There are many ways to preserve the nutrient content in foods without
sacrificing taste or other qualities. Cooking certain foods for shorter periods at lower temperatures
with minimal water will produce the best results. Cooking temperatures and
cooking methods also effect how foods digest, which could either be
healthy or unhealthy.
is the art, technology and craft of preparing food for
consumption with the use of Heat
. Cooking techniques and
widely across the world, from grilling food over an
electric stoves, to baking in various types of ovens, reflecting unique
environmental, economic, and cultural traditions and trends.
- Learning to Cook
is a method of cooking food that uses prolonged dry heat, normally in an
oven, but also in hot ashes, or on hot stones. The most common baked item
is bread but many other types of foods are baked.
transferred "from the surface of cakes, cookies, and breads to their centre. As heat travels through it transforms batters and doughs into
baked goods with a firm dry crust and a softer centre". Baking can be
combined with grilling to produce a hybrid barbecue variant by using both
methods simultaneously, or one after the other. Baking is related to
barbecuing because the concept of the masonry oven is similar to that of a
thermally insulated chamber used for the heating, baking or drying of a
substance, and most commonly used for cooking. Kilns and furnaces are
special-purpose ovens, used in pottery and metalworking, respectively.
Different ovens set to the same temperature can vary by as much as 90
. Cooking food in an oven at 350 degrees is about chemistry.
It’s hot enough to cook food fairly quickly but no so hot that your food
(cooking using the energy of the sun).
a kitchen appliance designed for the purpose of cooking food. Kitchen Stoves
rely on the application of direct heat for the cooking process and may
also contain an oven, used for baking. "Cookstoves" (also called "cooking
stoves" or "wood stoves
heated by burning wood or charcoal; "gas stoves" are heated by gas; and
"electric stoves" by electricity. A stove with multiple cooking surfaces
is also called a range. Induction
Glass Top Stoves
Cookware for Glass Top Stoves
are types of food preparation containers, commonly found in a
kitchen. Cookware comprises cooking vessels, such as saucepans and frying
pans, intended for use on a stove or range cooktop. Bakeware comprises
cooking vessels intended for use inside an oven. Some utensils are
considered both cookware and bakeware.
skillet is a flat-bottomed pan used for frying
, searing, and browning
includes any hand implement used in preparing, serving, and
especially eating food in the Western world. A person who makes or sells
cutlery is called a cutler. Usually known as silverware or flatware means
knives and related cutting instruments.
is a hand-held, typically small tool or utensil that is used in the
kitchen, for food-related functions.
a tool with a cutting edge or blade.
KNASA Chef Knife
Ultra-sharp and stays sharp 5 times longer than other
knives, alloy is twice as strong as titanium.
tool consisting of a handle with several narrow tines on one end.
a utensil consisting of a small shallow bowl, oval or round, at the end of
is the art of the preparation, cooking and presentation
of food, usually in the form of meals. People working in this field –
especially in establishments such as restaurants – are commonly called
"chefs" or "cooks", although, at its most general, the terms "culinary
artist" and "culinarian" are also used. Table manners ("the table arts")
are sometimes referred to as a culinary art. Culinarians are required to
have knowledge of food science, nutrition and diet and are responsible for
preparing meals that are as pleasing to the eye as well as to the palate.
After restaurants, their primary places of work include delicatessens and
relatively large institutions such as hotels and hospitals.
is a trained and
skilled professional cook who is proficient in all aspects of food
preparation of a particular cuisine. The director or head of a kitchen.
Chefs can receive both formal training from an institution, as well as
with an experienced chef.
High Heat Cooking Dangers
Be careful how you cook your food
because high heat
cooking can increase
Advanced Glycation End-Products
that could cause
To avoid health risks from burning foods with high heat you
Eat more fresh foods or Cook at lower temperatures using moist heat techniques like Steam, boil, poach,
baking, broiling or stew
Marinate foods in acidic liquids, such
as lemon juice and vinegar, rather than sugary sauces, to reduce
. If you choose to use the grill, be sure to clean off
any charred remains on the grilling rack before cooking. Turn
meat often, every 30 to 60 seconds, to avoid charring. If a food
does become charred or blackened, cut off those pieces before
eating. Choose thin, lean cuts of meat that require less cooking
time. Opt for fish instead of meat because fish cooks faster,
leaving less time for AGEs to form. Remove skin when cooking
poultry because it chars easily.
