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There are many ways to preserve the nutrient content in foods without sacrificing taste or other qualities. Cooking certain foods for shorter periods at lower temperatures with minimal water will produce the best results. Cooking temperatures and cooking methods also effect how foods digest, which could either be healthy or unhealthy.

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Cooking Pan over Flame Cooking is the art, technology and craft of preparing food for consumption with the use of Heat. Cooking techniques and ingredients vary widely across the world, from grilling food over an open fire to using electric stoves, to baking in various types of ovens, reflecting unique environmental, economic, and cultural traditions and trends. Frying

Cooking Schools - Learning to Cook

Baking is a method of cooking food that uses prolonged dry heat, normally in an oven, but also in hot ashes, or on hot stones. The most common baked item is bread but many other types of foods are baked. Heat is gradually transferred "from the surface of cakes, cookies, and breads to their centre. As heat travels through it transforms batters and doughs into baked goods with a firm dry crust and a softer centre". Baking can be combined with grilling to produce a hybrid barbecue variant by using both methods simultaneously, or one after the other. Baking is related to barbecuing because the concept of the masonry oven is similar to that of a smoke pit.

Oven is a thermally insulated chamber used for the heating, baking or drying of a substance, and most commonly used for cooking. Kilns and furnaces are special-purpose ovens, used in pottery and metalworking, respectively. Different ovens set to the same temperature can vary by as much as 90 degrees. Cooking food in an oven at 350 degrees is about chemistry. It’s hot enough to cook food fairly quickly but no so hot that your food burns.
Solar Ovens (cooking using the energy of the sun).

Kitchen Stove is a kitchen appliance designed for the purpose of cooking food. Kitchen Stoves rely on the application of direct heat for the cooking process and may also contain an oven, used for baking. "Cookstoves" (also called "cooking stoves" or "wood stoves") are heated by burning wood or charcoal; "gas stoves" are heated by gas; and "electric stoves" by electricity. A stove with multiple cooking surfaces is also called a range. Induction Glass Top Stoves

Cookware for Glass Top Stoves

Cookware and Bakeware are types of food preparation containers, commonly found in a kitchen. Cookware comprises cooking vessels, such as saucepans and frying pans, intended for use on a stove or range cooktop. Bakeware comprises cooking vessels intended for use inside an oven. Some utensils are considered both cookware and bakeware.

Frying Pan or skillet is a flat-bottomed pan used for frying, searing, and browning foods.

Cutlery includes any hand implement used in preparing, serving, and especially eating food in the Western world. A person who makes or sells cutlery is called a cutler. Usually known as silverware or flatware means knives and related cutting instruments.

Kitchen Utensil is a hand-held, typically small tool or utensil that is used in the kitchen, for food-related functions.

Knife is a tool with a cutting edge or blade. Butcher Knives

KNASA Chef Knife Ultra-sharp and stays sharp 5 times longer than other knives, alloy is twice as strong as titanium.

Fork is a tool consisting of a handle with several narrow tines on one end.

Spoon is a utensil consisting of a small shallow bowl, oval or round, at the end of a handle.

Culinary Art is the art of the preparation, cooking and presentation of food, usually in the form of meals. People working in this field – especially in establishments such as restaurants – are commonly called "chefs" or "cooks", although, at its most general, the terms "culinary artist" and "culinarian" are also used. Table manners ("the table arts") are sometimes referred to as a culinary art. Culinarians are required to have knowledge of food science, nutrition and diet and are responsible for preparing meals that are as pleasing to the eye as well as to the palate. After restaurants, their primary places of work include delicatessens and relatively large institutions such as hotels and hospitals.

Chef is a trained and skilled professional cook who is proficient in all aspects of food preparation of a particular cuisine. The director or head of a kitchen. Chefs can receive both formal training from an institution, as well as through apprenticeship with an experienced chef.

