lesions impair retention of discriminative responding based on
energy state cues
Central Adiposity Is Negatively Associated with
Hippocampal-Dependent Relational Memory
Higher body mass index is associated with episodic memory deficits in
Scientists detect gray matter changes in brains of teenagers with type 2
Enough Healthy Food also Impairs Cognitive Abilities
Alzheimer Disease Not Enough Exercise Lowers
Obesity dulls the sense of taste
mice had about 25 percent fewer taste buds than lean mice in study.
Yale Rudd Center For Food Policy & Obesity
is a branch of medicine dealing with research,
and treatment of
disorders caused by lifestyle factors such as nutrition, physical
inactivity, and chronic stress. In the clinic, major barriers to lifestyle
counseling are that physicians feel ill prepared and are skeptical about
their patients' receptivity.
Weight Loss Counseling
Weight Loss Specialists
Weight Loss Management
refers to a reduction of the
total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue
or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other
connective tissue. Weight loss can either occur unintentionally due to
malnourishment or an underlying disease or arise from a conscious effort
to improve an actual or perceived overweight or obese state. "Unexplained"
weight loss that is not caused by reduction in calorific intake or
exercise is called cachexia and may be a symptom of a serious medical
condition. Intentional weight loss is commonly referred to as slimming
is a fruit that
looks like a small pumpkin and is green to pale yellow in color. Although
it has received considerable media attention purporting its effects on
weight loss, there is liver toxicity associated with commercial
preparations of the fruit extract with clinical evidence indicating it has
no significant effect on weight loss.
Weightless is more about the food you eat and not how much you exercise
You should at least produce electricity when
Body Mass Index
(measuring how much fat your body has)
regulatory systems in the body)
can lower the
control. Eating smaller portions of
can help avoid creating a
and a spike in high blood sugar. Buy
pasta with a low glycemic index. Soaking your pasta in a bowl of water for
an hour before dinner will reduce boiling pasta time to almost 1 minute.
is a common disorder of the
in which the thyroid gland does not produce
hormone. It can cause a number of symptoms, such as
poor ability to tolerate cold, a feeling of tiredness, and
Dehydration Tricks you into Feeling Hungry
"Drinking a glass of
when hunger cravings hit, and then waiting 5 - 10 minutes, can help
diminish your hungry feeling."
Drink 16 oz's of water before every single meal
which makes you feel full. Previous studies have suggested that drinking
water 20 to 30 minutes before a meal causes people to eat fewer calories
later on, perhaps because they are not confusing hunger with thirst.
Staying hydrated also means your body is not holding onto liquids since
the water is constantly being replenished.
"Enjoy eating at least one good meal
Avoid Processed Foods
Eating too much food
or just eating the
wrong foods is like slowly poisoning yourself. That's why it's
so hard to imagine something that you need to live can actually
be the reason you're dying, or the reason you're suffering from
some diet related health issue, and you wonder why
is so extremely important.
Eating behaviors are perpetuated by highly-processed
food, especially those with a High Glycemic Index
Foods that Curb Hunger
Energy Density and Low Calorie Foods
Energy Density & Weight Loss: Feel Full on Fewer Calories
Everyone should be provided with the highest quality food that
supplies them with all the nutritional needs for a person to
have a strong mind and body. If someone wants to supplement
their diet or eat more, then they can, but just let them know
that eating more then what the body and mind needs is not
necessary, and eating more will actually do you more harm then
good. Over eating, or eating low nutrient food once in a while can be
fun, but just once in a while. The body is not made to consume more food
then the body needs. So either you are forcing your body to store fat, or your forcing your body to be unnatural.
Food for Thought
Is Overeating or Starving
a Form of
Violence against your Body, a type of
What are the differences between
is the desire to eat food, sometimes due to hunger. Appealing
foods can stimulate appetite even when hunger is absent.
represents the physiological need to eat food. Satiety is the
absence of hunger; it is the sensation of feeling full.
or just another
Decadent Moments or Moments of
? (perceived decay in standards,
, dignity, religious faith, or skill).
is food which provides a nostalgic or sentimental value
to the consumer, and is often characterized by its high caloric nature,
high carbohydrate level, and simple preparation. The nostalgia may be
specific to either the individual or a specific culture.
Remember, just because something is
does not mean that it is
when there is also the lack of knowledge
and the lack of awareness
, and the lack of
, you end up with an
. You are no longer
the captain of your own ship, and your ship is slowly sinking.
Smaller Plate Study
found that using 10 inch diameter plates instead
of the traditional 12 inch diameter plates decreased the amount of food
people eat without having an effect on their perceived fullness or
Trim28 Haploinsufficiency Triggers Bi-stable Epigenetic Obesity
Genetics and Epigenetics of Obesity
People who drink moderately, exercise, don't smoke, eat five
servings of fruit and vegetables
each day live on average 14
years longer than people who don't follow these healthy rules. That leaves more time to do those things that you have on that
Bucket List Ideas
Way Beyond Weight
is part of the complex biological response of
body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens
irritants, and is a protective response involving
vessels, and molecular mediators. The function of inflammation is to
eliminate the initial cause of cell injury, clear out necrotic cells and
tissues damaged from the original insult and the inflammatory process, and
to initiate tissue repair
a transient abnormal enlargement of a body part or area not caused by
proliferation of cells. It is caused by accumulation of fluid
It can occur throughout the body (generalized), or a specific part or
organ can be affected (localized). Swelling is usually not dangerous and
is a common reaction to a inflammation or a bruise.
is the increase in the volume of an organ or tissue due to
the enlargement of its component Cells
It is distinguished from
, in which the cells remain approximately the same size but
increase in number.
is inflammation of the nervous tissue. It may be
initiated in response to a variety of cues, including infection, traumatic
brain injury, toxic metabolites, or autoimmunity.
is a substance or treatment that reduces
inflammation or swelling.
Scientists discover promising off-switch for inflammation
is a molecule derived from glucose that acts as a powerful
off-switch for macrophages, which are the cells in the immune system that
lie at the heart of many inflammatory diseases including arthritis,
inflammatory bowel disease and heart disease.
refers to the
property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation or
Webmd - Inflammatory Diet
Anti-Inflammatory Pyramid Info-Graph
is a life-threatening condition that arises when the
body's response to infection injures
its own tissues and organs.
