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Food Education - Nutrition - Eating Healthy Tips


Being very knowledgeable about Food is some of the most important knowledge that you can have. Food is extremely crucial for life quality, second only to water. Importance Scale; Water, Food, Nutrients, Knowledge, Live, Learn, Love. The Human Body is incredible complex machine. Don't ever take your body for granted. Everyone must fully understand the responsibilities of maintaining a strong and healthy body, and mind.

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Food That's Healthy Almost 870 million people chronically undernourished from 2010-2012.
91% of American kids have Poor Diets.
Want kids to learn well? Feed them well: Sam Kass (video and interactive text)

Feeding the Hungry
Food Security
Food Nutrition Service
Food Coops
Farming

Let Food Be Your Medicine and Medicine Be Your Food


Nutrition Explained

Kids who suffer hunger in the first years of their life do poorly in schools. An estimated 13.1 million children live in homes with insufficient food, according to the most recent figures from the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Many of those children experience hunger during their first few years of life, or their parents are hungry and stressed out about food during those years – the most crucial time for a child's development.

Children also suffer from eating unhealthy Food

Baby Boomers Will Become Sicker Seniors Than Earlier Generations

You have to be fully aware of your bodies food and water needs, as well as your bodies reactions to certain foods and liquids.

Eating only when hungry is good as long as you know that your brains hunger signals are correct and accurate. The same for water, only drink when thirsty, but thirst is not the only factor when it comes to your bodies water needs. It will take a lot of knowledge, information and experience to learn about your needs, and also to understand and control your wants. The goal is to always have maximum energy without wasting time and energy eating more food then you need. And if you learn how to cook and prepare food, then you will always have the ability enjoy eating the way you like.

Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism and assimilated by the organism's cells to provide energy, maintain life, or stimulate growth.

Farming

Eating is the ingestion of food, typically to provide a heterotrophic organism with energy and to allow for growth. Animals and other heterotrophs must eat in order to survive.

Carnivores eat other animals, herbivores eat plants, omnivores consume a mixture of both plant and animal matter, and detritivores eat detritus. Fungi digest organic matter outside of their bodies as opposed to animals that digest their food inside their bodies. For humans, eating is an activity of daily living.

Food Energy is chemical energy that animals (including humans) derive from their food and molecular oxygen through the process of cellular respiration. (Cellular respiration involves either the process of joining oxygen from air with the molecules of food (aerobic respiration) or the process of reorganizing the atoms within the molecules (anaerobic respiration).

Energy Density is the amount of Energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume or mass, though the latter is more accurately termed specific energy. Often only the useful or extractable energy is measured, which is to say that chemically inaccessible energy such as rest mass energy is ignored.

Adenosine Triphosphate - Brain Energy Needs

Calorie is the approximate amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius at a pressure of one atmosphere. Calorie Density

Energy Transfer is energy exchange from one system to another, is said to occur when an amount of energy crosses the boundary between them, thus increasing the energy content of one system while decreasing the energy content of the other system by the same amount.

Cellular Respiration (metabolic reactions)

Lipid is a loosely defined term for substances of biological origin that are soluble in nonpolar solvents. It comprises a group of naturally occurring molecules that include Fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, phospholipids, and others. The main biological functions of lipids include storing energy, signaling, and acting as structural components of cell membranes. Lipids have applications in the cosmetic and food industries as well as in nanotechnology. Scientists may broadly define lipids as hydrophobic or amphiphilic small molecules; the amphiphilic nature of some lipids allows them to form structures such as vesicles, multilamellar/unilamellar liposomes, or membranes in an aqueous environment. Biological lipids originate entirely or in part from two distinct types of biochemical subunits or "building-blocks": ketoacyl and isoprene groups. Using this approach, lipids may be divided into eight categories: fatty acids, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, saccharolipids, and polyketides (derived from condensation of ketoacyl subunits); and sterol lipids and prenol lipids (derived from condensation of isoprene subunits). Although the term lipid is sometimes used as a synonym for fats, fats are a subgroup of lipids called triglycerides. Lipids also encompass molecules such as fatty acids and their derivatives (including tri-, di-, monoglycerides, and phospholipids), as well as other sterol-containing metabolites such as cholesterol. Although humans and other mammals use various biosynthetic pathways both to break down and to synthesize lipids, some essential lipids cannot be made this way and must be obtained from the diet.

Metabolism

Thermodynamics (chemistry)

You're A Firework (Scientifically Speaking) (youtube)

Calories needed by women in their lifetime (image)
Calories needed by men in their lifetime (image)

Carbohydrates - Cholesterol

Human Energy

Fasting
Vitamins - Minerals
Microbes
Brain Food
Super Foods
Food Chemistry
PH Acidity and Alkalinity
Allergies
Vegetables, Fruits, Grains, Nuts, Herbs and Legumes'

Vitality is life, life force, health, youth, or ability to live or exist. The word vitality is derived from the Latin word vita , which means Life.

Vitality - Vital Signs

Gastronomy is the study of the relationship between food and culture, art of preparing and serving rich or delicate and appetizing food, a style of cooking of particular region, and the science of good eating. One who is well versed in gastronomy is called a gastronome, while a gastronomist is one who unites theory and practice in the study of gastronomy.

Digestive System

Diet is just another word for Eating Healthy and eating the right foods in the right amounts at the right times. It's knowing that good flavor does not always mean healthy. It's knowing how to chew your food enough. It's knowing not to eat too fast. It's knowing Not to Overeat and it's knowing when you have eaten enough

Grocery Shopping Tips (youtube)
Box Food Stores
Documentary Films on Health

You need to understand that changes to your body happen gradual over time. So they are almost unnoticeable. When I started eating healthier I noticed that when I ate unhealthy food I felt its grossness swimming through my bloodstream. But if I ate unhealthy food a couple of days in a row, I became unaware of the feeling. So my body created a new normal, which it was not. I also noticed that when I stopped taking vitamins everyday, my body became sluggish. But after a week or two, my body created a new normal. We need to define what normal is so that we will make changes when needed. We also have to avoid eating the exact same foods everyday. Each person needs to do their own personal research, and also needs to break routines in order to examine the changes, whether they are good or bad. With food you have to break routine sometimes. Unless you're absolutely positive that you are doing the right thing. It's good to experiment with other foods. Mostly because there are some foods that you can't eat all the time, or eat every single day. Something's start off beneficial, but they can also have accumulative negative effects. So they are only good once in while. But you have to do the research yourself. And to be a good researcher you have to keep updating your knowledge base. Especially now that we are learning more, and learning faster, then another time in human history.

Studies have shown that dietary improvement cumulatively prevents millions of premature deaths and results in fewer cases of type 2 diabetes, fewer cases of cardiovascular disease and fewer cancer cases, just to name a few of the benefits.

Eating bad food everyday is like never throwing out the garbage. And as the garbage accumulates and builds up, you will find it harder to move around. And with all that garbage, you will have more disease and more problems. And the worst part is that the garbage builds up so slowly over time that you might not even notice before it's to late.  Processed Food

"Convenience is not supposed to hurt us or kill us, or is it supposed to pollute and poison our planet."

"If you get good gas for your car but you eat unhealthy food, who will die first? Who has the most Potential Energy?

"When eating well, we should consider both the health of our bodies and the health of our planet."

“Eat Breakfast Like a King, Lunch Like a Prince, and Dinner Like a Pauper”. (eat your biggest meal early in the day)

Convenience Food is food that is commercially prepared (often through processing) to optimise ease of consumption. Such food is usually ready to eat without further preparation. It may also be easily portable, have a long shelf life, or offer a combination of such convenient traits. Although restaurant meals meet this definition, the term is seldom applied to them. Convenience foods include ready-to-eat dry products, frozen foods such as TV dinners, shelf-stable foods, prepared mixes such as cake mix, and snack foods.

Processed Foods
Food Processing
Food Industry

Food Production News
Food Science

Photos of what People Eat around the World (images)
School Lunches in other Countries (images)

Better School Food
Cafeteria Inspections
School Food Trust
Food Photos

Longevity

Living Longer

An ideal diet is one that promotes Optimal Health and Longevity.

Biomarkers of Aging are biomarkers that could predict functional capacity at some later age better than will chronological age. Stated another way, biomarkers of aging would give the true "biological age", which may be different from the chronological age.

Biological Clock Aging is a type of DNA clock based on measuring natural DNA methylation levels to estimate the biological age of a tissue, cell type or organ. A pre-eminent example for an epigenetic clock is Horvath's clock, which is based on 353 epigenetic markers on the human genome.

Metabolic Age refers to a number calculated by comparing your Basal Metabolic Rate to the Basal Metabolic Rate average of your chronological age group. This measurement is one among many which can be used to assess health, and people should avoid putting too much weight on it as it is a purely theoretical construct with no clinical studies; a more complete assessment of physical health can be obtained from a doctor, who may also have suggestions to improve health.

Vitals

Ageing (elderly)


Nutrition


Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism. It includes food intake, absorption, assimilation, biosynthesis, catabolism and excretion. The organic process of nourishing or being nourished.

Human Nutrition refers to the provision of essential nutrients necessary to support human life and health. Generally, people can survive up to 40 days without food, a period largely depending on the amount of water consumed, stored body fat, muscle mass and genetic factors. Poor nutrition is a chronic problem often linked to poverty, poor nutrition understanding and practices, and deficient sanitation and food security. Malnutrition and its consequences are immense contributors to deaths and disabilities worldwide. Promoting good nutrition helps children grow, promotes human development and eradication of poverty.

Nutrient is a component in foods that an organism uses to survive and grow. Macronutrients provide the bulk energy an organism's metabolic system needs to function while micronutrients provide the necessary cofactors for metabolism to be carried out. Both types of nutrients can be acquired from the environment. Micronutrients are used to build and repair tissues and to regulate body processes while macronutrients are converted to, and used for, energy. Methods of nutrient intake are different for plants and animals. Plants take in nutrients directly from the soil through their roots and from the atmosphere through their leaves. Animals and protists have specialized digestive systems that work to break down macronutrients for energy and utilize micronutrients for both metabolism and anabolism (constructive synthesis) in the body. Organic nutrients consist of carbohydrates, fats, proteins (or their building blocks, amino acids), and vitamins. Inorganic chemical compounds such as dietary minerals, water (H2O), and oxygen may also be considered nutrients. A nutrient is considered essential if it must be obtained from an external source either because the organism cannot synthesize it or because insufficient quantities are produced. Nutrients needed in very small amounts are called micronutrients while those needed in large quantities are called macronutrients. The effects of nutrients are dose-dependent; shortages are called deficiencies.

Vitamins - Minerals

Nutrient Density identifies the proportion of nutrients in foods, with terms such as nutrient rich and micronutrient dense referring to similar properties. Several different national and international standards have been developed and are in use (see Nutritional rating systems).