High Heat Cooking Dangers

Be careful how you cook your food because high heat cooking can increase Advanced Glycation End-Products and Heterocyclic amine that could cause Carcinoge, Mutagen, Atherosclerosis, Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Diabetes. To avoid health risks from burning foods with high heat you should Eat more fresh foods or Cook at lower temperatures using moist heat techniques like Steam, boil, poach, baking, broiling or stew foods. Marinate foods in acidic liquids, such as lemon juice and vinegar, rather than sugary sauces, to reduce AGEs. If you choose to use the grill, be sure to clean off any charred remains on the grilling rack before cooking. Turn meat often, every 30 to 60 seconds, to avoid charring. If a food does become charred or blackened, cut off those pieces before eating. Choose thin, lean cuts of meat that require less cooking time. Opt for fish instead of meat because fish cooks faster, leaving less time for AGEs to form. Remove skin when cooking poultry because it chars easily.

Phytochemicals in freshly harvested plant foods may be degraded by processing techniques, including cooking. The main cause of phytochemical loss from cooking is thermal decomposition, which is a chemical decomposition caused by heat. The decomposition temperature of a substance is the temperature at which the substance chemically decomposes. The reaction is usually endothermic as heat is required to break chemical bonds in the compound undergoing decomposition. If decomposition is sufficiently exothermic, a positive feedback loop is created producing thermal runaway and possibly an explosion. A converse exists in the case of carotenoids, such as lycopene present in tomatoes, which may remain stable or increase in content from cooking due to liberation from cellular membranes in the cooked food. Food processing techniques like mechanical processing can also free carotenoids and other phytochemicals from the food matrix, increasing dietary intake. In some cases, processing of food is necessary to remove phytotoxins or antinutrients; for example societies that use cassava as a staple have traditional practices that involve some processing (soaking, cooking, fermentation, etc.), which are necessary to avoid getting sick from cyanogenic glycosides present in unprocessed cassava.

Meat in Moderation

Smoke Point is the temperature that cooking fat or cooking oil begins to break down and produces smoke and then burns releasing and volatile compounds, such as free fatty acids, and short-chain degradation products of oxidation come up from the oil. These volatile compounds degrade in air to give Soot. The smoke point indicates the temperature limit up to which that cooking oil can be used. The smoke point of oil varies with its quality.

Effects of Chemicals and Toxins on the Human Body and Mind

Food Chemistry - Food Pairing

Barbecue Dangers

Barbecue is both a cooking method and an apparatus. The generally accepted differences between barbecuing and grilling are cooking durations and the types of heat used. Grilling is generally done quickly over moderate-to-high direct heat that produces little smoke, while barbecuing is done slowly over low, indirect heat and the food is flavored by the smoking process.

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon - PAHs can be decreased by 41-89% if drippings are removed and smoke is minimized.

Acrylamide happens when sugar and amino acids are cooked at 150 degrees. In some cooked starchy foods in 2002 prompted concerns about the carcinogenicity of those foods. As of 2016 it is still not clear whether acrylamide consumption affects people's risk of developing cancer. Acrylamide is considered a potential occupational carcinogen by U.S. government agencies and classified as a Group 2A carcinogen by the IARC. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health have set dermal occupational exposure limits at 0.03 mg/m3 over an eight-hour workday. In animal models, exposure to acrylamide causes tumors in the adrenal glands, thyroid, lungs, and testes. Acrylamide is easily absorbed by the skin and distributed throughout the organism; the highest levels of acrylamide post-exposure are found in the blood, non-exposed skin, kidneys, liver, testes, and spleen. Acrylamide can be metabolically-activated by cytochrome P450 to a genotoxic metabolite, glycidamide, which is considered to be a critical mode of action to the carcinogenesis of acrylamide. On the other hand, acrylamide and glycidamide can be detoxified via conjugation with glutathione to form acrylamide- and isomeric glycidamide-glutathione conjugates, subsequently metabolized to mercapturic acids and excreted in urine. Acrylamide has also been found to have neurotoxic effects in humans who have been exposed. Animal studies show neurotoxic effects as well as mutations in sperm. As of 2014 it is still not clear whether dietary acrylamide consumption affects people's risk of developing cancer. Experimental results that are based on feeding acrylamide to animals might not be applicable to humans. Food industry workers exposed to twice the average level of acrylamide do not exhibit higher cancer rates. Acrylamide is also a skin irritant and may be a tumor initiator in the skin, potentially increasing risk for skin cancer. Symptoms of acrylamide exposure include dermatitis in the exposed area and peripheral neuropathy. Laboratory research has found that some phytochemicals may have the potential to be developed into drugs which could alleviate the toxicity of acrylamide. 