Kills 300,000 a year in the U.S..
Inflammation and the immune system
Brain Inflammation and Depression
Reconceptualizing major depressive disorder as an infectious
is a chronic disorder of adipose tissue and
"described as a bilateral, symmetrical, flabby swelling of the legs
that arises from deposition of adipose tissue starting at the hips and
ending at the ankles, like riding breeches". In some cases, the upper arms
can also accumulate distinct patterns of fatty tissue.
Autoantibodies and the Immune Hypothesis in Psychotic Brain
Diseases: Challenges and Perspectives
Enzyme-rich foods, including wheatgrass, other grasses, banana
and raw honey, Pineapple and Papaya, Cherries, Berries,
including blueberries, blackberries, strawberries, raspberries,
and cranberries, Green tea, Cacao, Walnuts, Seeds, including
flax and chia, Avocados, Rhizomes, including turmeric,
, and ginger root. The GAPS diet was derived from the
Specific Carbohydrate Die
- Gut Bacteria
Every meal triggers
When we eat, we do not just take in
nutrients – we also consume a significant quantity of bacteria.
The body is faced with the challenge of simultaneously
distributing the ingested glucose and fighting these bacteria.
This triggers an inflammatory response that activates the immune
systems of healthy individuals and has a protective effect, as
doctors have proven for the first time. In overweight
individuals, however, this inflammatory response fails so
dramatically that it can lead to Diabetes
Nervous system puts the brakes on inflammation
. Cells in the
the brakes' on the immune response
infections in the gut and lungs to prevent excessive inflammation. There
is a crosstalk between the nervous system and the immune system, and that
plays an important role in regulating acute and chronic inflammation.
Inflammatory response that is triggered by allergens or infections with
. Exposure to these agents causes a class of immune cells
called group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) to release inflammatory
that can promote increased mucus production and
muscle contractions -- all of which help to expel the parasite or allergen
from the body. ILC2s have receptors on their surface called
(β2AR) that interact with a chemical called
nerve cells release. These receptors give nerve cells the ability to
interact with each other and influence the immune response. To determine
the role of β2AR in communication between the two systems.
A typical young male adult stores about 60,000 to 100,000
calories of energy in
body fat cells.
Fat is stored inside the fat cell in the
. Fat cells can increase both in size (hypertrophy
and in number (hyperplasia
The average size (weight) of an adult fat cell is about 0.6
micrograms, but they can vary in size from 0.2 micograms to 0.9
micrograms. An overweight person’s fat cells can be up to three
times larger than a person with ideal body composition. When
your body needs energy
because you’re consuming fewer calories
than you are burning (an energy deficit), then your body
releases hormones and enzymes that signal your fat cells to
release your fat reserves instead of keeping them in storage.
When we lose fat the fat cell releases its contents
(triaglycerol) into the bloodstream as
free fatty acids
(FFA’s), and they are transported through
the blood to the tissues where the energy is needed. An
important enzyme called
(LPL), then helps the FFA’s get inside
of the muscle cell, where the FFA’s can be
burned for Energy
is a type of fat, in which the fatty acids all
have single bonds. A fat is made of two kinds of smaller molecules:
monoglyceride and fatty acids
. Fats are made of long chains of carbon (C)
atoms. Some carbon atoms are linked by single bonds (-C-C-) and others are
linked by double bonds (-C=C-). Double bonds can react with hydrogen to
form single bonds. They are called saturated, because the second bond is
broken up and each half of the bond is attached to (saturated with) a
hydrogen atom. Most animal fats are saturated. The fats of plants and fish
are generally unsaturated. Saturated fats tend to have higher melting
points than their corresponding unsaturated fats, leading to the popular
understanding that saturated fats tend to be solids at body temperatures,
while unsaturated fats tend to be liquid oils.
an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (tri- + glyceride).
Triglycerides are the main constituents of body fat in humans and other
animals, as well as vegetable fat. They are also present in the blood to
enable the bidirectional transference of adipose fat and blood glucose
from the liver, and are a major component of human skin oils.
is body fat that is stored within the abdominal
cavity and is therefore stored around a number of important
internal organs such as the liver, pancreas, heart and
intestines. 80% of visceral fat in the body can be traced back
to a single cell in the embryo called
Fat Around The Heart May Increase Risk Of Heart Attacks
body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective
tissue composed mostly of adipocytes. In addition to adipocytes, adipose
tissue contains the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of cells including
preadipocytes, fibroblasts, vascular endothelial cells and a variety of
immune cells such as adipose tissue macrophage.
makes up the adipose organ together with
white adipose tissue (or white fat). BAT is found in almost all mammals.
Classification of brown fat refers to two distinct cell populations with
similar functions. The first shares a common embryological origin with
muscle cells, found in larger "classic" deposits. The second develops from
white adipocytes that are stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system.
These adipocytes are found interspersed in white adipose tissue and are
also named 'beige' or 'brite'.
Molecule that gives energy-burning brown fat its identity could lead to
drugs for Obesity
. A protein
Estrogen-related receptor gamma
, found in brown fat, but not typical
white fat, is key to how the energy-burning brown fat cells function.
is one of the two types of adipose tissue found in mammals. The
other kind of adipose tissue is brown adipose tissue. In healthy,
non-overweight humans, white adipose tissue composes as much as 20% of the
body weight in men and 25% of the body weight in women. Its cells contain
a single large fat droplet, which forces the nucleus to be squeezed into a
thin rim at the periphery. They have receptors for insulin, sexual
hormones, norepinephrine, and glucocorticoids. White adipose tissue is
used as a store of energy. Upon release of insulin from the pancreas,
white adipose cells' insulin receptors cause a dephosphorylation cascade
that lead to the inactivation of hormone-sensitive lipase. It was
previously thought that upon release of glucagon from the pancreas,
glucagon receptors cause a phosphorylation cascade that activates
hormone-sensitive lipase, causing the breakdown of the stored fat to fatty
acids, which are exported into the blood and bound to albumin, and
glycerol, which is exported into the blood freely. There is actually no
evidence at present that glucagon has any effect on lipolysis in white
adipose tissue. Glucagon is now thought to act exclusively on the liver to
trigger glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. The trigger for this process
in white adipose tissue is instead now thought to be adrenocorticotropic
hormone (ACTH), adrenaline and noradrenaline. Fatty acids are taken up by
muscle and cardiac tissue as a fuel source, and glycerol is taken up by
the liver for gluconeogenesis. White adipose tissue also acts as a thermal
insulator, helping to maintain
The hormone leptin is primarily manufactured in the adipocytes of white
adipose tissue, which also produces another hormone,
which is a protein
produced by mammals in their fatty (white adipose) tissues
that stimulates the liver to release glucose into the blood stream.