Micronutrient are nutrients required by organisms throughout life in small quantities to orchestrate a range of physiological functions. For people, they include dietary trace minerals in amounts generally less than 100 milligrams per day, as opposed to macrominerals, which are required in larger quantities. The microminerals or trace elements include at least iron, cobalt, chromium, copper, iodine, manganese, selenium, zinc and molybdenum. Micronutrients also include vitamins, which are organic compounds required as nutrients in trace amounts. List of Micronutrients (PDF)

Antinutrient are natural or synthetic compounds that interfere with the absorption of nutrients. Nutrition studies focus on those antinutrients commonly found in food sources and beverages.

Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems. It may involve calories, protein, carbohydrates, Vitamins or Minerals. Not enough nutrients is called undernutrition or undernourishment while too much is called overnutrition. Malnutrition is often used specifically to refer to undernutrition where there is not enough calories, protein, or micronutrients. If undernutrition occurs during pregnancy, or before two years of age, it may result in permanent problems with physical and mental development. Extreme undernourishment, known as starvation, may have symptoms that include: a short height, thin body, very poor energy levels, and swollen legs and abdomen. People also often get infections and are frequently cold. The symptoms of micronutrient deficiencies depend on the micronutrient that is lacking.

Food Security - Food Chemistry

Nutriology Clinical Nutrition is nutrition of patients in health care. Clinical in this sense refers to the management of patients, including not only outpatients at clinics, but also (and mainly) inpatients in hospitals. It incorporates primarily the scientific fields of nutrition and dietetics. It aims to keep a healthy energy balance in patients, as well as providing sufficient amounts other nutrients such as protein, vitamins, minerals.

Protein
Proteins
Benefits of Protein
How Much Protein? On the average men and women need about 56 and 46 grams of Protein a day. 
What's My Protein Number? - Health Calculator
Foods Highest in Protein Protein-Rich foods: nuts, eggs, seeds, beans, poultry, yogurt, cheese, even chocolate.
Good Protein Sources
Plant Protein (veggies)
Protein Complementation
Protein Combining is a dietary strategy for protein nutrition by using complementary sources to optimize biological value and increase the protein quality. It was originally applied to livestock feed for animal nutrition.

Phytochemicals are chemical compounds produced by plants, generally to help them thrive or thwart competitors, predators, or pathogens. The name comes from the Greek word phyton, meaning plant. Some phytochemicals have been used as poisons and others as traditional medicine.

Health Literacy is the ability to obtain, read, understand and use healthcare information to make appropriate health decisions and follow instructions for treatment. There are multiple definitions of health literacy, in part, because health literacy involves both the context (or setting) in which health literacy demands are made (e.g., health care, media, internet or fitness facility) and the skills that people bring to that situation (Rudd, Moeykens, & Colton, 1999). Studies reveal that only 12 percent of the adults in the U.S. have proficient health literacy. This means 77 million adults have basic or below basic health literacy. These individuals have difficulty with common health tasks including reading the label of a prescribed drug. Low health literacy reduces the success of treatment and increases the risk of medical error. Health literacy is essential to promote healthy individuals and communities.

Health Education is a profession of educating people about health. Areas within this profession encompass environmental health, physical health, social health, emotional health, intellectual health, and spiritual health. Health education can be defined as the principle by which individuals and groups of people, learn to behave in a manner conducive to the promotion, maintenance, or restoration of health. However, as there are multiple definitions of health, there are also multiple definitions of health education. The Joint Committee on Health Education and Promotion Terminology of 2001 defined Health Education as "any combination of planned learning experiences based on sound theories that provide individuals, groups, and communities the opportunity to acquire information and the skills needed to make quality health decisions."

Health Calculators
Allostasis (sustainability)
Food Chemistry Benefits
Combining Foods

Herbs
Spices

Brain Food



Nutrition Consulting


Nutritionist is a person who advises on matters of food and nutrition impacts on health. Different professional terms are used in different countries, employment settings and contexts — some examples include: nutrition scientist, public health nutritionist, dietitian-nutritionist, clinical nutritionist, and sports nutritionist.

Health Coaching is the use of evidence-based skillful conversation, clinical interventions and strategies to actively and safely engage client/patients in health behavior change. Health coaches are certified or credentialed to safely guide clients and patients who may have chronic conditions or those at moderate to high risk for chronic conditions.

Dietitian is an expert in dietetics; that is, human nutrition and the regulation of diet. A dietitian alters their patient's nutrition based upon their medical condition and individual needs. Dietitians are regulated healthcare professionals licensed to assess, diagnose, and treat nutritional problems. A registered dietitian (RD) or registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN), is a dietitian who meets all of a set of special academic and professional requirements.


Smart Plate TopView: Your Personal Nutritionist The world’s first Intelligent Nutrition Platform that instantly analyzes everything you eat.

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (wiki)
Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior (SNEB)

Fiber
Microbes

Eat a Well-Balanced Diet and Limit Sugar and Salt

Nutrition is very important so be very aware of how you feel after eating certain foods, Like feeling sleepy, having intestinal cramps, felling irritable, unable to focus, unable to sleep, changes in skin appearance, physical performance and so on. But remember some negative effects happen so gradual over time that you don't notice the damage until it's to late.


Diets


Healthy Diet is one that helps to maintain or improve overall health. A healthy diet provides the body with essential nutrition: fluid, adequate essential amino acids from protein, essential fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, and adequate calories. The requirements for a healthy diet can be met from a variety of plant-based and animal-based foods. A healthy diet supports energy needs and provides for human nutrition without exposure to toxicity or excessive weight gain from consuming excessive amounts. Where lack of calories is not an issue, a properly balanced diet (in addition to exercise) is also thought to be important for lowering health risks, such as obesity, heart disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and cancer. Various nutrition guides are published by medical and governmental institutions to educate the public on what they should be eating to promote health. Nutrition facts labels are also mandatory in some countries to allow consumers to choose between foods based on the components relevant to health. The idea of dietary therapy (using dietary choices to maintain health and improve poor health) is quite old and thus has both modern scientific forms (medical nutrition therapy) and prescientific forms (such as dietary therapy in traditional Chinese medicine).

Diet (nutrition) is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism. The word diet often implies the use of specific intake of nutrition for health or weight-management reasons (with the two often being related). Although humans are omnivores, each culture and each person holds some food preferences or some food taboos. This may be due to personal tastes or ethical reasons. Individual dietary choices may be more or less healthy. Complete nutrition requires ingestion and absorption of vitamins, minerals, and food energy in the form of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Dietary habits and choices play a significant role in the quality of life, health and longevity.


Sandra Aamodt: Why dieting doesn't usually work (video and interactive transcript)


Brain Food


In June 2012, I noticed that I was experiencing increased cognitive abilities after a month or two of eating about 1 once of salmon on my whole grain slice of toast every morning. Wow! I love Omega 3 fatty acids. It's easier to Remember, easier to Focus and easier to Learn. And you don't feel groggy, or a little off. And more neural pathways are open, so thinking and Problem Solving becomes easier too. So the benefits seem promising. But of course, always check with Doctors and experts to see if Omegas are healthy for your particular body needs. Not everyone benefits from nutrients the same way. You may have a particular chemistry and certain health issues and other factors. In order to fully benefit from brain enhancing foods you would also need to stop ingesting Foods and Chemicals that diminish brain functions, like fluoride, Alcohol and Drugs, certain Vaccines, Pesticides, just to name a few. You also need exercise, and you also need to keep educating yourself. Do you have allergies or some sort of sensitivity? Also be careful of fatty acids in pill form that come with essential EPA, DNA GLA and ALA Fatty Acids, or made from Fish Oil, Flaxseed Oil and Borage Seed Oil. Do your research.

Omega-3 Fatty Acid are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with a double bond (C=C) at the third carbon atom from the end of the carbon chain that are important for normal metabolism.

Foods that have Omega-3's: Walnuts, Salmon, Flaxseeds, Beans, Spinach, Kale, Seaweed, Enhanced Eggs and Tofu.

Krill Oil is an extract prepared from a species of Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba. Two of the most important components in krill oil are omega-3 fatty acids similar to those in fish oil, and phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFA), mainly phosphatidylcholine (alternatively referred to as marine lecithin).

Marine Phytoplankton
Fish Oil–Derived Fatty Acids in Pregnancy and Wheeze and Asthma in Offspring

Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood

Omega-3 Lowers Childhood Aggression in Short Term, Penn Research Shows

Fatty Acids also help expel heavy metals from the body.
Cleansing 

Omega-3 fatty acids in keeping the blood-brain barrier closed, which protects the central nervous system from blood-borne bacteria, toxins and other pathogens, according to new research.

Omega-6 Fatty Acid are a family of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory polyunsaturated fatty acids that have in common a final carbon-carbon double bond in the n-6 position, that is, the sixth bond, counting from the methyl end. Should eat lower amounts.

Omega-9 Fatty Acid
Medium-Chain Triglycerides
Inflammation

Mediterranean Diet May Have Lasting Effects on Brain Health. A new study shows that older people who followed a Mediterranean diet retained more brain volume over a three-year period than those who did not follow the diet as closely.

Lignan are a large group of chemical compounds found in plants. Some examples of lignans are pinoresinol, podophyllotoxin, and steganacin.

Lutein is a xanthophyll and one of 600 known naturally occurring carotenoids. Lutein is synthesized only by plants and like other xanthophylls is found in high quantities in green leafy vegetables such as Kale. In green plants, xanthophylls act to modulate light energy and serve as non-photochemical quenching agents to deal with triplet chlorophyll (an excited form of chlorophyll), which is overproduced at very high light levels, during photosynthesis. See xanthophyll cycle for this topic. Lutein is present in plants as fatty-acid esters, with one or two fatty acids bound to the two hydroxyl-groups.

Isoflavones are a type of naturally occurring isoflavonoids, many of which act as phytoestrogens in mammals. Isoflavones are produced almost exclusively by the members of the Fabaceae (i.e., Leguminosae, or bean) family.

Alpha-Linolenic Acid is an n−3 fatty acid. It is one of two essential fatty acids (the other being linoleic acid), so called because they are necessary for health and cannot be produced within the human body. They must be acquired through diet. ALA is an omega-3 fatty acid found in chia seeds, flaxseed, hemp seeds, nuts (notably walnuts), and many common vegetable oils.

Bacopa Monnieri is a perennial, creeping herb native to the wetlands of southern and Eastern India, Australia, Europe, Africa, Asia, and North and South America. Bacopa is a medicinal herb used in Ayurveda, where it is also known as "Brahmi", after Brahmā, the creator God of the Hindu pantheon.