Phytochemicals in freshly harvested plant foods may be
degraded by processing techniques, including cooking. The main cause of
phytochemical loss from cooking is
, which is a chemical decomposition caused by
. The decomposition temperature of a substance is the temperature at
which the substance chemically
reaction is usually endothermic as heat is required to break chemical
bonds in the compound undergoing decomposition. If decomposition is
sufficiently exothermic, a positive feedback loop is created producing
thermal runaway and possibly an explosion. A converse exists in the case
of carotenoids, such as lycopene present in tomatoes, which may remain
stable or increase in content from cooking due to liberation from cellular
membranes in the cooked food. Food processing techniques like mechanical
processing can also free carotenoids and other phytochemicals from the
food matrix, increasing dietary intake. In some cases, processing of food
is necessary to remove
; for example
societies that use cassava as a staple have traditional practices that
involve some processing (soaking, cooking, fermentation, etc.), which are
necessary to avoid getting sick from
Meat in Moderation
is the temperature that cooking
begins to break down and produces smoke and then
burns releasing and volatile compounds, such as free fatty
acids, and short-chain degradation products of oxidation come up
from the oil. These volatile compounds degrade in air to give
. The smoke point indicates the temperature limit up to
which that cooking oil can be used. The smoke point of oil
varies with its quality.
Effects of Chemicals and Toxins on the Human Body and Mind
is both a cooking method and an apparatus. The generally
accepted differences between barbecuing and grilling are cooking
durations and the types of heat used. Grilling is generally done
quickly over moderate-to-high direct heat that produces little
smoke, while barbecuing is done slowly over low, indirect heat
and the food is flavored by the smoking process.
- PAHs can be decreased by
41-89% if drippings are removed and smoke is minimized.
happens when sugar and amino acids are cooked at 150
degrees. In some cooked starchy foods in 2002 prompted concerns
about the carcinogenicity of those foods. As of 2016 it is still not clear
whether acrylamide consumption affects people's risk of developing cancer.
Acrylamide is considered a potential occupational carcinogen by U.S.
government agencies and classified as a Group 2A carcinogen by the IARC.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the National
Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
have set dermal occupational
exposure limits at 0.03 mg/m3 over an eight-hour workday. In animal
models, exposure to acrylamide causes tumors in the
thyroid, lungs, and testes. Acrylamide is easily absorbed by the skin and
distributed throughout the organism; the highest levels of acrylamide
post-exposure are found in the blood, non-exposed skin, kidneys, liver,
testes, and spleen. Acrylamide can be metabolically-activated by
cytochrome P450 to a genotoxic metabolite, glycidamide, which is
considered to be a critical mode of action to the carcinogenesis
acrylamide. On the other hand, acrylamide and glycidamide can be
detoxified via conjugation with glutathione to form acrylamide- and
isomeric glycidamide-glutathione conjugates, subsequently metabolized to
mercapturic acids and excreted in urine. Acrylamide has also been found to
have neurotoxic effects in humans who have been exposed. Animal studies
show neurotoxic effects as well as mutations in sperm. As of 2014 it is
still not clear whether dietary acrylamide consumption affects people's
risk of developing cancer. Experimental results that are based on feeding
acrylamide to animals might not be applicable to humans. Food industry
workers exposed to twice the average level of acrylamide do not exhibit
higher cancer rates. Acrylamide is also a skin irritant
and may be a tumor
initiator in the skin, potentially increasing risk for
Symptoms of acrylamide exposure include dermatitis in the exposed area and
peripheral neuropathy. Laboratory research has found that some
phytochemicals may have the potential to be developed into drugs which
could alleviate the toxicity of acrylamide.
Does Dark Roast Coffee
have more cancer causing chemicals? Dark doesn’t have to mean burnt. The
chemical, acrylamide, is produced during the coffee bean roasting process,
as well as when sugars and
found in other foods are cooked at high temperatures.
Acrylamide is a byproduct formed when sugars and amino acids naturally
occurring in starchy foods, such as potatoes and cereal grains, are cooked
at high temperatures. Research has shown that if food is burnt or heated
excessively then a certain group of carcinogenic substances are released
which are known as
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
(PAHs). Once these substances have
been consumed by the individual via the burnt food then they also travel
into the intestines and other organs of the human body via the process of
blood circulation. In such cases, these polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
not only cause cancer but also tend to increase toxicity of bone marrow,
suppression of the immune system
liver toxicity as well as
nutrients are reduced with some cooking methods
Although cooking improves
digestion and the absorption of many nutrients, the levels of
some vitamins and minerals may decrease.
Cooking food improves digestion and increases absorption
of many nutrients. Protein in cooked eggs is 180% more
digestible than in raw eggs.
The following nutrients are often
reduced during cooking:
Water-soluble vitamins: vitamin C and the B vitamins — thiamin (B1),
riboflavin (B2), niacin
(B3), pantothenic acid (B5), pyridoxine (B6), folic acid (B7)
and cobalamin (B8).