is the lowermost layer of the
integumentary system in vertebrates. The types of cells found in the
hypodermis are fibroblasts, adipose cells, and macrophages. The hypodermis
is derived from the mesoderm, but unlike the dermis, it is not derived
from the dermatome region of the mesoderm. In arthropods, the hypodermis
is an epidermal layer of cells that secretes the chitinous cuticle. The
term also refers to a layer of cells lying immediately below the epidermis
is when excessive abdominal fat around the stomach and abdomen has built
up to the extent that it is likely to have a negative impact on health.
There is a strong correlation between central obesity and cardiovascular
disease. Abdominal obesity is not confined only to the elderly and obese
subjects. Abdominal obesity has been linked to Alzheimer's disease as well
as other metabolic and vascular diseases.
(ATP) is a nucleoside triphosphate
used in cells as a coenzyme often called the "molecular unit of
currency" of intracellular Energy Transfer
which in humans is encoded by the ADIPOQ gene. It is
involved in regulating glucose levels as well as fatty acid breakdown.
are the cells that primarily compose adipose
tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat.
is a medical treatment used to destroy fat
is a membrane composed of simple
squamous epithelium that forms the lining of several body cavities.
is salted fermented butter.
Skin Patch Dissolves “Love Handles” in Mice
. Medicated skin patch that
can turn energy-storing white fat into energy-burning brown fat locally
while raising the body’s overall metabolism. The patch could be used to
burn off pockets of unwanted fat such as “love handles” and treat
metabolic disorders, such as obesity and diabetes.
Body Mass Index
There are many things that humans eat
. But they need to be taken in the correct
, and they cannot be consumed everyday. You have to know
your own personal limits and
for certain foods and
things that can benefit you can also hurt you if you misuse them
or eat too much. And
always about feeding hunger
. Sometimes our body and our mind can
give off signals that are not always accurate.
Eating Moderately and Healthy
your Life and Increases your chances of Living Healthy without Diseases.
Did you know that
it can take up to 20 minutes for the brain to recognize that your stomach is full?
If you drink a full glass of water 10
minutes before each meal; your brain will realize you are full within 10
minutes instead of the usual 20 minutes.
Ingestive Behaviors and Satiety Signals
are influenced by
physiological regulatory mechanisms; these mechanisms exist to control and
establish homeostasis within the human body. Disruptions in these
ingestive regulatory mechanisms can result in eating disorders such as
, and bulimia.
is the tenth cranial nerve or CN X, and interfaces with parasympathetic
control of the heart, lungs and digestive tract
. The vagus nerves are
paired; however, they are normally referred to in the singular. It is the
longest nerve of the
autonomic nervous system
in the human body. The Vagus nerve also has a
sympathetic function via the peripheral chemoreceptors
chemoreceptors are activated primarily due to
. When stimulated,
these chemoreceptors relay impulses throughout the vagus nerves in order
to enable a vasoconstrictor response and increase
is a medical treatment that involves delivering
electrical impulses to the vagus nerve
. It is used as an adjunctive
treatment for certain types of intractable epilepsy and
is a surgical procedure that involves removing part
of the vagus nerve.
Rapid binge-like eating and body weight gain driven by zona incerta GABA
. Patients receiving deep brain stimulation of the
, which includes the ZI, for the treatment of movement
disorders can exhibit characteristics of binge eating. They found that
stimulating ZI GABA neurons with axons extending into the paraventricular
thalamus (PVT) prompted immediate binge-like eating, just two to three
seconds after stimulation. Within ten minutes of continuous ZI GABA
stimulation, mice rapidly consumed 35% of their daily high-fat food store,
meant to be eaten over a 24-hour period.
is a horizontally elongated region of
subthalamus below the
. Its connections project extensively over the brain from the
cerebral cortex down into the spinal cord. Its function is unknown, though
several potential functions related to "limbic–motor integration" have
been proposed, such as controlling visceral activity and pain; gating
sensory input and synchronizing cortical and subcortical brain rhythms.
Its dysfunction may play a role in central pain syndrome. It has also been
identified as a promising deep brain stimulation therapy target for
treating Parkinson's disease.
is the state of being satisfactorily full and unable to take on
more. Satisfy (a desire or an appetite) to the full. Supply (someone) with as much as or more of something than is
desired or can be managed.
(gross yourself out)
in your gut
produce 50% of
and 90% of
hormones. Your Gut can control your behavior
Eating Triggers Endorphin Release in the Brain
. Eating Stimulates
Brain’s Endogenous Opioid
A Second Brain
stomach can hold up to 4 liters of volume, about 17 cups.
If you know how much food you have eaten, then you will know when to stop.
That is one of the reasons to count
. And that is what awareness
mindful eating is important,
because you can't always rely on your body to give you
accurate information, but you can count on your brain if you
a systematic review and meta-analysis of the
effect of food intake memory and awareness on eating.
Eating beyond our daily energy needs
is the excess food in relation to the energy that
an organism expends (or expels via excretion), leading to weight
gaining and often obesity. It may be regarded as an eating
that is characterized by the compulsive consumption of palatable
(e.g., high fat and high sugar) foods – the types of food which
markedly activate the reward system in humans and other animals
– despite adverse consequences.
to gulp down or swallow, means over-indulgence and
over-consumption of food, drink, or wealth items to the point of
extravagance or waste.
is a pattern of disordered eating which
consists of episodes of uncontrollable eating. It is sometimes a
symptom of binge eating disorder or compulsive overeating
disorder. During such binges, a person rapidly consumes an
excessive quantity of food. A diagnosis of binge eating is
associated with feelings of loss of control.