Vitamins - Minerals
Logevity
Mind Diet
Brain Maintenance

Myelin  - Nerve Cells - Nervous System

Other Brain Boosting Products

Nutiva Organic Shelled Hempseeds (amazon)
Salvia Hispanica (Chia Seeds)

Tea

Green Tea is a type of tea that is made from Camellia sinensis leaves that have not undergone the same withering and oxidation process used to make oolong and black tea. Green tea originated in China, but its production has spread to many countries in Asia.

Matcha Green Tea Powder with lemon. (amazon)

Catechin is a flavan-3-ol, a type of natural phenol and antioxidant. It is a plant secondary metabolite. It belongs to the group of flavan-3-ols (or simply flavanols), part of the chemical family of Flavonoids, which act as chemical messengers, physiological regulators, and cell cycle inhibitors.

Herbal Tea and fruit teas are beverages made from the infusion or decoction of herbs, spices, fruits, or other plant material in hot water. They do not usually contain caffeine.

Infusion is the process of extracting chemical compounds or flavors from plant material in a solvent such as water, oil or alcohol, by allowing the material to remain suspended in the solvent over time (a process often called steeping). An infusion is also the name for the resultant liquid. The process of infusion is distinct from decoction, which involves boiling the plant material, or percolation, in which the water passes through the material (as in a coffeemaker).

Darjeeling Tea is a tea from the Darjeeling district in West Bengal, India. It is available in black, green, white and oolong. When properly brewed, it yields a thin-bodied, light-coloured infusion with a floral aroma. The flavour can include a tinge of astringent tannic characteristics and a musky spiciness sometimes described as "muscatel"

Sideritis is a genus of flowering plants well known for their use as herbal medicine, commonly as an herbal tea. They are abundant in Mediterranean regions, the Balkans, the Iberian Peninsula and Macaronesia, but can also be found in Central Europe and temperate Asia. (also known as ironwort, mountain tea and shepherd's tea).

Adding Boiling water to tea can burn the leaves, which will alter the taste. Wait about a minute after boiling water before adding it to tea.

Cold-brewed teas taste sweet and smooth. This is because cold water extracts a different chemical balance from the tea than hot water. Chemically speaking, this means there are fewer catechins and less caffeine. In terms of flavor, a reduction in catechins and caffeine drops out the bitterness. Refrigerate for 4-10 hours. Longer brew time extracts stronger flavor and more caffeine. White teas will brew the quickest, followed by green teas and twisted/flat oolongs, allow most time for rolled oolongs, pu-erhs, herbal infusions and black teas.

The Right Way to Make Tea - Stop Eating it Wrong, Episode 27 (youtube)

Coffee

Coffee Knowledge - How to Make and Prepare Coffee

Upgraded Coffee - Kit
How to Make Bulletproof Coffee (youtube)
Mitochondiral Energy Support W/BioPQQ (amazon)

Mycotoxin is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by organisms of the fungus kingdom.

Ochratoxin are a group of mycotoxins produced by some Aspergillus species.

Aflatoxin B1 is a potent carcinogen, and is up to twice as carcinogenic as an equitoxic dose of X-rays.

Ochratoxin A is one of the most-abundant food-contaminating mycotoxins. It is also a frequent contaminant of water-damaged houses and of heating ducts. Human exposure can occur through consumption of contaminated food products, particularly contaminated grain and pork products, as well as coffee, wine grapes, and dried grapes. The toxin has been found in the tissues and organs of animals, including human blood and breast milk. Ochratoxin A, like most toxic substances, has large species- and sex-specific toxicological differences.

Choline is the precursor molecule for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is involved in many functions including memory and muscle control.

Tannin is an astringent, polyphenolic biomolecule that binds to and precipitates proteins and various other organic compounds including amino acids and alkaloids.

Hormesis is the term that describes any process in a cell or organism that exhibits a biphasic response to exposure to increasing amounts of a substance or condition.

Mycotoxins in Foods 

Coffee acidity refers to a flavor note, not to the actual acid content; coffee is relatively low in acid. Its pH averages around 5.0 - 5.1, which is more neutral than beer or any fruit juice and similar to carbonated water (which contains carbonic acid as a result of the dissolved carbon dioxide). If a vinegar/water solution were made within an equivalent pH, its acidity could not be detected by taste.  The average American consumes about 200 mg of Caffeine a day. Caffeine in Coffee amounts by manufacturer Increased alertness can begin in as few as 10 minutes but it takes about 30 to 60 minutes for caffeine to reach its peak level in the blood. The body typically eliminates half of the drug in three to five hours, and the remainder can linger for eight to 14 hours. Women generally metabolize caffeine faster than men. Smokers process it twice as quickly as nonsmokers do. Caffeine overuse can trigger a fast heart rate, insomnia, anxiety and restlessness, among other side effects.

Beer and Coffee Benefits Comparison Info-Graph (image)

Chocolate

Cacao is a small evergreen tree in the family Malvaceae, native to the deep tropical regions of Central and South America. Its seeds, Cocoa Beans, are used to make cocoa mass, cocoa powder, confectionery, ganache and chocolate.

Healthworks Raw Certified Organic Cacao Powder, 1 lb (amazon) - Raw
Cocoa Barometer
Conseil Cafe Cacao
World Cocoa Foundation
Green America

Chocolate Bloom is a whitish coating that can appear on the surface of chocolate. This effect is one of the main concerns in the production of chocolate. There are two types of bloom: fat bloom, arising from changes in the Fat in the chocolate; and sugar bloom, formed by the action of moisture on the Sugar ingredients. The crystals of fat and sugar bloom limit the shelf life of many chocolates. Chocolate that has "bloomed" is still safe to eat (as it is a non-perishable food due to its sugar content), but may have an unappetizing appearance and surface texture. In general, Chocolate bloom can be 'repaired' by melting the chocolate down, stirring it, then pouring it into a mould and allowing it to cool, bringing the sugar or fat back into the solution.
 
Flavonoids are a class of plant and fungus secondary metabolites.
Dentate Gyrus (Hippocampus)
Butter from Grass Fed Cows (amazon)

Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several tree species from the genus Cinnamomum. Cinnamon is used in both sweet and savoury foods. The term "cinnamon" also refers to its mid-brown colour.

Ceylon Real Organic Cinnamon Sticks (amazon)

Coconut Oil is an edible oil extracted from the kernel or meat of mature coconuts harvested from the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera). Because of its high saturated fat content, it is slow to oxidize and, thus, resistant to rancidification, lasting up to six months at 24 °C (75 °F) without spoiling.

Organic Coconut Oil (amazon)  MCT

Anthocyanin (Purple Food)

Does an Empty Stomach help Concentration and Memory? (PDF) 

Breathing Exercises helps improve Brain Function, and Exercise too.
Music and Concentration


Supplements

Huperzine A
Acetylcarnitine
Vitamin E
Ginseng
Nootropic
More Supplements (amazon)
Aromas like Rosemary

Vitamins - Minerals

Herbs

Holy Basil
Jiaogulan
Astragalus
Garden Sage
Lingzhi Mushroom
Smart Drugs
Alzheimer's

Herbs - Spices

Garlic

Health and Medicinal Benefits of Raw Garlic are that it's a Powerful immune system enhancer. Increases White blood cell production. Reduces high cholesterol. Allicin. Antibacterial. Antiviral. Antifungal, effective remedy for yeast infections and Candida. Clears Boils and infected sores. Improves Appetite. Digestive aid, add it to meat and other heavy meals. Increases libido. Expels Intestinal Parasites and worms. Raw Garlic (2 Cloves a Day)

Ancient Potion: Garlic, onions and cow bile. Mixed with wine and aged in a copper vessel. 
Potion is a magical medicine, drug in liquid form.

Stronger legs linked to stronger brains in older women

Exercise Benefits

People over age 50 who are sexually active have better memory and cognitive skills than people who are less sexually active.
Cognitive Neuroscience in Space effects on the brain in a weightless environment. Movement and other brain functions are affected under zero gravity or microgravity conditions. Terrestrial research has shown that human cognitive and perceptual motor performances deteriorate under stress may affect neurocognitive performance. Various psychomotor functions degrade during space flight including central postural functions, the speed and accuracy of aimed movements, internal timekeeping, attentional processes, sensing of limb position and the central management of concurrent tasks. Other factors that might affect neurocognitive performance in space are illness, injury, toxic exposure, decompression accidents, medication side effects and excessive exposure to radiation. Different tools have been developed to assess and counteract these deficits and problems, including computerized tests and physical exercise devices.

Brain Maintenance 101

Some of the dangers from eating unhealthy foods are increased risk of Kidney Disease, Dehydration, Nausea, increased risk of Cancer, increased risk of Heart Disease, Strokes, Seizures, Mood Changes, Diabetes, Anorexia, High Blood Pressure, Bad Breath, Cognitive Abilities, Poor Endurance, increased Bone Loss, Digestive Problems, Gout and Nutritional Deficiencies to name a few.

Processed Food - Junk Food
Additives
Heart Disease - Diabetes
Salt
Eco Mii
Microbes - Good Bacteria

Your body and brain depends on you making the right food decisions, so please make yourself very aware of the importance of eating the right foods with balance. Know the difference between being hungry and not having enough to eat. Avoiding foods that are not good for you is not easy. Discipline in this area means that you have respect for your body and that you are knowledgeable about which foods are good and which foods are bad. Taste is never an indication on determining if a food is good for you or if a food is bad for you. Learning how to cook healthy foods is one of the most rewarding skills to have.

All foods can be Prepared in a way that would please everyone’s tastes and needs. Eating a verity of regular foods in smaller portions is a good idea. A Bad Diet can be just as dangerous and damaging as Malnutrition. You should never eliminate entire food groups unless you have allergies or a medical condition. So please learn what foods are good for you and in what quantities.


Meat in Moderation


Processed Meat, especially Red Meats, Sausage, Bacon, Deli Meats and Hot Dogs, have been linked to a a higher risk of Pancreatic Cancer, and an elevated risk of Colorectal Cancer and a significantly higher risk of developing Type 2 Diabetes and Heart Disease. As well as the degradation of the planet. Meat does more harm then good, and you don't need it.

Advanced Glycation End-Product
Over Eating
How Deli Meat is Made (youtube)

What it Takes to make a Quarter Pound Hamburger from Animal to Plate

Quarter Pound Hamburger from Animal to Plate

Those who ate more white meat in moderation had a slightly lower risk of overall and Cancer death.
Does earth have more chickens then people? 

Food Addiction
Food Additives
Food Labels
Food Safety

PH


The human body thrives with a higher level of alkalinity than acidity.