Fat-soluble vitamins: vitamins A, D, E and K.
primarily potassium, magnesium, sodium and calcium.
: less than 180°F/82°C.
Vegetables are generally a great source of vitamin C, but a
large amount of it is lost when cooked in water.
vitamin C more than any other cooking. While water-based cooking
methods cause the greatest losses of water-soluble vitamins,
they have very little effect on omega-3 fats.
to lower the
control - and eat smaller portions of
to avoid creating a
and a spike in high blood sugar. Buy
pasta with a low glycemic index.
is the best method for retaining the antioxidant
activity in garlic and mushrooms.
refer to cooking food in an oven with dry heat.
Roasting or baking does not have a significant effect on most
vitamins and minerals, with the exception of B vitamins
, food is cooked in a saucepan over medium to
high heat in a small amount of oil or butter. Absorption of
beta-carotene was 6.5 times greater in stir-fried carrots than
in raw. Blood lycopene levels increased 80% more when people
consumed tomatoes sautéed in olive oil rather than without.
Sautéing and stir-frying improve the absorption of fat-soluble
vitamins and some plant compounds, but they decrease the amount
of vitamin C in vegetables.
tuna has been shown to degrade its omega-3 content by
up to 70-85%, while baking caused only minimal losses. When oil
is heated to a high temperature for a long period of time, toxic
are formed. Use one of the healthiest oils for
frying. Coconut Oil is the Healthiest Oil For Deep Frying.
Others good oils are Olive oil, Avocado Oil, Peanut oil, and
Palm oil. Oils for deep frying to avoid
are Soybean oil, Corn oil, Sesame oil, Canola oil (also called
rapeseed oil), Cottonseed oil, Safflower oil, Rice bran oil,
Grape seed oil and Sunflower oil.
is one of the best cooking methods for preserving
nutrients, including water-soluble vitamins that are sensitive
to heat and water steaming broccoli, spinach and lettuce reduces
their vitamin C content by only 9-15%. Steaming is one of the
best cooking methods for preserving nutrients, including
Here are 10 tips to reduce nutrient loss
Use as little water as possible for poaching or boiling.
Consume the liquid left in the pan after cooking vegetables.
Add back juices from meat that drip into the pan.
Don’t peel vegetables until after cooking them. Better yet,
don’t peel at all to maximize fiber
and nutrient density.
Cook vegetables in smaller amounts of water to reduce loss of
vitamin C and B vitamins.
Try to finish cooked vegetables within a day or two, as vitamin
C content may continue to
decline when the cooked food is exposed to air.
Cut food after rather than before cooking, if possible. When
food is cooked whole, less of it
is exposed to heat and water.
Cook vegetables for only a few minutes whenever possible. -
When cooking meat, poultry and fish, use the shortest cooking
time needed for safe consumption.
Don’t use baking soda when cooking vegetables. Although it helps
maintain color, vitamin C will
be lost in the alkaline environment produced by baking soda.
Cooking rice to have healthier
that do not cause
spikes in blood sugar and insulin levels. Poor digestibility of
starch may have negative effects on the utilization of protein
and minerals but is likely to have positive effects on the
availability of certain vitamins. Depending on the method of
preparation, rive undergoes observable chemical changes. Most
notably, fried rice and pilaf style rice have a greater
proportion of resistant starch than the most commonly eaten
type, steamed rice.New Method:
Cook the rice as you
normally do, but when the water is boiling, before adding the
raw rice, add coconut oil—about 3 percent of the weight of the
rice you're going to cook, After it was ready, let it cool in
the refrigerator for about 12 hours.
Not all starches
are created equal
. Some, known as digestible starches, take only
a little time to digest, are quickly turned into
, and then later
. Excess glycogen ends up adding to the size of our
guts if we don't expend enough energy to burn it off. Other
starches, meanwhile, called resistant starches, take a long time
for the body to process, aren't converted into glucose or
glycogen because we lack the ability to digest them, and add up
to fewer calories.
Rapidly Digestible Starch (RDS)
Slowly Digestible Starch (SDS)
Resistant Starch (RS)
(RS) refers to starch and starch
degradation products that escape from digestion in the small
intestine of healthy individuals. Resistant starch occurs
naturally in foods but is also added to foods by the addition of
isolated or manufactured types of resistant starch.
Potatoes go from having the right kind of starch to the less
healthful kind when they are cooked or mashed. The process of
heating and cooling certain vegetables, like peas and sweet
potatoes, can also alter the amount of resistant starches,
according to a 2009 study.