Binge Eating Disorder
is being excessive beyond normal limits.
Eating bad food
or eating too much food is
. When children don't feel pain they
themselves more often because they don't have pain to
remind them that they are hurting themselves. So these people
have to train themselves to avoid injury. This is the same for
all ignorant behavior. You can't rely on pain or punishment to
teach you the difference between right and wrong and good and
bad. You have to learn, or you will damage yourself beyond
Food Addiction Summit
Eat your Biggest Meal Early in the Day -
"Eat Breakfast Like a King, Lunch Like a Prince, and Dinner Like a Pauper”.
Over eating might just be about feeding your
"I have just eaten, so why do I still feel hungry?"
You have to ask yourself, is the food have
already eaten providing me with the necessary nutrition? How
much nutrition do I need to perform the physical and mental
activities that I will be doing in the near future? Once you
know the answers to these questions, and have a good
understanding of your mind and body, and you know what foods and
liquids are the best choices for you, then when your body or
mind is given you signals that cause you to overeat or eat the
wrong foods for no reason, then you will know that you have to
take control of your mind and body. This is one of the most
important things you need to learn. When you are the captain of
a ship you have a choice, sail into a storm or sail away from
the storm. And there is a storm everyday. You have learn how to
be aware of yourself and the world around you.
that work best for you and seek out the best
information and knowledge that the world has to offer. Sometimes
just Eating Slower
remembering to breath will help you to be more aware of how much
food you are eating. Did you
can sometimes absorb more calories then they need
instead of serving the energy needs of the body? So you will be
tricked into thinking that you need to eat more. This might be
fine if you're going into
, but humans don't hibernate. So you have to
learn why your fat cells are doing this and also verify that your
levels are where they should be?
It's knowing when to eat, what to eat, and how much to eat.
can help you with measuring how much food you
is a hormone made by adipose cells that helps to
regulate energy balance by
inhibiting hunger. Leptin is opposed by the
actions of the hormone ghrelin, the "hunger hormone". Both hormones act on
receptors in the arcuate nucleus of the
hypothalamus to regulate appetite
to achieve energy homeostasis. In obesity, a decreased sensitivity to leptin occurs, resulting in an inability to detect satiety despite high
energy stores. Emotions
the "hunger hormone", also known as lenomorelin
(INN), is a peptide hormone produced by ghrelinergic cells in the
gastrointestinal tract which functions as a neuropeptide in the
. Besides regulating appetite, ghrelin also plays a
significant role in regulating the distribution and rate of use of
. When the stomach is empty,
ghrelin is secreted. When the stomach is stretched, secretion stops. It
acts on hypothalamic brain cells both to increase hunger, and to increase
gastric acid secretion and gastrointestinal motility to prepare the body
for food intake.
also called hypocretin, is a
is an appetite control mechanism found in brain.
is a group of disorders
caused by dysfunctional mitochondria, the organelles that generate energy
for the cell
produced in the
brain by the AgRP/NPY neuron. Acts to increase appetite and decrease
metabolism and energy expenditure.
Melanocortin 4 Receptor
is a protein that in humans is encoded by the
MC4R gene. It encodes the MC4 protein, a G protein-coupled receptor that
binds α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH). In murine models MC4
receptors have been found to be involved in feeding
, the regulation of metabolism
and male erectile function. In 2008, MC4R mutations were reported to be
associated with inherited human obesity. They were found in heterozygotes,
suggesting an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. However, based on
other research and observations, these mutations seem to have an
incomplete penetrance and some degree of codominance. It has a prevalence
of 1.0–2.5% in people with body mass indices greater than 30, making it
the most commonly known genetic defect predisposing people to obesity.
Having certain Hereditary Vulnerabilities
does not mean that you don't have any
over what you
can do with your mind or your body. You have options and you can make
Famine Reaction in animals is a set of adaptive biochemical and
physiological changes that reduce metabolism in response to a lack of food.
is the cognitive processing of motivation,
pleasure, and reward and reinforcement learning, and hence has
significant role in addiction. It plays a lesser role in fear,
impulsivity, and the
. It is involved in the
encoding of new motor programs as well.
is the property of a system in which a variable (for example, the
concentration of a substance in solution, or its temperature) is actively
regulated to remain very nearly constant. This regulation occurs inside a
defined environment (mostly within a living organism's body).
is a monoamine
Biochemically derived from tryptophan, serotonin is primarily found in the
gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), blood platelets, and the
(CNS) of animals, including humans. It is popularly thought
to be a contributor to feelings of well-being and happiness.
(i.e., pleasure) provided by foods or fluids that are agreeable
to the "palate", which often varies relative to the homeostatic
satisfaction of nutritional, water, or energy needs. The palatability of a
food or fluid, unlike its flavor or taste, varies with the state of an
individual: it is lower after consumption and higher when deprived.
Palatability of foods, however, can be learned. It has increasingly been
appreciated that this can create a hedonic hunger that is independent of
Taste and Flavor
Live within your Means
Is the lack of a certain nutrient causing your
need to learn to understand the difference between feeling
hungry and starving, because it could save your life."
Eating Less Is Far More Important Than Exercising More
"What if you had a way
to know if you had enough to eat today, and that you don't need
to eat again until tomorrow?"
How much should my baby be eating
"Don't lose the peace of years by seeking the rapture of
Understand Food Cravings
Weight loss: Gain Control of Emotional Eating
Mood, Food, and Obesity
"You don't need a
or a Hapi Fork
you need knowledge, information, training and awareness."
Take a pause before
, take a short breath, release all the tension in your
body and then ask, do I need more? Every pause is a reminder
that you are aware, you are in control, and you are not a victim
of automatic behaviors that provide no useful benefit to you.
You have better things to do then be a slave to impulse.