When you’re born your body is pH balanced. Then your body is busy creating new cells to replace dying cells, and to do this, nutrients are used as fuel. What’s left is an acid waste product that builds up inside your body over the years. When your pH levels are out of balance and you become acidic, your vital organs such as your lungs, liver and pancreas are exposed to premature aging, the lining of your arteries deteriorates… vital cartilage in your joints is damaged… your skin prematurely wrinkles… your muscle mass wears down… your immune system is weakened… and your calcium levels become depleted. And if your body becomes too acidic, the result can be deadly. To maintain the proper chemical balance, you should consume 80 percent alkaline-forming foods and only 20 percent acid-forming foods. Some nutritious alkaline-forming foods include…Vegetables—Alfalfa, artichokes, asparagus, beans, bell peppers, cabbage, carrots, celery, chives, cauliflower, collards, cucumbers, eggplant, garlic, leafy greens, lettuce, mushrooms, okra, ripe olives, onions, pumpkins, spinach and squash. Fruits—Apples, avocados, berries, cantaloupe, cherries, grapes, peaches, pineapples, tomatoes, watermelon and citrus fruits such as grapefruit, lemons, limes and oranges. Grains and Legumes—Buckwheat, millet, spelt, lentils, lima beans, soybeans and white beans. Nuts and Seeds—Almonds, chestnuts, fennel seeds, flax seeds, pumpkin seeds, sesame seeds, soy nuts and sunflower seeds. Protein—Chicken breast, cottage cheese, eggs, fermented tofu and yogurt. Spices and Seasonings—Herbs, chili pepper, cinnamon, curry, ginger, mustard and sea salt. Beverages—Pure, fresh water, banchi tea, dandelion tea, fresh fruit juice, ginseng tea, green tea, herbal tea and vegetable juices.

Food Chemistry

Hay Diet separating food into three groups: alkaline, acidic, and neutral. Acid foods are not combined with the alkaline ones. Acidic foods are protein rich, such as meat, fish, dairy, etc. Alkaline foods are carbohydrate rich, such as rice, grains and potatoes. It is also known as the food combining diet.

Alkaline Diets - Acid Alkaline Diet

10 Health Benefits of Drinking Lemon Water Every Morning (youtube)

PH or potential of hydrogen, is a numeric scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution. It is approximately the negative of the base 10 logarithm of the molar concentration, measured in units of moles per liter, of hydrogen ions. More precisely it is the negative of the logarithm to base 10 of the activity of the hydrogen ion. Solutions with a pH less than 7 are acidic and solutions with a pH greater than 7 are basic. Pure water is neutral, at pH 7, being neither an acid nor a base. Contrary to popular belief, the pH value can be less than 0 or greater than 14 for very strong acids and bases respectively. pH measurements are important in agronomy, medicine, biology, chemistry, agriculture, forestry, food science, environmental science, oceanography, civil engineering, chemical engineering, nutrition, water treatment and water purification, as well as many other applications. The pH scale is traceable to a set of standard solutions whose pH is established by international agreement. Primary pH standard values are determined using a concentration cell with transference, by measuring the potential difference between a hydrogen electrode and a standard electrode such as the silver chloride electrode. The pH of aqueous solutions can be measured with a glass electrode and a pH meter, or an indicator. Basicity is the number of hydrogen atoms replaceable by a base in a particular acid.

Acetic Acid is a colourless liquid organic compound. Vinegar is roughly 3–9% acetic acid by volume, making acetic acid the main component of vinegar apart from water.

Chemistry

Citric Acid is a weak organic tricarboxylic acid having the chemical formula C6H8O7. It occurs naturally in citrus fruits. In biochemistry, it is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle, which occurs in the metabolism of all aerobic organisms. More than a million tons of citric acid are manufactured every year. It is used widely as an acidifier, as a flavoring and chelating agent. A citrate is a derivative of citric acid; that is, the salts, esters, and the polyatomic anion found in solution.

Western Pattern Diet is characterized by higher intakes of red and processed meat, butter, high-fat dairy products, eggs, refined grains, white potatoes, french fries, and high-sugar drinks. It is contrasted with a healthy diet found in the same populations, which has higher levels of fruits, vegetables, whole-grain foods, poultry and fish.

The Standard American Diet (SAD diet) includes a high percentage of acid-forming foods. These create electrolyte deficiencies. When this happens your bile becomes too acidic. Your body can't digest foods efficiently. This diet consists of about 80% processed foods (acid-forming) and only 20% natural foods (alkaline-forming). The goal is to gradually reverse these percentages. This is accomplished by changing your diet. 

Avoid eating to much acid-forming foods such as beef, poultry, pork, shellfish, dressings, cereals, pasta, oils, dairy products and sugar-laden desserts that can negatively impact your health and overload your organs of elimination—such as your lungs, kidneys and skin. Plus, by adding a quality alkaline-balancing supplement to your wholesome diet regimen, you’ll ensure that your body’s excess acid is converted or eliminated. And you may avoid illness, allergies, viruses and diseases that manifest themselves when your body is overworked trying to restore its sensitive pH level.  (Dr. Michael Cutler on 08/29/2010)

PH Test Tape Dispenser Hydrion Papers Strips made for Saliva or Urine Testing - Range is in .2 Intervals and from 5.5 to 8.0 - Check Body for Alkaline or Acid Environment - Approx. 100 Tests! (amazon)

Respiratory Alkalosis is a medical condition in which increased respiration elevates the blood pH beyond the normal range (7.35-7.45) with a concurrent reduction in arterial levels of carbon dioxide. This condition is one of the four basic categories of disruption of acid-base homeostasis, which is the part of biologic homeostasis (See The extracellular fluid pH homeostat) concerning the proper balance between chemical acids and bases, also called body pH. The body is very sensitive to its extracellular pH level, so strong mechanisms exist to maintain it. Outside the acceptable range of pH, proteins are denatured and digested, enzymes lose their ability to function, and death may occur. The principles of general acid–base equilibrium apply in the physiology of living systems.

Carbonic Anhydrase is a family of enzymes that catalyze the rapid interconversion of carbon dioxide and water to bicarbonate and protons (or vice versa), a reversible reaction that occurs relatively slowly in the absence of a catalyst. One of the functions of the enzyme in animals is to interconvert carbon dioxide and bicarbonate to maintain acid-base balance in blood and other tissues, and to help transport carbon dioxide out of tissues.

Imagine peeing into a toilet and the toilet has the ability to measure your electrolytes, your PH levels and hormone levels.


Uric Acid is a product of the metabolic breakdown of purine nucleotides, and it is a normal component of urine. High blood concentrations of uric acid can lead to gout and are associated with other medical conditions including diabetes and the formation of ammonium acid urate kidney stones. Uric acid is produced from the natural breakdown of your body's cells and from the foods you eat. Most of the uric acid is filtered out by the kidneys and passes out of the body in urine. High levels of uric acid in the blood can cause solid crystals to form within joints. This causes a painful condition called gout.

Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis characterized by recurrent attacks of a red, tender, hot, and swollen joint. Pain typically comes on rapidly in less than twelve hours. The joint at the base of the big toe is affected in about half of cases. It may also result in tophi, kidney stones, or urate nephropathy. Gout is due to elevated levels of uric acid in the blood.

Hyperuricemia is an abnormally high level of uric acid in the blood. In the pH conditions of body fluid, uric acid exists largely as urate, the ion form. The amount of urate in the body depends on the balance between the amount of purines eaten in food, the amount of urate synthesised within the body (e.g., through cell turnover), and the amount of urate that is excreted in urine or through the gastrointestinal tract. In humans, the upper end of the normal range is 360 µmol/L (6 mg/dL) for women and 400 µmol/L (6.8 mg/dL) for men. Many factors contribute to hyperuricemia, including genetics, insulin resistance, hypertension, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, renal insufficiency, obesity, diet, use of diuretics (e.g. thiazides, loop diuretics), and consumption of excess alcoholic beverages. Of these, alcohol consumption is the most important.

Purine are found in high concentration in meat and meat products, especially internal organs such as liver and kidney. In general, plant-based diets are low in purines. Examples of high-purine sources include: sweetbreads, anchovies, sardines, liver, beef kidneys, brains, meat extracts (e.g., Oxo, Bovril), herring, mackerel, scallops, game meats, beer (from the yeast) and gravy. A moderate amount of purine is also contained in beef, pork, poultry, fish and seafood, asparagus, cauliflower, spinach, mushrooms, green peas, lentils, dried peas, beans, oatmeal, wheat bran, wheat germ, and haws. When purines are formed, they inhibit the enzymes required for more purine formation. This self-inhibition occurs as they also activate the enzymes needed for pyrimidine formation. Pyrimidine simultaneously self-inhibits and activates purine in similar manner. Because of this, there is nearly an equal amount of both substances in the cell at all times.

"It's all right letting yourself go, as long as you can get yourself back." Mick Jagger

Diets

Cholesterol


Not all Cholesterol is Bad

Cholesterol is an organic molecule. It is a sterol (or modified steroid), a type of lipid molecule, and is biosynthesized by all animal cells, because it is an essential structural component of all animal cell membranes; essential to maintain both membrane structural integrity and fluidity. Cholesterol enables animal cells to dispense with a cell wall (to protect membrane integrity and cell viability), thereby allowing animal cells to change shape rapidly and animals to move (unlike bacteria and plant cells, which are restricted by their cell walls). In addition to its importance for animal cell structure, cholesterol also serves as a precursor for the biosynthesis of steroid hormones, bile acid, and vitamin D. Cholesterol is the principal sterol synthesized by all animals. In vertebrates, hepatic cells typically produce the greatest amounts. It is absent among prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea), although there are some exceptions, such as Mycoplasma, which require cholesterol for growth.

Sterol are a subgroup of the steroids and an important class of organic molecules. They occur naturally in plants, animals, and fungi, with the most familiar type of animal sterol being cholesterol. Cholesterol is vital to animal cell membrane structure and function as a precursor to fat-soluble vitamins and steroid hormones.

Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Lipoproteins transfer lipids (fats) around the body in the extracellular fluid thereby facilitating fats to be available and taken up by the cells body wide via receptor-mediated endocytosis. Lipoproteins are complex particles composed of multiple proteins, typically 80-100 proteins/particle (organized by a single apolipoprotein B for LDL and the larger particles). A single LDL particle is about 220-275 angstroms in diameter typically transporting 3,000 to 6,000 fat molecules/particle, varying in size according to the number and mix of fat molecules contained within. The lipids carried include all fat molecules with cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides dominant; amounts of each varying considerably. Lipoproteins can be sampled from blood for evaluation of atherosclerosis driving factors. LDL particles pose a risk for cardiovascular disease when they invade the endothelium and become oxidized, since the oxidized forms are more easily retained by the proteoglycans. A complex set of biochemical reactions regulates the oxidation of LDL particles, chiefly stimulated by presence of necrotic cell debris and free radicals in the endothelium. Increasing concentrations of LDL particles are strongly associated with increasing rates of accumulation of atherosclerosis within the walls of arteries over time, eventually resulting in sudden plaque ruptures, decades later, and triggering clots within the artery opening; these debris & clots narrowing or closing off the opening locally (more commonly microscopic branches distal to plaque rupture locations), i.e. cardiovascular disease, stroke, and other vascular disease complications. LDL particles (though far different from cholesterol per se) are sometimes referred to as bad cholesterol because they can transport their content of lipid molecules into artery walls, attract macrophages, and thus drive atherosclerosis. In contrast, HDL particles are often called good cholesterol or healthy cholesterol because they can remove lipid molecules from macrophages in the wall of arteries. A hereditary form of high LDL is familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). High LDL is termed hyperlipoproteinemia type II (after the dated Fredrickson classification).