Does Dark Roast Coffee have more cancer causing chemicals? Dark doesn’t have to mean burnt. The chemical, acrylamide, is produced during the coffee bean roasting process, as well as when sugars and amino acids found in other foods are cooked at high temperatures. Acrylamide is a byproduct formed when sugars and amino acids naturally occurring in starchy foods, such as potatoes and cereal grains, are cooked at high temperatures. Research has shown that if food is burnt or heated excessively then a certain group of carcinogenic substances are released which are known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Once these substances have been consumed by the individual via the burnt food then they also travel into the intestines and other organs of the human body via the process of blood circulation. In such cases, these polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons not only cause cancer but also tend to increase toxicity of bone marrow, suppression of the immune system, reproductive toxicity, liver toxicity as well as cardiovascular toxicity.

Several key nutrients are reduced with some cooking methods
Although cooking improves digestion and the absorption of many nutrients, the levels of some vitamins and minerals may decrease. Cooking food improves digestion and increases absorption of many nutrients. Protein in cooked eggs is 180% more digestible than in raw eggs.

The following nutrients are often reduced during cooking:
Water-soluble vitamins: vitamin C and the B vitamins — thiamin (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin
(B3), pantothenic acid (B5), pyridoxine (B6), folic acid (B7) and cobalamin (B8).
Fat-soluble vitamins: vitamins A, D, E and K.
Minerals: primarily potassium, magnesium, sodium and calcium.

Poaching: less than 180°F/82°C.
Simmering: 185-200°F/85-93°C.

Boiling: 212°F/100°C.
Vegetables are generally a great source of vitamin C, but a large amount of it is lost when cooked in water. Boiling reduces vitamin C more than any other cooking. While water-based cooking methods cause the greatest losses of water-soluble vitamins, they have very little effect on omega-3 fats.

Eat pasta Al dente to lower the glycemic index for better blood sugar control - and eat smaller portions of pasta to avoid creating a carbohydrate overload and a spike in high blood sugar. Buy pasta with a low glycemic index.

Microwaving is the best method for retaining the antioxidant activity in garlic and mushrooms.

Roasting and Baking refer to cooking food in an oven with dry heat. Roasting or baking does not have a significant effect on most vitamins and minerals, with the exception of B vitamins

Sautéing and Stir-Frying, food is cooked in a saucepan over medium to high heat in a small amount of oil or butter. Absorption of beta-carotene was 6.5 times greater in stir-fried carrots than in raw. Blood lycopene levels increased 80% more when people consumed tomatoes sautéed in olive oil rather than without. Sautéing and stir-frying improve the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins and some plant compounds, but they decrease the amount of vitamin C in vegetables.

Frying tuna has been shown to degrade its omega-3 content by up to 70-85%, while baking caused only minimal losses. When oil is heated to a high temperature for a long period of time, toxic substances called aldehydes are formed. Use one of the healthiest oils for frying. Coconut Oil is the Healthiest Oil For Deep Frying. Others good oils are Olive oil, Avocado Oil, Peanut oil, and Palm oil. Oils for deep frying to avoid are Soybean oil, Corn oil, Sesame oil, Canola oil (also called rapeseed oil), Cottonseed oil, Safflower oil, Rice bran oil, Grape seed oil and Sunflower oil.