If you feel a
little hungry, then that's OK,
as long as you know that you have
eaten enough, then you know it's a
. It's a misinterpretation of your bodies
information, which you can easily ignore like a bad habit. And
over time you will strengthen your control over your body and
never be vulnerable to these false alarms. But you still need to
be aware of any changes in your body that may be a sign that
something is not right. Understanding early warning signs could
save your life.
enhances the daily rhythm of circulating
levels of endocannabinoid 2-Arachidonoylglycerol. The daily
rhythm of a particular
, known as 2-AG, is altered by a
. Lack of sleep can also alter hunger and satiety
satiety hormone, is a
made by adipose cells
that helps to regulate energy balance by inhibiting hunger. Leptin is opposed by the actions of the hormone ghrelin, the
"hunger hormone", also known as lenomorelin (INN), is a peptide
hormone produced by ghrelinergic cells in the gastrointestinal
tract. Besides regulating appetite, ghrelin also plays a
significant role in regulating the distribution and rate of use
Don't eat when it's
time for a meal; eat when you feel hungry.
In a 2012 study that mice consuming
all of their calories within an eight-hour window were less
likely to develop metabolic diseases like diabetes than those
who ate whenever they pleased. Mice who skip feedings are leaner
and live longer than their non-skipping counterparts. The
fasting mice also have more robust brain cells than those who
consume regular meals. Mattson, who skips breakfast and lunch
most days, theorizes that
caloric deprivation acts as a mild stress that helps cells build
up their defenses—warding off damage from aging, environmental
toxins, and other threats. Other research has shown that
also prevent heart disease.
How much food do you
need to eat each day?
Food needs depends on many factors, including your height, age, sex,
general state of health, job, leisure time activities, genetics,
size, body composition, and what medications you may be on. How
much food relates to your daily calorie intake requirement -
consume more each day than you use up and you will usually put
on weight, consume less and the opposite will happen.
If your food contains a lot of fiber you can usually eat more
calories than if you eat food with a very low fiber content.
How much food you eat is also very closely linked to the types
of foods you eat and your lifestyle. Some people claim that
people who severely limit their daily calorie intake will live
much longer. Previous studies found that half-starved roundworms
longer than well-fed ones. Other animal studies have come up
with similar findings.
A Serving Size
is the amount of
food listed on a product’s food label and it varies from product
is how much food you choose to
eat at one time.
Food Label Meanings
On the average men and women need about 56 and
46 grams of
Leftovers and taking food home
enjoying a good meal twice, plus it’s a lot healthier then over
eating and it saves money and time too. It's
Healthier to Under Eat then it is to over eat.
then you need and not eating till your full, is a
lot healthier for you then eating too much food or eating more
food then your body and mind needs.
"Eat food, mostly plants, but not too much."
Hara Hachi Bu
eat until you are 80 percent full.
Don't Eat too Fast, Eat Slower
and Chew your Food
Slow Down you Eat too Fast
. People who eat slower and chew
their food more, end up eating less.
Chewing your Food
Benefits of Chewing your Food
is the process by which food is crushed and ground by
. It is the first step of
, and it increases the surface area of foods to allow a more
efficient break down by enzymes. During the mastication process, the food
is positioned by the cheek and tongue between the teeth for grinding. The
muscles of mastication move the jaws to bring the teeth into intermittent
contact, repeatedly occluding and opening. As chewing continues, the food
is made softer and warmer, and the enzymes in saliva begin to break down
in the food. After chewing, the food
(now called a bolus) is swallowed. It enters the esophagus and via
peristalsis continues on to the stomach, where the next step of digestion
occurs. Premastication is sometimes performed by human parents for infants
who are unable to do so for themselves. The food is masticated in the
mouth of the parent into a bolus and then transferred to the infant for
consumption. (Some other animals also premasticate.) Cattle and some other
animals, called ruminants, chew food more than once to extract more
nutrients. After the first round of chewing, this food is called cud.
is being within reasonable or
average limits; not excessive or extreme. Avoiding excesses. Avoiding
extremes. The action of lessening in severity or intensity. Lessen the
intensity of; temper; hold in restraint; hold or keep within limits.
If You Scarf Your Food.
Optimal directional volatile transport in Retronasal
Eating too fast may spell trouble in the form of indigestion,
acid reflux, and more serious health issues like insulin
resistance and diabetes. Speed eating also leads to weight gain,
because we continue eating long before our stomachs realize
or do things when you are eating.
to the taste, temperature, and texture
of food. Synching up your
mind with your mouth will help you get more pleasure from the
food you're eating, giving you the chance to notice the unique
flavor bursting from every bite. Take the time to sit down and
eat your meal. Chew wisely and try and take at least 20 seconds
to process each mouthful.
is a group of metabolic diseases
which there are high blood sugar
levels over a prolonged period. Symptoms
of high blood sugar include frequent urination
, increased thirst, and
increased hunger. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many
complications. Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, nonketotic hyperosmolar coma, or death. Serious long-term complications
include heart disease
, stroke, chronic kidney failure, foot ulcers, and
damage to the eyes.
Type 1 DM
from the pancreas's failure to produce enough insulin. This form was
previously referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or
"juvenile diabetes". The cause is unknown.
begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells
fail to respond to insulin properly. As the disease progresses a lack of
insulin may also develop. This form was previously referred to as "non
insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (NIDDM) or "adult-onset diabetes".
The primary cause is excessive body weight and not enough exercise.
is the third main form
and occurs when pregnant
without a previous history of diabetes develop high blood-sugar
Type 3c (Pancreatogenic) Diabetes
is a form of diabetes that involves
the exocrine and digestive functions
of the pancreas. Out of all the diabetics, 5–10% may actually be type 3c
diabetics. In 80% of people who suffer from this condition, chronic
pancreatitis seems to be the cause. (also known as Pancreatogenic diabetes).