High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) are complex particles composed of multiple proteins which transport all fat molecules (lipids) around the body within the water outside cells. They are typically composed of 80-100 proteins per particle (organized by one, two or three ApoA; more as the particles enlarge picking up and carrying more fat molecules) and transporting up to hundreds of fat molecules per particle. HDL particles have long been divided into 5 subgroups, by density/size (an inverse relationship), which also correlates with function and incidence of cardiovascular events. Unlike the larger lipoprotein particles which deliver fat molecules to cells, HDL particles remove fat molecules from cells which need to export fat molecules. The fats carried include cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides; amounts of each are quite variable. Increasing concentrations of HDL particles are strongly associated with decreasing accumulation of atherosclerosis within the walls of arteries. This is important because atherosclerosis eventually results in sudden plaque ruptures, cardiovascular disease, stroke and other vascular diseases. HDL particles are sometimes referred to as "good cholesterol" because they can transport fat molecules out of artery walls, reduce macrophage accumulation, and thus help prevent or even regress atherosclerosis. However, studies have shown that HDL-lacking mice still have the ability to transport cholesterol to bile, suggesting that there are alternative mechanisms for cholesterol removal. Density relative to extracellular water, are one of the five major groups of lipoproteins.

Statin Nation: The Great Cholesterol Cover-up (youtube)

The Cholesterol Question (44:12 mins, 2014)

Vegetarian

ApoA-1 Milano is a naturally occurring mutated variant of the apolipoprotein A1 Protein  found in human HDL, the lipoprotein particle that carries cholesterol from tissues to the liver and is associated with protection against cardiovascular disease. ApoA1 Milano was first identified by Dr. Cesare Sirtori in Milan, who also demonstrated that its presence significantly reduced cardiovascular disease, even though it caused a reduction in HDL levels and an increase in triglyceride levels.


Milk


Raw Cow’s Milk has been a staple food for humans from about 7000 BC. That is over 9000 years ago! Humans have survived and thrived drinking whole raw milk. The USDA, of course, would have you believe otherwise. Whole raw cow’s milk provides all 20 amino acid proteins and a majority of the vitamins and minerals needed for vibrant human health, including vitamins A and D and calcium. It also provides many beneficial enzymes and anti-microbial substances to aid the immune and digestive systems. And milk provides all this nutrition straight from the cow, no processing needed. Raw milk provides 10 different saturated fatty acids needed for maintaining body health. These fats support stable cell membranes and are necessary for the production of key hormones. Saturated fats are the preferred energy source for the heart, and saturated fats serve as a vehicle for essential fatty acids like EPA and DHA. Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA), an important fatty acid, is abundant in milk from pastured cows. Some of CLA's many benefits include its ability to raise metabolic rates, remove abdominal fat, boost muscle growth, reduce resistance to insulin, and strengthen the immune system. But of course, milk and cheese is food that the body doesn't need, unless you're a baby.

Raw Milk Cheeses
Lactase Persistence (wiki)
Breast Feeding

A2 Milk comes from cows having two copies of the A2 gene for beta casein.
Cow’s milk is about 87 percent water. The remaining 13 percent is the complex mixture of lactose, fat, minerals, and protein known as milk solids. The primary component of the protein in milk solids is casein, which is involved in the coagulation of milk. Two most common variants of the beta-casein gene are A1 and A2. Even though they differ by just one amino acid, the small difference can result in the variants having different properties. A2 is often referred to as the “original” protein, because that was the only type produced by early domesticated cows. (Humans and goats also produce only A2.) But then, around 10,000 years ago, a natural mutation occurred in some dairy cows in Europe, after which they produced A1 beta casein. In today’s dairy herds, any given cow will have two copies of the A2 gene, or two copies of the A1 gene, or be an A1A2 hybrid. (Genetics 101: Every animal receives one copy of the gene from its sire, or father, and one copy from its dam, or mother.) The A1 mutation “occurred primarily in the large breeds such as Holsteins, which produce considerably more milk than other breeds. These heavy-producing breeds were quickly adopted by dairies in Europe and the U.S. and, as a result, just about all the regular milk sold today in U.S. stores and in much of Europe contains only the A1 protein, while others produce both the A1 and A2 proteins. A2 Milk is said to be easier to digest and that A1 milk is linked to a range of illnesses and conditions, from diarrhea, nausea, mucus buildup, and bloating to eczema, type 1 diabetes, coronary heart disease, autism, and schizophrenia.

Calorie for Calorie, Dietary Fat Restriction Results in More Body Fat Loss than Carbohydrate Restriction in People with Obesity.

Dairy farms with 10,000 cows, which are more and more common in the United States, don't exist in Canada. There's more stability in farming communities. Canada, the price of milk that dairy farmers sell isn't based on supply and demand. Rather,
a group of people from industry and the government get together and decide what's fair. They set the price high enough to cover a good farmer's costs, plus a little profit. It's designed "to provide fair returns for efficient producers." In principle, any competent dairy farmer in Canada should make money every year. But farmers also aren't allowed to expand production to take advantage of those guaranteed prices. "Each producer has a share of the market, called a quota," Farmers can buy and sell their shares, but they can't sell more than their quota. If cows on  a farm suddenly start giving more milk, that farmer either has to buy another farmer's quota or sell some cows. It's called supply management, and part of it also involves keeping out imports of cheap milk from the United States. The system also covers a few other farm products, such as poultry.

Eggs

Soon after Eggs pop out of the chicken, American producers put them straight to a machine that shampoos them with soap and hot water. The steamy shower leaves the shells squeaky clean. But it also compromises them, by washing away a barely visible sheen that naturally envelops each egg. The coating is like a little safety vest for the egg, keeping water and oxygen in and bad bacteria out. In some European countries, egg-laying hens are vaccinated against salmonella. In the U.S., vaccination is not required. "Once you start refrigeration, you have to have it through the whole value chain, from farm to store. Another perk of consistent refrigeration is shelf life: It jumps from about 21 days to almost 50 days. In a lot of countries, constant refrigeration just isn't possible because it's simply too costly But in a lot of places, "a dirty egg with poop on it is no big deal. You brush it off when you get home."

Eggs 101: Egg Processing (youtube)

Iowa’s 60 Million Laying Hens Aren’t Being Monitored by Food-Safety Inspectors
In 2010, 550 million eggs were recalled after thousands of people were sickened with salmonella in an outbreak tied to farms in Iowa. According to the FDA, eggs contaminated with salmonella sicken 79,000 people and kill 30 annually. Food Safety

Crushed eggshells are an effective and inexpensive way to enrich your soil and give your plants a calcium boost. They also deter pests like snails. Rinse your saved eggshells thoroughly and then spread them evenly on a baking sheet, broken-side
down, and bake them for 20-30 minutes at 200 degrees. Once they're dry and cool, you can grind them up using a mallet or a food processor. Sprinkle the shells around the base of your plants. Store any leftover crushed shells in an airtight container for later use.

Allergies


Allergic to Certain Foods and Chemicals

Federal Health Officials say that allergies are two to five times higher than they were just 30 years ago.

Allergy are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to something in the environment that usually causes little or no problem in most people. These diseases include hay fever, food allergies, atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma, and anaphylaxis. Symptoms may include red eyes, an itchy rash, runny nose, shortness of breath, or swelling. Food intolerances and food poisoning are separate conditions. Common allergens include pollen and certain food. Metals and other substances may also cause problems. Food, insect stings, and medications are common causes of severe reactions. Their development is due to both genetic and environmental factors. The underlying mechanism involves immunoglobulin E antibodies (IgE), part of the body's immune system, binding to an allergen and then to a receptor on mast cells or basophils where it triggers the release of inflammatory chemicals such as histamine. Diagnosis is typically based on a person's medical history. Further testing of the skin or blood may be useful in certain cases. Positive tests, however, may not mean there is a significant allergy to the substance in question. Early exposure to potential allergens may be protective.

Treatments
for allergies include avoiding known allergens and the use of medications such as steroids and antihistamines. In severe reactions injectable adrenaline (epinephrine) is recommended. Allergen immunotherapy, which gradually exposes people to larger and larger amounts of allergen, is useful for some types of allergies such as hay fever and reactions to insect bites. Its use in food allergies is unclear. Allergies are common. In the developed world, about 20% of people are affected by allergic rhinitis, about 6% of people have at least one food allergy, and about 20% have atopic dermatitis at some point in time. Depending on the country about 1–18% of people have asthma. Anaphylaxis occurs in between 0.05–2% of people. Rates of many allergic diseases appear to be increasing. The word "allergy" was first used by Clemens von Pirquet in 1906.

Allergies (webmd)
Pollen Count Forecast
Gas
Asthma and Allergies

Food Allergy and Sensitivity is an abnormal immune response to food. The signs and symptoms may range from mild to severe. They may include itchiness, swelling of the tongue, vomiting, diarrhea, hives, trouble breathing, or low blood pressure. This typically occurs within minutes to several hours of exposure. When the symptoms are severe, it is known as anaphylaxis. Food intolerance and food poisoning are separate conditions. Common foods involved include cow's milk, peanuts, eggs, shellfish, tree nuts, wheat, rice, and fruit. The common allergies in a region vary depending on the country. Risk factors include a family history of allergies, vitamin D deficiency, obesity, and high levels of cleanliness. Allergies occur when immunoglobulin E (IgE), part of the body's immune system, binds to food molecules. A protein in the food is usually the problem. This triggers the release of inflammatory chemicals such as histamine. Diagnosis is usually based on a medical history, elimination diet, skin prick test, blood tests for food-specific IgE antibodies, or oral food challenge. Early exposure to potential allergens may be protective. Management primarily involves avoiding the food in question and having a plan if exposure occurs. This plan may include giving adrenaline (epinephrine) and wearing medical alert jewelry. The benefits of allergen immunotherapy for food allergies is unclear, thus is not recommended as of 2015. Some types of food allergies among children resolve with age, including that to milk, eggs, and soy; while others such as to nuts and shellfish typically do not. In the developed world, about 4% to 8% of people have at least one food allergy. They are more common in children than adults and appear to be increasing in frequency. Male children appear to be more commonly affected than females. Some allergies more commonly develop early in life, while others typically develop in later life. In developed countries, a large proportion of people believe they have food allergies when they actually do not have them.