Steaming is one of the best cooking methods for preserving nutrients, including water-soluble vitamins that are sensitive to heat and water steaming broccoli, spinach and lettuce reduces their vitamin C content by only 9-15%. Steaming is one of the best cooking methods for preserving nutrients, including water-soluble vitamins.

Here are 10 tips to reduce nutrient loss while cooking:
Use as little water as possible for poaching or boiling.
Consume the liquid left in the pan after cooking vegetables.
Add back juices from meat that drip into the pan.
Don’t peel vegetables until after cooking them. Better yet, don’t peel at all to maximize fiber
and nutrient density.
Cook vegetables in smaller amounts of water to reduce loss of vitamin C and B vitamins.
Try to finish cooked vegetables within a day or two, as vitamin C content may continue to
decline when the cooked food is exposed to air.
Cut food after rather than before cooking, if possible. When food is cooked whole, less of it
is exposed to heat and water.
Cook vegetables for only a few minutes whenever possible. - Low-Temperature Cooking
When cooking meat, poultry and fish, use the shortest cooking time needed for safe consumption.
Don’t use baking soda when cooking vegetables. Although it helps maintain color, vitamin C will
be lost in the alkaline environment produced by baking soda.

Rice - Starches
Cooking rice to have healthier carbohydrates that do not cause spikes in blood sugar and insulin levels. Poor digestibility of starch may have negative effects on the utilization of protein and minerals but is likely to have positive effects on the availability of certain vitamins. Depending on the method of preparation, rive undergoes observable chemical changes. Most notably, fried rice and pilaf style rice have a greater proportion of resistant starch than the most commonly eaten type, steamed rice.

New Method: Cook the rice as you normally do, but when the water is boiling, before adding the raw rice, add coconut oil—about 3 percent of the weight of the rice you're going to cook, After it was ready, let it cool in the refrigerator for about 12 hours.

Not all starches are created equal. Some, known as digestible starches, take only a little time to digest, are quickly turned into glucose, and then later glycogen. Excess glycogen ends up adding to the size of our guts if we don't expend enough energy to burn it off. Other starches, meanwhile, called resistant starches, take a long time for the body to process, aren't converted into glucose or glycogen because we lack the ability to digest them, and add up to fewer calories.

Rapidly Digestible Starch (RDS)
Slowly Digestible Starch (SDS)
Resistant Starch (RS)

Resistant Starch (RS) refers to starch and starch degradation products that escape from digestion in the small intestine of healthy individuals. Resistant starch occurs naturally in foods but is also added to foods by the addition of isolated or manufactured types of resistant starch.

Potatoes go from having the right kind of starch to the less healthful kind when they are cooked or mashed. The process of heating and cooling certain vegetables, like peas and sweet potatoes, can also alter the amount of resistant starches, according to a 2009 study.

Studies on effect of multiple heating/cooling cycles on the resistant starch formation in cereals, legumes and tubers.

Food Preparation Tips

Plan meals in order of what needs to be used up first, this way you can eat things before they go bad.

Food Preparation Techniques (PDF)

Cook in large amounts and freeze leftovers. Place enough food for 1-2 meals in each container.

Waste less with smaller servings. To avoid second serving temptation, store extra servings in the refrigerator before sitting down for the meal.

Leftover Makeover! Spice up leftovers by adding new fruits and vegetables to create something new for the next day. Last night’s dinner makes a great inexpensive lunch for today. Turn a chicken dinner into a veggie-rich soup or extra veggie sides into a veggie casserole or lasagna. Get creative with your leftover fruits and vegetables. Make salsa from your tomatoes and freezer jam from your fruits!

Food Chemistry

Mad Feed organization that works to expand knowledge of food to make every meal a better meal; not just at restaurants, but every meal cooked and served.