Diabetes and Diet
Diabetes Prevention Program
is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose
circulates in the blood plasma.
is a simple
with the molecular formula C6H12O6. Glucose circulates in the blood
of animals as blood sugar. It is made during
from water and
carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight. The reverse of the
photosynthesis reaction, which releases this
, is an important
source of power for cellular respiration. Glucose is stored as a polymer,
in plants as starch
and in animals as glycogen, for times when the
organism will need it.
is the amount of glucose (sugar) present in the blood of a
human or animal. The body naturally tightly regulates blood glucose levels
as a part of metabolic
is one form in which body fuel
stored; stored primarily in the liver and broken down into glucose when
needed by the body. Glucose
monosaccharide sugar that has several forms; an important source of
is a glandular organ in the
of vertebrates. In humans, it is located in the abdominal
cavity behind the stomach. It is an endocrine gland producing several
, including insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and
pancreatic polypeptide which circulate in the blood. The pancreas is also
a digestive organ, secreting pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes
that assist digestion and absorption of nutrients in the small intestine.
These enzymes help to further break down the Carbohydrates
in the chyme.
is a condition in which there are excess
levels of insulin circulating in the blood relative to the level of
glucose. While it is often mistaken for diabetes or hyperglycaemia,
hyperinsulinemia can result from a variety of metabolic diseases and
conditions. While hyperinsulinemia is often seen in people with early
stage type 2 diabetes mellitus, it is not the cause of the condition and
is only one symptom of the disease. Type 1 diabetes only occurs when
pancreatic beta-cell function is impaired. Hyperinsulinemia can be seen in
a variety of conditions including diabetes mellitus type 2, in neonates
and in drug induced hyperinsulinemia. It can also occur in congenital
hyperinsulism, including nesidioblastosis.
is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets. It
regulates the metabolism
the absorption of, especially, glucose from the blood into fat, liver and
skeletal muscle cells. In these tissues the absorbed glucose is converted
into either glycogen via glycogenesis or fats (triglycerides) via lipogenesis, or, in the case of the liver, into both. Glucose production
(and excretion into the blood) by the liver is strongly inhibited by high
concentrations of insulin in the blood. Circulating insulin also affects
the synthesis of proteins in a wide variety of tissues. It is therefore an
anabolic hormone, promoting the conversion of small molecules in the blood
into large molecules inside the cells. Low insulin levels in the blood
have the opposite effect by promoting widespread catabolism.
is a pathological condition in which
cells fail to respond normally to the hormone insulin. The body produces
insulin when glucose starts to be released into the bloodstream from the
digestion of carbohydrates in the diet. Normally this insulin response
triggers glucose being taken into body cells, to be used for energy, and
inhibits the body from using fat for energy. The level of glucose in the
blood decreases as a result, staying within the normal range even when a
large amount of carbohydrates is consumed. This reflects the healthy
amount of insulin sensitivity. In contrast, when the body produces insulin
under conditions of insulin resistance, the cells are resistant to the
insulin and are unable to use it as effectively, leading to high blood
sugar. Beta cells in the pancreas subsequently increase their production
of insulin, further contributing to a high blood insulin level. This often
remains undetected and can contribute to a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes or
latent autoimmune diabetes of adults.
of food is a number that estimates how much the food
will raise a person's blood glucose level after eating it. One unit of
glycemic load approximates the effect of consuming one gram of glucose.
Glycemic load accounts for how much carbohydrate is in the food and how
much each gram of carbohydrate in the food raises blood glucose levels.
Glycemic load is based on the glycemic index (GI), and is calculated by
multiplying the grams of available carbohydrate in the food times the
food's GI and then dividing by 100.
is a number associated with a particular type of food that indicates the
food's effect on a person's blood glucose (also called blood sugar) level.
A value of 100 represents the standard, an equivalent amount of pure
glucose. The GI represents the total rise in a person's blood sugar level
following consumption of the food; it may or may not represent the
rapidity of the rise in blood sugar. The steepness of the rise can be
influenced by a number of other factors, such as the quantity of fat eaten
with the food. The GI is useful for understanding how the body breaks down
and only takes into account the available carbohydrate
(total carbohydrate minus fiber) in a food. Although the food may contain
fats and other components that contribute to the total rise in blood
sugar, these effects are not reflected in the GI. The glycemic index is
usually applied in the context of the quantity of the food and the amount
of carbohydrate in the food that is actually consumed. A related measure,
the glycemic load (GL), factors this in by multiplying the glycemic index
of the food in question by the carbohydrate content of the actual serving.
Watermelon has a high glycemic index, but a low glycemic load for the
quantity typically consumed. Fructose, by contrast, has a low glycemic
index, but can have a high glycemic load if a large quantity is consumed.
GI tables are available that list many types of foods and their GIs. Some
tables also include the serving size and the glycemic load of the food per
serving. A practical limitation of the glycemic index is that it does not
measure insulin production due to rises in blood sugar. As a result, two
foods could have the same glycemic index, but produce different amounts of
insulin. Likewise, two foods could have the same glycemic load, but cause
different insulin responses. Furthermore, both the glycemic index and
glycemic load measurements are defined by the carbohydrate content of
food. For example, when eating steak, which has no carbohydrate content
but provides a high protein intake, up to 50% of that protein can be
converted to glucose when there is little to no carbohydrate consumed with
it. But because it contains no carbohydrate itself, steak cannot have a
glycemic index. For some food comparisons, the "insulin index" may be more
index foods include refined
, which are
starches that have had the bran, hull and fiber removed from
the grain during processing, and
, which cause a rapid rise and fall in
blood sugar after consumption. Typically, blood sugar falls
below fasting level within a few hours of a high glycaemic index
meal, causing hunger and leading to overeating. Foods with a low
, such as whole fruit, vegetables, legumes and
minimally-processed grain, produce relatively little blood sugar
fluctuation, and longer satiation.
Food Addiction creates an
intense activation of the
, a critical brain area in the
that mediates pleasure eating, reward and craving.
National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute
Kills More Than HIV, Tuberculosis And Malaria Combined
Every day 3,835 people are diagnosed with diabetes. That means they're
much more likely to go blind. To die of a heart attack. To lose a limb.
diabetes causes thickening and other damage to blood vessels, creating
circulation problems throughout the body. This can lead to damage in the
nerves and the feet, and in organs including the eyes, kidneys and heart,
which may further damage the blood vessels.