Food Allergy
CDC Food Allergies

Studies show children who live on Farms have low rates of allergies. Dr. Mark Holbreich, an Allergist in Indianapolis and a fellow of The American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, calls it "the farm effect."

Hygiene Hypothesis
Breast Feeding

There are other theories about why allergies are rising. Taking Antibiotics early in life may be a factor. Tightly constructed homes with little ventilation may foster allergies. And today people stay inside for longer periods of time, not exposing themselves to The Great Outdoors. Dogs can also help boost the Immune System. A Finnish study finds Babies who grow up with pets, especially dogs, are less likely to develop colds and other Respiratory Infections by the time they're toddlers.  

Mysophobia Fear of Germs
Germ Theory of Disease

What's the difference between a Germ Cell and Bacteria?

Kids Health Germs 
International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (wiki)
Auckland NZ
Epinephrine Autoinjector (wiki)
Epi-Pen
Parental sucking of their infant’s pacifier may reduce the risk of allergy development
Saliva (wiki)
Immuno-Stimulant
Microbes
Viruses and Colds
Immune System

Eating fast food 3 times a week or more elevates the risk of asthma and eczema, while eating fruit with the same frequency provides a protective effect, says a study. Data was collected on more than 319,000 teenagers (13-14 years of age) from 107 centers in 51 countries, and more than 181,000 children (6-7 year-olds) from 64 centers in 31 countries.
The Respiratory Journal Thorax Reports


Eating Disorders



Fasting once a year or once a month?


Fasting is a willing abstinence or reduction from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time.

Inedia is the belief that it is possible for a person to live without consuming food.

Intermittent Fasting diets that cycle between a period of fasting and non-fasting.

Benefits of Intermittent Fasting

5:2 Diet A form of intermittent fasting diet which stipulates calorie restriction for two non-consecutive days a week and unconstrained eating the other five days.

Longevity & Why I now eat One Meal a Day (youtube)

Calorie Restriction is a dietary regimen that reduces calorie intake without incurring malnutrition or a reduction in essential nutrients.

Long Life Knowledge
Matabolism
Examine the Effects

Generation of boys who experience famine around the time they started producing reproductive cells or sperm, their grandchildren lived longer lives. Boys who experienced plentiful food experienced more diseases.

Emaciated
is very thin especially from disease or hunger or cold. Grow weak and thin or waste away physically.

Starving
Muscle Atrophy

Intermittent fasting inhibits the development and progression of the most common type of childhood leukemia. Fasting both inhibits the initiation and reverses the progression of two subtypes of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, or ALL -- B-cell ALL and T-cell ALL. The same method did not work with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the type that is more common in adults. Compared to mice that ate normally, the rodents on alternate-day fasting had dramatic reductions in the percentage of cancerous cells in the bone marrow and the spleen as well as reduced numbers of white blood cells. Mice in the ALL model group that ate normally died within 59 days, while 75 percent of the fasted mice survived more than 120 days without signs of leukemia." Fasting is known to reduce the level of leptin, a cell signaling molecule created by fat tissue.

Leptin is a hormone made by adipose cells that helps to regulate energy balance by inhibiting hunger. Leptin is opposed by the actions of the hormone ghrelin, the "hunger hormone". Both hormones act on receptors in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus to regulate appetite to achieve energy homeostasis. In obesity, a decreased sensitivity to leptin occurs, resulting in an inability to detect satiety despite high energy stores.

A Pilot Study of Intermittent Calorie Restriction in Multiple Sclerosis


Cleansing


Detoxification is a type of alternative medicine treatment which aims to rid the body of unspecified "toxins" – accumulated substances that proponents claim have undesirable short-term or long-term effects on individual health. Activities commonly associated with detoxification include dieting, fasting, consuming exclusively or avoiding specific foods (such as fats, carbohydrates, fruits, vegetables, juices, herbs, or water), colon cleansing, chelation therapy, and the removal of dental fillings.

Weekend Cleanse
Colonic Irrigations
Colonic Hydrotherapy

Colon Cleansing encompasses a number of alternative medical therapies claimed to remove nonspecific toxins from the colon and intestinal tract. Colon cleansing may be branded colon hydrotherapy, a colonic or colonic irrigation. During the 2000s internet marketing and infomercials of oral supplements supposedly for colon cleansing increased.

Enema is a fluid injected into the lower bowel by way of the rectum to relieve constipation or for bowel cleansing before a medical examination or procedure. In standard medicine an enema may also be employed as a lower gastrointestinal series (also called a barium enema), to check diarrhea, as a vehicle for the administration of food, water or medicine, as a stimulant to the general system, as a local application and, more rarely, as a means of reducing temperature, as treatment for encopresis, and as a form of rehydration therapy (proctoclysis) in patients for whom intravenous therapy is not applicable. Also known as clyster. Enemas are used as part of some alternative health therapies and are also used to administer drugs for recreational or religious reasons.

Fiber

Chelation Therapy is a medical procedure that involves the administration of chelating agents to remove heavy metals from the body. Chelation therapy has a long history of use in clinical toxicology and remains in use for some very specific medical treatments, although it is administered under very careful medical supervision due to various inherent risks. Chelation therapy must be administered with care as it has a number of possible side effects, including death. In response to increasing use of chelation therapy as alternative medicine and in circumstances in which the therapy should not be used in conventional medicine, various health organizations have confirmed that medical evidence does not support the effectiveness of chelation therapy for any purpose other than the treatment of heavy metal poisoning. Over-the-counter chelation products are not approved for sale in the United States.

10 tips to flush the toxins out
Toxins
Clean Program
Dtox weightless

Cruciferous Vegetables are vegetables of the family Brassicaceae (also called Cruciferae) with many genera, species, and cultivars being raised for food production such as cauliflower, cabbage, garden cress, bok choy, broccoli, brussels sprouts and similar green leaf vegetables. The family takes its alternate name (Cruciferae, New Latin for "cross-bearing") from the shape of their flowers, whose four petals resemble a cross.

Cilantro and Chlorella can help Remove Heavy Metals from the Body.

Mucoid Plaque allegedly harmful mucus-like material and food residue that coats the gastrointestinal tract of most people.
(2 table Spoons of Honey and Apple Cider Vinegar with 8 ounces of water).

Deworming is the giving of an anthelmintic drug (a wormer, dewormer, or drench) to a human or animal to rid them of helminths parasites, such as roundworm, flukes and tapeworm. Purge dewormers for use in livestock can be formulated as a feed supplement that is eaten, a paste or gel that is deposited at the back of the animal's mouth, a liquid drench given orally, an injectable, or as a pour-on which can be applied to the animal's topline. In dogs and cats, purge dewormers come in many forms including a granular form to be added to food, pill form, chew tablets, and liquid suspensions.

Hookworm Infection is an infection by a parasitic bloodsucking roundworm. Hookworm infections include ancylostomiasis and necatoriasis. These worms live in the small intestine which may be that of a bird or mammal such as a dog, cat, or human. Hookworm infection in pregnancy can cause poor growth, premature birth and a low birth weight of the baby. Hookworms in children can cause intellectual and growth problems.

Fasting


Microbial Balance


Gut Flora is the complex community of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts of humans and other animals, including insects. The gut metagenome is the aggregate of all the genomes of gut microbiota. The gut is one niche that human microbiota inhabit. In humans, the gut microbiota has the largest numbers of bacteria and the greatest number of species compared to other areas of the body. In humans the gut flora is established at one to two years after birth, and by that time the intestinal epithelium and the intestinal mucosal barrier that it secretes have co-developed in a way that is tolerant to, and even supportive of, the gut flora and that also provides a barrier to pathogenic organisms.

Microbiota is an "ecological community of commensal, symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms" found in and on all multicellular organisms studied to date from plants to animals. A microbiota includes bacteria, archaea, protists, fungi and viruses. Microbiota have been found to be crucial for immunologic, hormonal and metabolic homeostasis of their host. The synonymous term microbiome describes either the collective genomes of the microorganisms that reside in an environmental niche or the microorganisms themselves. The microbiome and host emerged during evolution as a synergistic unit from epigenetics and genomic characteristics, sometimes collectively referred to as a holobiont.

Probiotics are microorganisms that are believed to provide health benefits when consumed. The term probiotic is currently used to name ingested microorganisms associated with benefits for humans and animals.

Prebiotics are substances that induce the growth or activity of microorganisms (e.g., bacteria and fungi) that contribute to the well-being of their host. The most common example is in the gastrointestinal tract, where prebiotics can alter the composition of organisms in the gut microbiome.

Probiotics 100 Years (PDF)

Probiotic App is a Clinical Guide to Probiotic Products available in the US is designed to translate scientific evidence available for probiotic supplements into practical, clinically relevant information, enabling clinicians to easily select the appropriate product, dose, and format/formulation for a specific indication. Probiotics and Depression

Synbiotics refers to food ingredients or dietary supplements combining probiotics and prebiotics in a form of synergism, hence synbiotics.

Yogurt is a food produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. The bacteria used to make yogurt are known as "yogurt cultures". Fermentation of lactose by these bacteria produces lactic acid, which acts on milk protein to give yogurt its texture and characteristic tang. Cow's milk is commonly available worldwide, and, as such, is the milk most commonly used to make yogurt. Milk from water buffalo, goats, ewes, mares, camels, and yaks is also used to produce yogurt where available locally. Milk used may be homogenized or not (milk distributed in many parts of the world is homogenized); both types may be used, with substantially different results. Yogurt is produced using a culture of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus bacteria. In addition, other lactobacilli and bifidobacteria are also sometimes added during or after culturing yogurt. Some countries require yogurt to contain a certain amount of colony-forming units of bacteria.

About Yogurt
Reversing Depression Symptoms in Mice Using Probiotics Found in Yogurt

Food Safety - Food Chemistry

Proteobacteria are a major phylum of Gram-negative bacteria. The name of the phylum has never been validly published as no type genus has been proposed, thus it must be styled in quotation marks as the name has no standing in nomenclature. They include a wide variety of pathogens, such as Escherichia, Salmonella, Vibrio, Helicobacter, Yersinia, and many other notable genera. Others are free-living (nonparasitic), and include many of the bacteria responsible for nitrogen fixation.
Proteobacteria

Actinobacteria are a phylum of Gram-positive bacteria. They can be terrestrial or aquatic. They are of great economic importance to humans because agriculture and forests depend on their contributions to soil systems. In soil, they behave much like fungi, helping to decompose the organic matter of dead organisms so the molecules can be taken up anew by plants. In this role the colonies often grow extensive mycelia, like a fungus would, and the name of an important order of the phylum, Actinomycetales (the actinomycetes), reflects that they were long believed to be fungi. Some soil actinobacteria (such as Frankia) live symbiotically with the plants whose roots pervade the soil, fixing nitrogen for the plants in exchange for access to some of the plant's saccharides.