Studies on effect of multiple heating/cooling cycles on the
resistant starch formation in cereals, legumes and tubers.
Food Preparation Tips
Plan meals in order of what needs to be used up first, this way you can
eat things before they go bad.
Cook in large amounts and freeze
leftovers. Place enough food for 1-2 meals in each container.
Waste less with smaller servings. To avoid second serving temptation,
store extra servings in the refrigerator before sitting down for the
Leftover Makeover! Spice up leftovers by adding new fruits
and vegetables to create something new for the next day. Last night’s
dinner makes a great inexpensive lunch for today. Turn a chicken dinner
into a veggie-rich soup or extra veggie sides into a veggie casserole or
lasagna. Get creative with your leftover fruits and vegetables. Make salsa
from your tomatoes and freezer jam from your fruits!
organization that works to expand knowledge of food to make every
meal a better meal; not just at restaurants, but every meal cooked and
Make Homemade soup that’s chockfull of fruits and veggies.
Homemade soup is a healthy and tasty way to use fall fruits &
vegetables. Make a big batch and & freeze leftovers in small
lunch-size containers. Try these: butternut squash, mushroom and
barley, or carrot and apple. Search Recipes
Eat at home more
often. Eating at restaurants or buying packaged and processed foods
can increase the amount you spend on food. Buy basic ingredients, such
as fruits and vegetables, to cook more simple meals at home. See
Fruits & Vegetables on a Budget
Create a weekly meal plan that
uses the same ingredients in different ways. For instance, extra
grilled chicken can be used in a casserole or salad at another meal.
Keeping in mind the specific ways you like to eat it.
Cooking and Recipes
Food Preserving Tips
Making Food Last Longer
is the process in which food deteriorates to the point in
which it is not edible to humans or its quality of edibility becomes
reduced. Various external forces are responsible for the spoilage of food.
Food that is capable of spoiling is referred to as perishable food.
Conversions for Measuring
1 US gallon = 128 US fluid ounces
1 Gallon = 16 Cups
1 Gallon = 4 Quarts
1 Quart = 4 Cups
1 Quart = 32 Ounces
1 Quart = 2 Pints
1 Pint = 2 Cups
1 Cup = 8 Ounces
1 Cup = 16 Tablespoons
1 Cup = 48 Teaspoons
1 Gallon = 3.78541178 Liters
1 dash = 1/8 tsp
1 pinch = 1/16 tsp (1/2 dash)
1 smidgen = 1/32 tsp (1/4 dash)
1 nip = 1/64 tsp (1/8 dash)
Granulated sugar: 1 cup = 200 grams
Brown sugar: 1 cup, packed = 220 grams
Sifted white flour: 1 cup = 125 grams
White rice, uncooked: 1 cup = 185 grams
White rice, cooked: 1 cup = 175 grams
Butter: 1 cup = 227 grams
Almonds, slivered: 1 cup = 108 grams
Oil: 1 cup = 224 grams
Maple syrup: 1 cup = 322 grams
Milk, non-fat: 1 cup = 245 grams
Milk, sweetened condensed: 306 grams
Broccoli, flowerets: 1 cup = 71 grams
Raisins: 1 cup, packed = 165 grams
Milk, dry: 1 cup = 68 grams
Yogurt: 1 cup = 245 grams
Water: 1 cup = 236 grams
Confectioners sugar: 1 C = 110 g
Cocoa: 1 C = 125 g
Cups Grams Ounces
1/4 cup 34 g 1.2 oz
1/3 cup 45 g 1.6 oz
1/2 cup 68 g; 2.4 oz
1 cup 136 g 4.8 oz
Conversion of Units
is the conversion between different units of
measurement for the same quantity, typically through multiplicative
conversion factors. The process of conversion depends on the specific
situation and the intended purpose. This may be governed by regulation,
contract, technical specifications or other published standards.
Engineering judgment may include such factors as: The precision and
accuracy of measurement and the associated uncertainty of measurement. The
statistical confidence interval or tolerance interval of the initial
measurement. The number of significant figures of the measurement. The
intended use of the measurement including the engineering tolerances.
Historical definitions of the units and their derivatives used in old
measurements; e.g., international foot vs. US survey foot. Some
conversions from one system of units to another need to be exact, without
increasing or decreasing the precision of the first measurement. This is
sometimes called soft conversion. It does not involve changing the
physical configuration of the item being measured. By contrast, a hard
conversion or an adaptive conversion may not be exactly equivalent. It
changes the measurement to convenient and workable numbers and units in
the new system. It sometimes involves a slightly different configuration,
or size substitution, of the item. Nominal values are sometimes allowed