One Drop Premium: A New Approach to Diabetes Glucose Meter
Insulog - The Smart Snap-on Insulin Tracker
Infusion of Islet Cells
for 1 diabetes instead of
Pain-Free Skin Patch responds to Sugar Levels for management of Type 2
Coenzyme Q10 Molecule could Prevent and Alleviate Pre-Diabetes.
Toward beta cell replacement for Diabetes
Normoglycemic Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Pregnancy
Annual Number (in Thousands) of New Cases of Diagnosed Diabetes
Among Adults Aged 18-79 Years, United States, 1980-2014
Diabetes is the No. 1 Killer In Mexico.
The disease claims nearly 80,000 lives each year, and
forecasters say the health problem is expected to get worse in the decades
to come. Diabetes costs the Mexican health care system billions of dollars
each year. Pan American Health Organization
Be conscience of what you eat and how much you eat. Your body needs only a certain
amount of Nutrition. Over eating
will hurt you in the long run,
and so will starving
. You have to know your exact
requirements of Nutrition
and calories. And that depends on your
, the amount of physical activity
that you have to
do, and your personal needs for vitamins and minerals
Calorie Restrictive Diet
has benefits for some people but I would not
recommend it until you talk to a
and have a
to a complete
both have risks so
please educate yourself.
Basal Metabolic Rate
is the minimal rate of
expenditure per unit time
by endothermic animals at rest. It is reported in energy units per unit
time ranging from watt (joule/second) to ml O2/min or joule per hour per
kg body mass J/(h·kg)). Proper measurement requires a strict set of
criteria be met. These criteria include being in a physically and
psychologically undisturbed state, in a thermally neutral environment,
while in the post-absorptive state (i.e., not actively digesting food). In
bradymetabolic animals, such as fish and reptiles, the equivalent term
standard metabolic rate (SMR) is used. It follows the same criteria as BMR,
but requires the documentation of the temperature at which the metabolic
rate was measured. This makes BMR a variant of standard metabolic rate
measurement that excludes the
, a practice that has led to
problems in defining "standard" rates of metabolism for many mammals.
Metabolism comprises the processes that the body needs to function. Basal
metabolic rate is the amount of energy expressed in calories that a person
needs to keep the body functioning at rest. Some of those processes are
breathing, blood circulation, controlling body temperature, cell growth,
brain and nerve function, and contraction of muscles. Basal metabolic rate
(BMR) affects the rate that a person burns calories and ultimately whether
that individual maintains, gains, or loses weight. The basal metabolic
rate accounts for about 60 to 75% of the daily calorie expenditure by
individuals. It is influenced by several factors. BMR typically declines
by 1–2% per decade after age 20, mostly due to loss of fat-free mass,
although the variability between individuals is high.
The liver and muscles burn
26% of calories consumed, the brain uses 22 %, the heart uses 8%, and
other body organs use the rest. Though exercise
is extremely important, it's what you eat that will mostly determine your
is the set of life-sustaining chemical
transformations within the cells of living organisms. The three main
purposes of metabolism are the conversion of food/fuel to
cellular processes, the conversion of food/fuel to building blocks for
proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and some carbohydrates, and the
elimination of nitrogenous wastes
is a clustering of at least three of the
five (unfold into nine combination) following medical conditions:
abdominal (central) obesity (cf. TOFI), elevated blood pressure, elevated
fasting plasma glucose, high serum triglycerides, low high-density
lipoprotein (HDL) levels.
are the intermediates and products of metabolism
with various functions, including fuel, structure, signaling, stimulatory
and inhibitory effects on enzymes, catalytic activity of their own
(usually as a cofactor to an enzyme), defense, and interactions with other
organisms (e.g. pigments, odorants, and pheromones). A primary metabolite
is directly involved in normal "growth", development, and reproduction.
us a comprehensive analysis of the entirety of metal and metalloid species
within a cell or tissue type.
is a metabolic
state in which most of the body's energy supply comes from ketone bodies
in the blood, in contrast to a state of glycolysis in which blood
glucose provides most of the energy.
is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules
into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy, or used in
other anabolic reactions.
regulation of glucose metabolism, synthesis
in the adrenal cortex, and its steroidal structure.
Body adapts to survive.
The human body
is an amazing adaptive machine that will always strive for
. Whatever conditions the body is put in, it will strive to
survive within that new norm. Once the body senses that fat loss is
occurring it will begin to lower
and diminish nervous
output in an effort to stop the weight loss. Once further
cuts are made and cardio is increased fat loss will resume again, but the
body will further lower thyroid levels and nervous system output. It will
levels and raise
levels, which will eventually lead to muscle loss. Since muscle is
metabolically active tissue, meaning it requires calories simply to exist,
the metabolism will drop even further.Fat Loss
should not be Rushed
When the body senses an extremely low
intake of fat it will naturally try to hold on to body
and fats are now at a premium. Taking in moderate amounts
of fat will ensure that calories are low enough for fat loss, but the body
does not perceive it as starvation.
Metabolism slows while losing fat.
After a few more weeks, fat
loss has pretty much stalled.
(SDA), also known as Thermic effect of food (TEF) or
dietary induced thermogenesis (DIT), is the amount of energy expenditure
above the resting metabolic rate due to the cost of processing food for
use and storage. Carbs increase cellular osmotic pressure (cellular
hydration) and therefore cell volume.
When muscle cells are hydrated and have greater
volume this sends signals to the body that it is in a fed state. The body,
sensing it is in a fed state, then keeps the metabolic rate raised.
Obviously if carbs are too high then fat loss cannot occur, but for
continued fat loss carbs must remain in the diet.