Dysbiosis is a term for a microbial imbalance or maladaptation on or inside the body, such as an impaired microbiota. For example, a part of the human microbiota, such as the skin flora, gut flora, or vaginal flora, can become deranged, with normally dominating species underrepresented and normally outcompeted or contained species increasing to fill the void. Dysbiosis is most commonly reported as a condition in the gastrointestinal tract, particularly during small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) or small intestinal fungal overgrowth (SIFO). It has been reported to be associated with illnesses, such as periodontal disease, inflammatory bowel disease, chronic fatigue syndrome, obesity,cancer, bacterial vaginosis, and colitis. Typical microbial colonies found on or in the body are normally benign or beneficial. These beneficial and appropriately sized microbial colonies carry out a series of helpful and necessary functions, such as aiding in digestion. They also help protect the body from the penetration of pathogenic microbes. These beneficial microbial colonies compete with each other for space and resources and outnumber human cells by a factor 10:1.

Clostridium Difficile (bacteria) also known as C. difficile, C. diff, or sometimes CDF/cdf, a species of Gram-positive spore-forming bacteria.

Brionis

Clostridia are a highly polyphyletic class of Firmicutes, including Clostridium and other similar genera. They are distinguished from the Bacilli by lacking aerobic respiration. They are obligate anaerobes and oxygen is toxic to them. Species of the genus Clostridium are often but not always Gram-positive (see Halanaerobium hydrogenoformans) and have the ability to form spores. Studies show they are not a monophyletic group, and their relationships are not entirely certain. Currently, most are placed in a single order called Clostridiales, but this is not a natural group and is likely to be redefined in the future.

Archaea constitute a domain and kingdom of single-celled microorganisms. These microbes (archaea; singular archaeon) are prokaryotes, meaning that they have no cell nucleus or any other membrane-bound organelles in their Cells.

Human Microbiome Project was a United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) initiative with the goal of identifying and characterizing the microorganisms which are found in association with both healthy and diseased humans (the human microbiome). Launched in 2008, it was a five-year project, best characterized as a feasibility study, and had a total budget of $115 million. The ultimate goal of this and similar NIH-sponsored microbiome projects was to test how changes in the human microbiome are associated with human health or disease. This topic is currently not well understood.

Human Microbiome is the aggregate of microorganisms that resides on or within any of a number of human tissues and biofluids, including the skin, mammary glands, placenta, seminal fluid, uterus, ovarian follicles, lung, saliva, oral mucosa, conjunctiva, and gastrointestinal tracts. They include bacteria, archaea, protists, fungi and viruses. Though micro-animals also live on the human body, they are typically excluded from this definition. The human microbiome refers specifically to the collective genomes of resident microorganisms.

Human Pathogen is a pathogen (microbe or microorganism such as a virus, bacterium, prion, or fungus) that causes disease in humans.

Microbial Population Biology is the application of the principles of population biology to microorganisms.

Human Food Project
Human Microbiome Project
Human Microbiome Project
National Microbiome Initiative
Microbes
Microbe World
Meta Hit
Extreme Microbiome
American Gut
Microbial Pathogenesis
The Superorganism Revolution

Bio-Mimicry (biology)

Every person has about 100 trillion Bacterial Cells. They outnumber human cells 10 to 1 and account for 99.9 percent of the unique genes in the body. There is 10 times more bacteria in your body than actual body cells. And 90% of the cells that make us up aren’t human but mostly Fungi and bacteria. Bacteria carry their own microbial DNA.

Fungus is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which is separate from the other eukaryotic life kingdoms of plants and animals. A characteristic that places fungi in a different kingdom from plants, bacteria, and some protists is chitin in their cell walls. Similar to animals, fungi are heterotrophs; they acquire their food by absorbing dissolved molecules, typically by secreting digestive enzymes into their environment. Fungi do not photosynthesise. Growth is their means of mobility, except for spores (a few of which are flagellated), which may travel through the air or water. Fungi are the principal decomposers in ecological systems.

Rob Knight: Microbes (video)
Jonathan Eisen (video)
Catalyst - 'Gut Reaction' Part 2 (2014) (youtube)
Meet the microscopic life in your home — and on your face (video and interactive text)

Microbes can Effect your Eating Behavior

Autism symptoms improve after fecal transplant, small study finds Parents report fewer behavioral and gastrointestinal problems; gut microbiome changes.

"You are a family in yourself, a family of cells and molecules, love that family equally, as you should do for all families."

Microbial Cloud
History of Bacteria

Prior Dietary Practices and Connections to a Human Gut Microbial Metacommunity Alter Responses to Diet Interventions
Effects of the gut microbiota on obesity and glucose homeostasis

Fiber

Dietary Fiber
High Fiber Foods

Hemorrhoids are vascular structures in the anal canal. In their normal state, they are cushions that help with stool control. They become a disease when swollen or inflamed; the unqualified term "hemorrhoid" is often used to mean the disease.

Poop - Bowel Movements

High-Fiber Diet keeps gut Microbes from Rating the Colon’s Lining, protects against infection, animal study shows. Painstaking experiments in germ-free mice show importance of eating natural fiber to protect the digestive tract’s vital mucus barrier.

Dietary Fiber

Feeling Gassy

Belching is the release of gas from the digestive tract (mainly esophagus and stomach) through the mouth. Belching or burping (eructation) is the voluntary or involuntary, sometimes noisy release of air from the stomach or esophagus through the mouth. Burping 3 or 4 times after eating a meal is normal and is usually caused by swallowing air. Gas (flatus), burping, and bloating are all normal conditions. Gas is made in the stomach and intestines as your body breaks down food into energy.

Bloating is any abnormal general swelling, or increase in diameter of the abdominal area. As a symptom, the patient feels a full and tight abdomen, which may cause abdominal pain and is sometimes accompanied by increased stomach growling, or more seriously, the total lack of it.

Indigestion is a condition of impaired digestion. Symptoms may include upper abdominal fullness, heartburn, nausea, belching, or upper abdominal pain. People may also experience feeling full earlier than expected when eating. Dyspepsia is a common problem. (Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) or Gastritis).

Gastritis is inflammation of the lining of the stomach. It may occur as a short episode or may be of a long duration. There may be no symptoms but, when symptoms are present, the most common is upper abdominal pain.

Forcing Yourself to Burp
Assume the position. You can also learn techniques for forcing a burp, or what you might call a burp on demand. Force air into your throat. Expand your throat and jaws and then suck air in your mouth. Try to exhale with your throat closed. Swallow air. Burp the air out.

Halitosis is a symptom in which a noticeably unpleasant odor is present on the exhaled breath. Concern about halitosis is estimated to be the third most frequent reason for people to seek dental care, following tooth decay and gum disease; and about 20% of the general population are reported to suffer from it to some degree.

Hiccup is an involuntary contraction (myoclonic jerk) of the diaphragm that may repeat several times per minute. In medicine, it is known as synchronous diaphragmatic flutter (SDF), or singultus, Latin for the act of catching one's breath while sobbing. The hiccup is an involuntary action involving a reflex arc. Once triggered, the reflex causes a strong contraction of the diaphragm followed about 0.25 second later by closure of the vocal cords, which results in the classic "hic" sound. Hiccups may occur individually, or they may occur in bouts. The rhythm of the hiccup, or the time between hiccups, tends to be relatively constant. A bout of hiccups, in general, resolves itself without intervention, although many home remedies are often used to attempt to shorten the duration. Medical treatment is occasionally necessary in cases of chronic hiccups.

Farting is a word in the English language most commonly used in reference to flatulence. The word fart is often considered unsuitable in formal situations as it may be considered vulgar or offensive. Fart Jokes

Flatulence is defined in the medical literature as "flatus expelled through the anus" or the "quality or state of being flatulent", which is defined in turn as "marked by or affected with gases generated in the intestine or stomach; likely to cause digestive flatulence".

Immune System
Microbes

Gut Microbiota Regulate Motor Deficits and Neuroinflammation in a Model of Parkinson’s Disease. Inflammation

Prostaglandin are a group of physiologically active lipid compounds having diverse hormone-like effects in animals. Prostaglandins have been found in almost every tissue in humans and other animals. They are derived enzymatically from fatty acids. Every prostaglandin contains 20 carbon atoms, including a 5-carbon ring. They are a subclass of eicosanoids and of the prostanoid class of fatty acid derivatives.

Leaky Gut Syndrome is a hypothetical, medically unrecognized condition.

Size Variations

Hormones
Chemistry
Immune System
Allergies
Biology

"Your Gut is your Second Brain, treat it well."

Genetically Modified yeast may help design the perfect beer and bread for your personal digestion needs.

Yeast are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom. The first yeast originated hundreds of millions of years ago, and 1,500 species are currently identified. They are estimated to constitute 1% of all described fungal species. Yeasts are unicellular organisms which evolved from multicellular ancestors, with some species having the ability to develop multicellular characteristics by forming strings of connected budding cells known as pseudohyphae or false hyphae. Yeast sizes vary greatly, depending on species and environment, typically measuring 3–4 µm in diameter, although some yeasts can grow to 40 µm in size. Most yeasts reproduce asexually by mitosis, and many do so by the asymmetric division process known as budding. Yeasts, with their single-celled growth habit, can be contrasted with molds, which grow hyphae. Fungal species that can take both forms (depending on temperature or other conditions) are called dimorphic fungi ("dimorphic" means "having two forms"). Flavor

The Sourdough Project. There are millions of kinds of bacteria and fungi on Earth. We have found several thousand species in human belly buttons alone. Yet if you mix flour and water, the community of organisms that colonize the resulting concoction is almost always composed of a small handful of organisms that are able to leaven bread, yielding a sourdough starter. How this happens is one of civilizations great mysteries, a mystery at the heart of the bread making (and, for that matter, traditional beer brewing). Yet, while bakers understand how to make starters, the underlying biology of the species in these starters remains mysterious. Starters can produce similar effects on bread (and similar flavors), despite being composed of different species, a key different ingredient. Conversely, starters composed of the same species sometimes yield different flavors. Then there is the issue of what happens to starters over time. The organisms in starters are hypothesized, by some, to stay the same over time—an old growth forest of miniatures—even if their living conditions change. Few ecosystems are so (apparently) stable. Then again, starters can change through time, sometimes suddenly. Starters are, if anything, predictably mysterious. But not for long. We aim to understand the biology underlying the differences among starters and the changes (or lack of change) in starters through time.

Fermentation Starter is a preparation to assist the beginning of the fermentation process in preparation of various foods and fermented drinks. A starter culture is a microbiological culture which actually performs fermentation. These starters usually consist of a cultivation medium, such as grains, seeds, or nutrient liquids that have been well colonized by the microorganisms used for the fermentation.

Eukaryote is any organism whose cells contain a nucleus and other organelles enclosed within membranes.