Make Homemade soup that’s chockfull of fruits and veggies. Homemade soup is a healthy and tasty way to use fall fruits & vegetables. Make a big batch and & freeze leftovers in small lunch-size containers. Try these: butternut squash, mushroom and barley, or carrot and apple. Search Recipes

Eat at home more often. Eating at restaurants or buying packaged and processed foods can increase the amount you spend on food. Buy basic ingredients, such as fruits and vegetables, to cook more simple meals at home. See Fruits & Vegetables on a Budget

Create a weekly meal plan that uses the same ingredients in different ways. For instance, extra grilled chicken can be used in a casserole or salad at another meal. Keeping in mind the specific ways you like to eat it.

Cooking and Recipes 

Food Preserving Tips

Making Food Last Longer

Food Spoilage is the process in which food deteriorates to the point in which it is not edible to humans or its quality of edibility becomes reduced. Various external forces are responsible for the spoilage of food. Food that is capable of spoiling is referred to as perishable food.

Food Safety
Food Waste
Sustainable Farming

Conversions for Measuring Ingredients

1 US gallon = 128 US fluid ounces
1 Gallon = 16 Cups
1 Gallon = 4 Quarts
1 Quart = 4 Cups
1 Quart = 32 Ounces
1 Quart = 2 Pints
1 Pint = 2 Cups
1 Cup = 8 Ounces
1 Cup = 16 Tablespoons
1 Cup = 48 Teaspoons
1 Gallon = 3.78541178 Liters
1 dash = 1/8 tsp
1 pinch = 1/16 tsp (1/2 dash)
1 smidgen = 1/32 tsp (1/4 dash)
1 nip = 1/64 tsp (1/8 dash)

Granulated sugar: 1 cup = 200 grams
Brown sugar: 1 cup, packed = 220 grams
Sifted white flour: 1 cup = 125 grams
White rice, uncooked: 1 cup = 185 grams
White rice, cooked: 1 cup = 175 grams
Butter: 1 cup = 227 grams
Almonds, slivered: 1 cup = 108 grams
Oil: 1 cup = 224 grams
Maple syrup: 1 cup = 322 grams
Milk, non-fat: 1 cup = 245 grams
Milk, sweetened condensed: 306 grams
Broccoli, flowerets: 1 cup = 71 grams
Raisins: 1 cup, packed = 165 grams
Milk, dry: 1 cup = 68 grams
Yogurt: 1 cup = 245 grams
Water: 1 cup = 236 grams
Confectioners sugar: 1 C = 110 g
Cocoa: 1 C = 125 g

Bread Flour
Cups         Grams     Ounces
1/4 cup      34 g        1.2 oz
1/3 cup      45 g        1.6 oz
1/2 cup      68 g;       2.4 oz
1 cup         136 g      4.8 oz

Conversion of Units is the conversion between different units of measurement for the same quantity, typically through multiplicative conversion factors. The process of conversion depends on the specific situation and the intended purpose. This may be governed by regulation, contract, technical specifications or other published standards. Engineering judgment may include such factors as: The precision and accuracy of measurement and the associated uncertainty of measurement. The statistical confidence interval or tolerance interval of the initial measurement. The number of significant figures of the measurement. The intended use of the measurement including the engineering tolerances. Historical definitions of the units and their derivatives used in old measurements; e.g., international foot vs. US survey foot. Some conversions from one system of units to another need to be exact, without increasing or decreasing the precision of the first measurement. This is sometimes called soft conversion. It does not involve changing the physical configuration of the item being measured. By contrast, a hard conversion or an adaptive conversion may not be exactly equivalent. It changes the measurement to convenient and workable numbers and units in the new system. It sometimes involves a slightly different configuration, or size substitution, of the item. Nominal values are sometimes allowed and used.

Measurement Conversions
Stabb Conversion Tool
Traditional Oven
Online Conversion
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