Prevent Slowing Metabolism
Persistent metabolic adaptation 6 years after “The Biggest Loser”
Bright Light Alters Metabolism
Scientists found bright light
exposure increased insulin resistance compared to dim light exposure in
both the morning and the evening. In the evening, bright light also caused
higher peak glucose (blood sugar) levels. Over time, excess blood glucose
can result in increased body fat, weight gain and a higher risk for
diabetes. Technology Addiction
is like a camp fire. You need to start off with a
nice meal and just add a little food throughout the day every 3
to 4 hours to keep the metabolism burning. If you throw
to much wood on the fire (over eat
) you will suffocate the fire and thus slow down your metabolism. Also if
you throw the wrong kind of wood on the fire, like
, you will also experience a slow metabolism.
you eat too little
you may also risk having the fire burn out
and most likely experience
. You may have to modify the amount of calories that
you intake (wood) in order to match the amount of activity or no
activity in that day. 150 pound person’s
Basal Metabolic Rate
would be 1500
a day. Of course calorie intake varies from person
to person so you must learn from experience and testing what is
the best diet for you in order to maintain a healthy body that
is full of energy.
is the approximate amount of
needed to raise
the temperature of one
water by one degree
at a pressure of one
A Metabolic Switch to Turn Off Obesity
Alpha/beta Hydrolase Fold
is superfamily of hydrolytic enzymes of widely differing phylogenetic
origin and catalytic function that share a common fold.
are essential to keeping an elevated
is a primary reason for this. Leptin is a fat burning hormone that is
directly related to carbohydrate intake and body fat levels (Romon et al,
1999). Leptin is a fat burning
many functions, including the control of energy expenditure.
denotes the various biochemical processes
responsible for the formation, breakdown, and interconversion of
carbohydrates in living organisms. Although humans consume a variety of
carbohydrates, digestion breaks down complex carbohydrates into a few
simple monomers for metabolism: glucose, fructose, and galactose. Glucose
constitutes about 80% of the products, and is the primary structure that
is distributed to cells in the tissues, where it is broken down or stored
as glycogen. In aerobic respiration, the main form of cellular respiration
used by humans, glucose and oxygen are metabolized to release energy, with
carbon dioxide and water as byproducts. Most of the fructose and galactose
travel to the liver, where they can be converted to glucose. Some simple
carbohydrates have their own enzymatic oxidation pathways, as do only a
few of the more complex carbohydrates. The disaccharide lactose, for
instance, requires the enzyme lactase to be broken into its monosaccharide
components, glucose and galactose.
is a simple sugar
molecular formula C6H12O6, which means that it is a molecule that is made
of six carbon atoms, twelve hydrogen atoms, and six oxygen atoms. Glucose
circulates in the blood of animals as blood sugar. It is made during
photosynthesis from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight.
It is the most important source of energy for cellular respiration.
Glucose is stored as a polymer, in plants as starch and in animals as
is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often
bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide, sucrose. It is one of the
three dietary monosaccharides, along with glucose and galactose, that are
absorbed directly into blood during digestion. Pure, dry fructose is a
sweet, white, odorless, crystalline solid, and is the most water-soluble
of all the sugars. Fructose is found in honey, tree and vine fruits,
flowers, berries, and most root vegetables. Commercially, fructose is
derived from sugar cane, sugar beets, and maize. As for any sugar,
excessive consumption of fructose may contribute to insulin resistance,
obesity, elevated LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, leading to metabolic
syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
is a monosaccharide sugar
that is about as sweet as glucose, and about 30% as sweet as sucrose. It
is a C-4 epimer of glucose. Galactan is a polymeric form of galactose
found in hemicellulose, and forming the core of the galactans, a class of
natural polymeric carbohydrates.
is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of
in humans, animals,
fungi, and bacteria. The polysaccharide structure represents the main
storage form of glucose in the body.A high
once every 4-8 days can boost leptin levels since leptin is
highly responsive to glucose metabolism.
Higher carb days can lead to higher levels
t3 as well as even keep testosterone levels elevated,
which will further fat loss efforts.
are substrate for
cholesterol, meaning that fatty acids must be available to create
cholesterol which is eventually converted to testosterone. If fat intake
is too low there will not be enough
available for optimal testosterone production. This will
lead to lower testosterone levels. Low testosterone leads to greater
muscle loss during prep, meaning a lower metabolic rate.
is where you essentially add calories back into your diet slowly much the
same way you cut them slowly in order to get lean. This will prevent
copious amounts of
from collecting within the first month or two after
a show.Simple Carbohydrates
down quickly by the body to be used as energy. Simple carbohydrates are
found naturally in foods such as fruits, milk, and milk products. They are
also found in processed and refined
such as candy, table sugar, syrups, and
so it best to avoid these types of simple carbs.
is any food that is particularly rich in the
complex carbohydrate starch (such as cereals, bread and pasta) or simple
carbohydrates, such as sugar (found in candy, jams, and desserts). A
biological molecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O)
atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water). A
group that includes sugars, starch, and cellulose.
is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units
joined by glycosidic bonds. This polysaccharide is produced by most green
plants as an energy store. It is the most common carbohydrate in human
diets and is contained in large amounts in staple foods such as potatoes,
wheat, maize (corn), rice, and cassava. Pure starch is a white, tasteless
and odorless powder that is insoluble in cold water or alcohol. It
consists of two types of molecules: the linear and helical amylose and the
branched amylopectin. Depending on the plant, starch generally contains 20
to 25% amylose and 75 to 80% amylopectin by weight. Glycogen, the glucose
store of animals, is a more branched version of amylopectin. In industry,
starch is converted into sugars, for example by malting, and fermented to
produce ethanol in the manufacture of beer, whisky and biofuel. It is
processed to produce many of the sugars used in processed foods.
Dissolving starch in warm water gives wheatpaste, which can be used as a
thickening, stiffening or gluing agent. The biggest industrial non-food
use of starch is as an adhesive in the papermaking process. Starch can be
applied to parts of some garments before ironing, to stiffen them.
biological molecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O)
atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in
other words, with the empirical formula Cm(H2O)n (where m could be
different from n). Some exceptions exist; for example, deoxyribose, a
sugar component of DNA, has the empirical formula C5H10O4. Carbohydrates
are technically hydrates of carbon; structurally it is more accurate to
view them as polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones.
- Over Eating
Can changing your mealtimes make you
healthier? Altering the
at which you eat can affect your weight and metabolism.
People who waited 12 hours without eating remained healthier and
slimmer than those who ate the same number of calories, but
spread out. A few
other things that help boost Metabolism:
Staying active and not
sitting for long periods, drinking green tea, drinking water, adding fresh
lemon juice to your tea or water, and laughter.