Beneficial microorganisms, as we've reported, can help us digest food, make vitamins, and protect us against harmful pathogens. For instance, the bacteria in yogurt have been shown to aid digestion, and making cabbage into sauerkraut by fermenting it "increases glucosinolate compounds believed to fight cancer.

Fermentation

Triclosan is an antimicrobial and antifungal agent found in many consumer products ranging from hand soaps to toys and even toothpaste, can rapidly disrupt bacterial communities found in the gut.

Parasitology is the study of parasites, their hosts, and the relationship between them. As a biological discipline, the scope of parasitology is not determined by the organism or environment in question, but by their way of life. This means it forms a synthesis of other disciplines, and draws on techniques from fields such as cell biology, bioinformatics, biochemistry, molecular biology, immunology, genetics, evolution and ecology.

Gastroenterology is the branch of medicine focused on the digestive system and its disorders.

Intestinal Parasite are parasites that can infect the gastro-intestinal tract of humans and other animals.

Anthelmintic are a group of antiparasitic drugs that expel parasitic worms (helminths) and other internal parasites from the body by either stunning or killing them and without causing significant damage to the host.

Mass Deworming is the process of treating large numbers of people, particularly children, for helminthiasis (for example soil-transmitted helminths (STH)) and schistosomiasis infections in areas with a high prevalence of these conditions.

Helminthiasis is any macroparasitic disease of humans and other animals in which a part of the body is infected with parasitic worms, known as helminths.

Helminths Parasitic Worm refer to the intestinal worms infecting humans that are transmitted through contaminated soil ("helminth" means parasitic worm).

Autoimmune

Inflammation

Digesting


Mouth Human Mouth is the first portion of the alimentary canal that receives food and produces saliva. The oral mucosa is the mucous membrane epithelium lining the inside of the mouth. In addition to its primary role as the beginning of the digestive system, in humans the mouth also plays a significant role in communication. While primary aspects of the voice are produced in the throat, the tongue, lips, and jaw are also needed to produce the range of sounds included in human language. The mouth consists of two regions, the vestibule and the oral cavity proper. The mouth, normally moist, is lined with a mucous membrane, and contains the Teeth. The lips mark the transition from mucous membrane to skin, which covers most of the body.

Chewing your Food (slow, not fast)

Human Gastrointestinal Tract is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces and urine. The mouth, oesophagus, stomach, and intestines are part of the human alimentary canal.

Stomach is a muscular, hollow, dilated part of the gastrointestinal tract that functions as an important organ in the digestive system.

Small Intestine is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine, and is where most of the end absorption of food takes place.

Large Intestine is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system in vertebrates. Water is absorbed here and the remaining waste material is stored as feces before being removed by defecation.

Human Digestive System consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder). In this system, the process of digestion has many stages, the first of which starts in the mouth. Digestion involves the breakdown of food into smaller and smaller components, until they can be absorbed and assimilated into the body.

Digestive Tract (image)

Absorption of Nutrients. Digested food is now able to pass into the blood vessels in the wall of the intestine through either diffusion or active transport. The small intestine is the site where most of the nutrients from ingested food are absorbed. The inner wall, or mucosa, of the small intestine is lined with simple columnar epithelial tissue. Structurally, the mucosa is covered in wrinkles or folds called plicae circulares, which are considered permanent features in the wall of the organ. They are distinct from rugae which are considered non-permanent or temporary allowing for distention and contraction. From the plicae circulares project microscopic finger-like pieces of tissue called villi (Latin for "shaggy hair"). The individual epithelial cells also have finger-like projections known as microvilli. The functions of the plicae circulares, the villi, and the microvilli are to increase the amount of surface area available for the absorption of nutrients, and to limit the loss of said nutrients to intestinal fauna.

Vitamins - Minerals

Assimilation (biology) is the combination of two processes to supply cells with nutrients. The first is the process of absorbing vitamins, minerals, and other chemicals from food within the gastrointestinal tract. In humans this is done with a chemical breakdown (enzymes and acids) and physical breakdown (oral mastication and stomach churning). The second process of bioassimilation is the chemical alteration of substances in the bloodstream by the liver or cellular secretions. Although a few similar compounds can be absorbed in digestion bio assimilation, the bioavailability of many compounds is dictated by this second process since both the liver and cellular secretions can be very specific in their metabolic action (see chirality). This second process is where the absorbed food reaches the cells via the liver. Most foods are composed of largely indigestible components depending on the enzymes and effectiveness of an animal's digestive tract. The most well-known of these indigestible compounds is cellulose; the basic chemical polymer in the makeup of plant cell walls. Most animals, however, do not produce cellulase; the enzyme needed to digest cellulose. However some animal species have developed symbiotic relationships with cellulose-producing bacteria (see termites and metamonads.) This allows termites to use the energy-dense cellulose carbohydrate. Other such enzymes are known to significantly improve bio-assimilation of nutrients. Because of the use of bacterial derivatives enzymatic dietary supplements now contain such enzymes as amylase, glucoamylase, protease, invertase, peptidase, lipase, lactase, phytase, and cellulase. These enzymes improve the overall bioassimilation in the digestive tract but are still not proven to increase bloodstream bioavailability. Basically the enzymes and other breakdowns make the bigger substances of food smaller so they can go through the rest of their digestion more easily.

Biosynthesis is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms. In biosynthesis, simple compounds are modified, converted into other compounds, or joined together to form macromolecules. This process often consists of metabolic pathways. Some of these biosynthetic pathways are located within a single cellular organelle, while others involve enzymes that are located within multiple cellular organelles. Examples of these biosynthetic pathways include the production of lipid membrane components and nucleotides. The prerequisite elements for biosynthesis include: precursor compounds, chemical energy (e.g. ATP), and catalytic enzymes which may require coenzymes (e.g.NADH, NADPH). These elements create monomers, the building blocks for macromolecules. Some important biological macromolecules include: proteins, which are composed of amino acid monomers joined via peptide bonds, and DNA molecules, which are composed of nucleotides joined via phosphodiester bonds.

Mesentery is the double fold of peritoneum that attaches the intestines to the wall of the abdomen.

Peritoneum is the serous membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity or coelom in amniotes and some invertebrates, such as annelids. It covers most of the intra-abdominal (or coelomic) organs, and is composed of a layer of mesothelium supported by a thin layer of connective tissue. The peritoneum supports the abdominal organs and serves as a conduit for their blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves.

Abdominal Cavity is a large body cavity in humans and many other animals that contains many organs. It is a part of the abdominopelvic cavity. It is located below the thoracic cavity, and above the pelvic cavity. Its dome-shaped roof is the thoracic diaphragm, a thin sheet of muscle under the lungs, and its floor is the pelvic inlet , opening into the pelvis.

Thoracic Diaphragm is a sheet of internal skeletal muscle that extends across the bottom of the thoracic cavity. The diaphragm separates the thoracic cavity, containing the heart and lungs, from the abdominal cavity and performs an important function in respiration: as the diaphragm contracts, the volume of the thoracic cavity increases and air is drawn into the lungs.

Liver is a vital organ of vertebrates and some other animals. In humans, it is located in the upper right quadrant of the abdomen, below the diaphragm. The liver has a wide range of functions, including detoxification of various metabolites, protein synthesis, and the production of biochemicals necessary for digestion. It also plays a role in metabolism, regulation of glycogen storage, decomposition of red blood cells and hormone production. The liver is a gland. It is an accessory digestive gland and produces bile, an alkaline compound which aids in digestion via the emulsification of lipids. The gallbladder, a small pouch that sits just under the liver, stores bile produced by the liver. The liver's highly specialized tissue consisting of mostly hepatocytes regulates a wide variety of high-volume biochemical reactions, including the synthesis and breakdown of small and complex molecules, many of which are necessary for normal vital functions. Estimates regarding the organ's total number of functions vary, but textbooks generally cite it being around 500 functions. There is currently no way to compensate for the absence of liver function in the long term, although liver dialysis techniques can be used in the short term. Artificial livers are yet to be developed to promote long term replacement in the absence of the liver. As of now, liver transplantation is the only option for complete liver failure. Liver performs more than 300 vital functions, and many things can go wrong when not working correctly. Liver is our largest internal organ. Weighing three and a half-pounds and measuring six inches long. The reddish-brown mass in the upper right side of the abdominal cavity, beneath the diaphragm and atop the stomach. Flush with blood, holding about 13 percent of the body’s supply at any given time. Linked to its intimate association with blood. During fetal development, blood cells are born in the liver, and though that task later migrates to the bone marrow. The liver alone has two blood supplies, the hepatic artery conveying oxygen-rich blood from the heart, the hepatic portal vein dropping off blood drained from the intestines and spleen. That portal blood delivers semi-processed foodstuffs in need of hepatic massaging, conversion, detoxification, storage, secretion, elimination. “Everything you put in your mouth must go through the liver before it does anything useful elsewhere in the body." The arteries and veins that snake through the liver are stippled with holes, which means they drizzle blood right onto the hepatocytes. The liver cells in turn are covered with microvilli — fingerlike protrusions that “massively enlarge” the cell surface area in contact with blood Hepatocytes. The liver keeps track of the body’s moment-to-moment energy demands, releasing glucose as needed from its stash of stored glycogen, along with any vitamins, minerals, lipids, amino acids or other micronutrients that might be required. New research suggests the liver may take a proactive, as well as a reactive, role in the control of appetite and food choice. After exposure to a high-sugar drink, the liver seeks to dampen further sugar indulgence by releasing a signaling hormone called fibroblast growth factor 21, or FGF21. The liver also keeps track of time. It swells and shrinks each day depending on an animal’s normal circadian rhythms and feeding schedule protein creation and destruction occurs in the human liver, the timing matchs our diurnal pattern.

Hepatocyte is a cell of the main parenchymal tissue of the liver. Hepatocytes make up 70-85% of the liver's mass. These cells are involved in: Protein synthesis. Protein storage. Transformation of carbohydrates. Synthesis of cholesterol, bile salts and phospholipids. Detoxification, modification, and excretion of exogenous and endogenous substances. Initiation of formation and secretion of bile.

Protein-rich diet may help soothe inflamed gut. Mice fed tryptophan, commonly associated with turkey, develop immune cells that foster a tolerant gut. A million or more Americans are living with the abdominal pain and diarrhea of inflammatory bowel disease. Protein-Rich Foods

Bowls (number two)



Books about Nutrition from Amazon

Ayurveda (amazon)
Vegetarian Cookbook 300 Healthy Recipes (amazon)
5-Factor World Diet (amazon)
Eat, Drink, and Be Healthy (amazon)
American Dietetic Association Complete Nutritional Guide (amazon)
SuperFoods Rx (amazon)
Food Rules (amazon)
More Healthy Home-style Cooking (amazon)
The Food Revolution (amazon)
The China Study (amazon)
The Gerson Therapy (amazon)
What I Eat (amazon)

Health Documentaries

Water




The Thinker Man